Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi

Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi

Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi
Federal Party இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி
LeaderS. Shritharan MP
PresidentS. Shritharan MP
Senior Vice PresidentsP. Selvarasa MP
Prof. S. Sittampalam
Deputy General SecretaryK. Thurairetnasingam
TreasurerS. Thiyagarajah
FounderS. J. V. Chelvanayakam,
C. Vanniasingam,
E. M. V. Naganathan
Founded18 December 1949
Split fromAll Ceylon Tamil Congress
Headquarters30 Martin Road, Jaffna
IdeologyTamil nationalism
National affiliationTamil National Alliance
Parliament10 / 225
Election symbol
House
Party flag
Politics of Sri LankaPolitical partiesElections

Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (Tamil: இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, Sinhala: ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි; ITAK) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country. It was originally founded in 1949 as a breakaway faction of the All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC). In 1972, ITAK merged with the ACTC and Ceylon Workers’ Congress (CWC) to form the Tamil United Front, which later changed its name to the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). ITAK remained dormant until 2004 when a split in the TULF resulted in ITAK being re-established as an active political party.[1] ITAK is a constituent party of the Tamil National Alliance.

Federal Party[edit]

See also: Tamil United Liberation Front and Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism

ITAK was founded in late 1949 by a group of three Ceylon Tamil parliamentarians, S. J. V. ChelvanayakamC. Vanniasingam and Senator E. M. V. Naganathan, who had withdrawn from G. G. Ponnambalam‘s ACTC over the latter’s decision to enter the United National Party (UNP) government of D. S. Senanayke.[2] ITAK was commonly called or known as the Federal Party (FP) in English.[3][4]

Policies adopted by successive Sri Lankan governments, and the 1956 success of the Sinhalese nationalist government under Solomon Bandaranaike, made the FP the main voice of Sri Lankan Tamil politics.[5] Increased racial and political tension between the country’s ethnic groups led three political parties representing the ethnic minorities (FP, ACTC and the CWC) to form the Tamil United Front (TUF) in 1972. The TUF became increasingly nationalistic and by 1976 it had renamed itself as the Tamil United Liberation Front and was advocating an independent Tamil state. The CWC subsequently left the TULF.

The TULF became the first Tamil nationalist party to run on a separatist platform in the 1977 election. It gained a majority of the votes in the north and east, won 18 seats, and became the largest opposition party in parliament.[6] As Tamil nationalism turned violent and civil war broke out, the TULF remained the moderate face of Tamil politics. It became the target of nationalists on both sides and many of its leaders were assassinated.

Tamil National Alliance[edit]

Main article: Tamil National Alliance

In 2001, the TULF formed a political alliance, the Tamil National Alliance (TNA), with other moderate Tamil parties as well as a number of former militant groups. The TNA contested the 2001 parliamentary election under the TULF name and won 15 seats.[7] Subsequently, the TNA began to make a more pro-Tamil Tiger stance, recognising the Tigers as the sole representative of the Sri Lankan Tamils. This caused a split within the TULF. This meant some members of the TULF, led by its President V. Anandasangaree, were opposed to the Tigers. Anandasangaree refused to allow the TNA to use the TULF’s name during the 2004 parliamentary election.[8] This caused the members of TULF who wished to remain with the TNA to resurrect the Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi name. ITAK is a registered political party and the TNA has contested all elections since the 2004 parliamentary election under the ITAK name.

Election results

1952 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the first general election contested by ITAK, the 1952 election in which the UNP increased its stranglehold on power, ITAK won 1.9% of the popular vote and 2 out of 95 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament. The ACTC won four seats.

1956 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 1956 election in which the SLFP-led leftist coalition swept to power, ITAK won 5.39% of the popular vote and 10 out of 95 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament. The ACTC won just one seat. ITAK became the dominant party in the Tamil districts and remained so for two decades.

Votes and seats won by ITAK by electoral district

Electoral DistrictVotes%SeatsTurnoutITAK MP
Batticaloa9,30052.05%161.57%Chelliah Rajadurai
Chavakachcheri15,95264.77%169.14%V. N. Navaratnam
Jaffna7,17332.56%063.72%
Kalkudah4,55528.31%060.80%
Kalmunai9,46447.80%171.78%M. S. Kariapper
Kankesanthurai14,85554.30%167.55%S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
Kayts16,30871.19%171.26%V. A. Kandiah
Kopay12,80453.83%169.90%C. Vanniasingam
Mannar6,72653.12%180.70%V. A. Alegacone
Paddirippu9,42249.72%074.17%
Point Pedro5,85920.70%064.17%
Pottuvil8,35552.46%163.81%M. M. Mustapha
Trincomalee7,04856.88%177.36%N. R. Rajavarothiam
Vaddukoddai14,93757.92%172.78%A. Amirthalingam
Total142,7585.39%10
Source: Department of Elections Archived 11 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine

ITAK’s uncompromising stand on Tamil rights earned it the enmity of nationalist Sinhalese. In response to the Sinhala Only Act of 1956, ITAK MPs staged a satyagraha protest, but it was violently broke up by a Sinhalese mob. ITAK was blamed for the 1958 riots and banned briefly.

Unlike the Left parties, which opposed anything but full parity for the Tamil language, ITAK agreed to compromise and accepted the 1958 the Tamil Language (Special Provisions) Act in accordance with the Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact.

1960 (March) Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the March 1960 election in which the UNP became the largest party, ITAK won 5.80% of the popular vote and 15 out of 151 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by ITAK by electoral district

Electoral DistrictVotes%SeatsTurnoutITAK MP
Batticaloa28,30947.62%1159.67%Chelliah Rajadurai
Chavakachcheri13,90765.26%183.20%V. N. Navaratnam
Jaffna5,10129.35%071.91%
Kalkudah7,31848.51%183.46%P. Manicavasagam
Kalmunai5,52039.67%079.41%
Kankesanthurai13,54567.61%171.22%S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
Kayts10,82056.61%175.34%V. A. Kandiah
Kilinochchi3,74141.76%164.89%A. Sivasunderam
Kopay10,27948.63%177.13%M. Balasundaram
Mannar6,46347.37%181.31%V. A. Alegacone
Mutur10,68526.73%1144.20%T. Ahambaram
Nallur9,65149.36%173.12%E. M. V. Naganathan
Paddirippu10,79962.36%189.91%S. M. Rasamanickam
Point Pedro5,67940.34%173.33%K. Thurairatnam
Trincomalee8,87271.43%165.96%N. R. Rajavarothiam
Udupiddy3,86018.19%074.84%
Uduvil9,03344.07%175.92%V. Dharmalingam
Vaddukoddai11,52453.52%175.37%A. Amirthalingam
Vavuniya1,33810.78%067.76%
Total176,4445.80%15
Source: Department of Elections Archived 11 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine

1960 (July) Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the July 1960 election in which the SLFP became the largest party, ITAK won 7.0% of the popular vote and 16 out of 151 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

1965 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 1965 election in which the UNP became the largest party, ITAK won 5.38% of the popular vote and 14 out of 151 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by ITAK by electoral district

Electoral DistrictVotes%SeatsTurnoutITAK MP
Batticaloa29,02343.47%1150.59%Chelliah Rajadurai
Chavakachcheri16,31669.41%177.92%V. N. Navaratnam
Jaffna6,80030.81%077.76%
Kalkudah6,09635.22%072.70%
Kalmunai6,23532.69%086.07%
Kankesanthurai14,73558.24%172.42%S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
Kayts13,55869.98%161.49%V. Navaratnam
Kilinochchi5,92244.69%171.33%K. P. Ratnam
Kopay12,33951.93%172.90%S. Kathiravelupillai
Mannar6,89639.52%182.04%V. A. Alegacone
Mutur20,23735.64%1150.92%M. E. H. Mohamed Ali
Nallur10,30145.05%172.03%E. M. V. Naganathan
Paddirippu11,27051.50%185.23%S. M. Rasamanickam
Point Pedro7,56446.24%171.62%K. Thurairatnam
Pottuvil8714.53%082.26%
Trincomalee9,65148.48%173.00%S. M. Manickarajah
Udupiddy8,45232.85%075.47%
Uduvil11,63848.61%172.80%V. Dharmalingam
Vaddukoddai15,49860.78%169.83%A. Amirthalingam
Vavuniya4,51225.05%073.45%
Total217,9145.38%14
Source: Department of Elections Archived 11 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine

1970 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 1970 election in which the SLFP-led United Front coalition won a landslide, ITAK won 4.92% of the popular vote and 13 out of 151 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by ITAK by electoral district

Electoral DistrictVotes%SeatsTurnoutITAK MP
Batticaloa27,66133.17%1164.35%Chelliah Rajadurai
Chavakachcheri15,47354.49%186.11%V. N. Navaratnam
Jaffna8,84835.59%179.89%C. X. Martyn
Kalkudah8,42037.97%083.59%
Kalmunai4,96023.00%087.77%
Kankesanthurai13,52044.29%181.03%S. J. V. Chelvanayakam
Kayts13,07953.35%176.88%K. P. Ratnam
Kilinochchi8,39246.55%076.03%
Kopay16,42843.92%179.01%S. Kathiravelupillai
Mannar10,69748.98%186.34%V. A. Alegacone
Mutur19,78725.87%1174.73%A. Thangathurai
Nallur12,50844.61%078.69%
Paddirippu12,72348.76%090.45%
Point Pedro9,21748.50%179.52%K. Thurairatnam
Trincomalee12,39545.83%176.61%B. Neminathan
Udupiddy12,91846.54%180.41%Kandappa Jeyakody
Uduvil14,12049.27%178.43%V. Dharmalingam
Vaddukoddai13,63448.71%078.67%
Vavuniya10,94742.99%180.82%X. M. Sellathambu
Total245,7274.92%13
Source: Department of Elections Archived 11 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine

1977 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the first general election contested by the TULF, the 21 July 1977 election in which the UNP won by a landslide, the TULF won 6.40% of the popular vote and 18 out of 168 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament, including all 14 seats in the Northern Province.

Votes and seats won by TULF by electoral district

Electoral DistrictVotes%SeatsTurnoutTULF MP
Batticaloa26,64824.70%1171.15%Chelliah Rajadurai
Chavakachcheri20,02863.27%185.65%V. N. Navaratnam
Jaffna16,25156.62%182.32%V. Yogeswaran
Kalkudah12,59543.07%086.02%
Kalmunai7,09327.38%089.86%
Kankesanthurai31,15585.41%183.08%A. Amirthalingam
Kayts17,64064.05%175.72%K. P. Ratnam
Kilinochchi15,60773.42%179.71%V. Anandasangaree
Kopay25,84077.20%180.03%S. Kathiravelupillai
Manipay27,55083.99%179.28%V. Dharmalingam
Mannar15,14151.58%192.40%P. S. Soosaithasan
Mullaitivu10,26152.36%179.34%X. M. Sellathambu
Mutur7,52027.00%091.65%
Nallur29,85889.42%183.05%M. Sivasithamparam
Paddirippu15,87749.17%189.92%P. Ganeshalingam
Point Pedro12,98955.91%181.66%K. Thurairatnam
Pottuvil23,99026.97%1179.02%M. Kanagaratnam
Puttalam3,26810.52%083.58%
Sammanthurai8,61534.65%091.04%
Trincomalee15,14451.76%181.78%R. Sampanthan
Udupiddy18,76863.44%180.05%T. Rasalingam
Vaddukoddai23,38470.18%181.90%T. Thirunavukarasu
Vavuniya13,82159.02%182.31%T. Sivasithamparam
Total399,0436.40%18
Source:[9]

The TULF became the official opposition as result of the rout of the SLFP. The TULF’s success would lead to riots in which hundreds of Tamils were murdered by Sinhalese mobs.

Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, the TULF was frequently blamed by nationalist Sinhalese politicians for acts of violence committed by militant groups such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In fact, the TULF represented an older, more conservative generation of Tamils that felt independence could be achieved without violence, more rival than ally to youth groups like the LTTE who believed in armed conflict.

In October 1983, all the TULF legislators, numbering sixteen at the time, forfeited their seats in Parliament for refusing to swear an oath unconditionally renouncing support for a separate state in accordance with the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka.

During the 1980s, the LTTE began to see the TULF as a rival in its desire to be considered the sole representatives of the Tamils of the north and east. Over the next two decades, the LTTE assassinated several TULF leaders, including A. Amirthalingam and Neelan Thiruchelvam.

1989 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

The TULF formed an alliance with the three Indian backed paramilitary groups, Eelam National Democratic Liberation Front (ENDLF), Eelam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF) and Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), to contest the 15 February 1989 election. The alliance won 3.40% of the popular vote and 10 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by TULF / ENDLF / EPRLF / TULF alliance by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTULF / ENDLF / EPRLF / TELO MPs
Batticaloa55,13135.49%371.74%Prince Gunarasa Casinader (EPRLF)
Govinthan Karunakaram (TELO)
Samuel Pennington Thavarasa Tambimuttu (EPRLF), murdered 11 May 1990
Joseph Pararajasingham (TULF), from 1990 (replaces Sam Tambimuttu (EPRLF))
Digamadulla43,42420.32%180.41%Jeyaratnam Thiviya Nadan (EPRLF)
Jaffna60,01325.02%340.50%Kandiah Navaratnam (EPRLF)
Suresh Premachandran (EPRLF)
Ganeshankari Yogasangari (EPRLF), murdered 19 June 1990
Vanni17,27139.99%230.53%Raja Kuhaneswaran (TELO)
Anthony Emmanuel Silva (EPRLF)
National List1A. Amirthalingam (TULF), murdered 13 July 1989
Mavai Senathirajah (replaces A. Amirthalingam)
Total188,5933.40%1063.6%
Sources:[10][11]

1994 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 16 August 1994 election in which the People’s Alliance led by Chandrika Kumaratunga came to power after 17 years of UNP rule, the TULF won 1.60% of the popular vote and 5 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by TULF by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTULF MPs
Batticaloa76,51643.95%366.47%Joseph Pararajasingham
P. Selvarasa
K. Thurairasasingham
Trincomalee28,38023.66%165.15%A. Thangathurai
National List1Neelan Tiruchelvam, murdered 29 July 1999
Mavai Senathirajah, from August 1999 (replaces Neelan Tiruchelvam)
Total132,4611.60%576.23%
Sources:[12][13]

2000 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 10 October 2000 election in which the People’s Alliance led by Ratnasiri Wickremanayake retained to power, the TULF won 1.23% of the popular vote and 5 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliamentVotes and seats won by TULF by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTULF MPs
Batticaloa54,44829.20%271.74%Joseph Pararajasingham
Nimalan Soundaranayagam
Jaffna32,85227.59%321.32%V. Anandasangaree
Mavai Senathirajah
Sinnathamby Sivamaharajah
Trincomalee14,09010.58%068.52%
Vanni4,6435.58%042.13%
National List0
Total106,0331.23%575.62%
Sources:[14][15][16]

2001 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the first parliamentary election contested by the Tamil National Alliance, the 5 December 2001 election, the TNA led by Rajavarothiam Sampanthan won 3.88% of the popular vote and 15 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by TNA by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTNA MPs
Ampara48,78917.41%182.51%A. Chandranehru (TULF)
Batticaloa86,28448.17%368.20%G. Krishnapillai (ACTC)
Joseph Pararajasingham (TULF)
Thambiraja Thangavadivel (TELO)
Colombo12,6961.20%076.31%
Jaffna102,32454.84%631.14%V. Anandasangaree (TULF)
Gajendrakumar Ponnambalam (ACTC)
Nadarajah Raviraj (TULF)
Mavai Senathirajah (TULF)
M. K. Shivajilingam (TELO)
A. Vinayagamoorthy (ACTC)
Trincomalee56,12134.83%179.88%R. Sampanthan (TULF)
Vanni41,95044.39%346.77%Selvam Adaikalanathan (TELO)
Sivasakthy Ananthan (EPRLF)
Irasa Kuhaneswaran (TELO)
National List1M. Sivasithamparam (TULF), died 5 June 2002
K. Thurairetnasingam (TULF) (replaces M. Sivasithamparam)
Total348,1643.88%1576.03%
Source:“Parliamentary General Election 2001, Final District Results”. Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.

2004 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 2 April 2004 parliamentary election in which the United People’s Freedom Alliance alliance led by President Kumaratunga came to power, the Tamil National Alliance led by Rajavarothiam Sampanthan won 6.84% of the popular vote and 22 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by TNA by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTNA MPs
Ampara55,53319.13%181.42%K. Pathmanathan, died 21 May 2009
Thomas Thangathurai William, from 12 June 2009 (replaces K. Pathmanathan)
Batticaloa161,01166.71%483.58%Senathirajah Jeyanandamoorthy
Thanmanpillai Kanagasabai
Thangeswary Kathiraman
Kingsley Rasanayagam, resigned April 2004
P. Ariyanethiran, from 18 May 2004 (replaces Kingsley Rasanayagam)
Jaffna257,32090.60%847.38%Selvarajah Kajendren
Gajendrakumar Ponnambalam (ACTC)
Suresh Premachandran (EPRLF)
Nadarajah Raviraj (ITAK), murdered 10 November 2006
Mavai Senathirajah (ITAK)
M. K. Shivajilingam (TELO)
K. Sivanesan, murdered 6 March 2008
Pathmini Sithamparanathan
Nallathamby Srikantha (TELO), from 30 November 2006 (replaces Nadarajah Raviraj)
Solomon Cyril, from 9 April 2008 (replaces Kidnan Sivanesan)
Trincomalee68,95537.72%285.44%R. Sampanthan (ITAK)
K. Thurairetnasingam (ITAK)
Vanni90,83564.71%566.64%Selvam Adaikalanathan (TELO)
Sivasakthy Ananthan (EPRLF)
Sathasivam Kanagaratnam
Sivanathan Kisshor
Vino Noharathalingam (TELO)
National List2M. K. Eelaventhan, expelled from Parliament 14 December 2007 for non-attendance
Joseph Pararajasingham (ITAK), murdered 24 December 2005
Chandra Nehru Chandrakanthan, from 27 September 2006 (replaces Joseph Pararajasingham)
Raseen Mohammed Imam, from 5 February 2008 (replaces M. K. Eelaventhan)
Total633,6546.84%2275.96%
Source:“Parliamentary General Election 2004, Final District Results”. Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.

2010 Parliamentary General Election[edit]

In the 2010 Sri Lankan parliamentary election, in which the United People’s Freedom Alliance , led by Mahinda Rajapaksa, retained power, the Tamil National Alliance, led by Rajavarothiam Sampanthan, won 2.9% of the popular vote and 14 out of 225 seats in the Sri Lankan parliament.

Votes and seats won by the TNA by electoral district

Electoral
District
Votes%SeatsTurnoutTNA MPs
Ampara26,89510.47%164.74%Podiappuhamy Piyasena
Batticaloa66,23536.67%358.56%P. Ariyanethiran (ITAK)
P. Selvarasa (ITAK)
S. Yogeswaran (ITAK)
Jaffna65,11943.85%523.33%Suresh Premachandran (EPRLF)
E. Saravanapavan (ITAK)
Mavai Senathirajah (ITAK)
S. Sritharan (ITAK)
A. Vinayagamoorthy
Trincomalee33,26823.81%162.20%R. Sampanthan (ITAK)
Vanni41,67338.96%343.89%Selvam Adaikalanathan (TELO)
Sivasakthy Ananthan (EPRLF)
Vino Noharathalingam (TELO)
National List1M. A. Sumanthiran (ITAK)
Total233,1902.90%1461.26%
Source:“Parliamentary General Election – 2010”. Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.

References[edit]

  1. ^ “TNA submits nomination lists for NE electoral districts”TamilNet. 23 February 2004. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  2. ^ Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism by A. Jeyaratnam Wilson. Published by C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000
  3. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2006). The History of Sri LankaGreenwood Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0-313-33205-3.
  4. ^ Jeyaraj, D. B. S. (31 July 2015). “Political Role of Federal Party (ITAK) in Unmaking and Making Govts in 1960”The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
  5. ^ Wilson, A.J. (1994). S. J. V. Chelvanayagam and the Crisis of Sri Lankan Nationalism 1947-1977. London: Hurst & Co. pp. 140 ff. ISBN 0-8248-1608-0.
  6. ^ DBS Jeyaraj. “TULF leader passes away”. Hindu News. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
  7. ^ “PARLIAMENTARY GENERAL ELECTION – 2001 ALL ISLAND RESULT Composition of Parliament”. Department of Elections, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  8. ^ “Objection against TNA using HOUSE symbol rejected”TamilNet. 28 February 2004. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  9. ^ “Result of Parliamentary General Election 1977” (PDF). Department of Elections, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011.
  10. ^ “Result of Parliamentary General Election 1989” (PDF). Department of Elections, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  11. ^ D. B. S. Jeyaraj (1 January 2006). “The benign parliamentarian from Batticaloa”. TransCurrents. Archived from the original on 10 November 2009.
  12. ^ “Result of Parliamentary General Election 1994” (PDF). Department of Elections, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2010.
  13. ^ “Senathirajah – new TULF MP”. The Island, Sri Lanka. 15 August 1999. Archived from the original on 1 October 2008.
  14. ^ “Parliamentary General Election 10.10.2000, Final District Results”. Department of Elections, Sri Lanka. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012.
  15. ^ “EPDP gets four seats in Jaffna”TamilNet. 11 October 2000.
  16. ^ “Pararajasingham elected on final count”TamilNet. 11 October 2000.
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