NrhjplKk; mwptpaYk; 

mz;lk; kw;Wk; QhapW kz;lyj;jpd; Njhw;wk;

,e;j  mz;lk; (Universe) fhyk; (Time) ntsp (Space) vd;w ,uz;bYk; cs;s xsp> gUg;nghUs;> Mw;wy; ,tw;why; MdJ.    

ghy; tPjp (Milky Way) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; mz;lj;jpy; vkJ ghy; ntsp kz;lyj;ijg; Nghy; 10>000 - 20>000 Nfhb ghy;kz;lyq;fs; cs;sd. xt;nthU ghy;kz;lyj;jpYk; 50>000 Nfhb el;rj;jpuq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mjpy; vkJ ghy;kz;lyj;jpy; (Galaxy) fhzg;gLk; 100 10>000 Nfhb tpz;kPd;fspy; (stars) vkJ QhapWk; xd;whFk;. xU xsp Mz;L vd;gJ xsp xU tpehbapy; 300>000 fpkP my;yJ 186>000 iky; Ntfj;jpy; xU Mz;L gazpf;Fk; njhiythFk;. 

vkJ QhapW> ghy;kz;lyj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Ue;J 30>000 xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; xU Xuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. Gtpapy; ,Ue;J QhapW 93 kpy;ypad;  (9.3 Nfhb) fy; njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; mJ mLj;j fpl;lb tpz;kPNdhL xg;gpLk;NghJ 270>000 klq;F mzpj;jhf cs;sJ.  

,e;j mz;lk; 1>500 Nfhb (15 gpy;ypad;) Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH mlHj;jpahd jput tbtpy; ,Ue;jJ vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJ ePupak; kw;Wk; fPypaj;ijtpl Ntnwhd;Wk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. tpz;kPd;fNsh Nfhs;fNsh ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mz;lj;jpd; mfit gj;Jf; Nfhb Mz;L ,Uf;Fk;NghJ tpz;kPd;fs; ePupaj;jpy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wp ,Uf;fyhk;. 

,g;gbj;jhd; vkJ QhapW tpz;kPd; 450 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd; Njhd;wp ,Uf;fyhk;. QhapW Njhd;Wtjw;F Kd;dUk; gpd;dUk; gy tpz; kPd;fs; Njhd;wpd.  

Njhuhakhf 1500 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ngU ntbg;G (Big Bank) epfo;e;jJ. mjd; tpisthf mz;lk; gilf;fg;gl;lJ.  mjd; gpwg;G tpz;ntsp kw;Wk; fhyk; (Space and Time)  kw;Wk; jplg;nghUs; (matter) Mw;wy; (energy) cUthdJ.

mz;lk; gpwe;J xU ,yl;rj;jpy; xU tpdhbapy; mz;lk; tpupaj; njhlq;fpaJ. mjd; nrwpTk; ntg;gKk;  Fiwaj; njhlq;fpaJ. <Hg;G tpir Njhd;wpaJ. jplg;nghUs; Njhd;wpaJ. mZf;fs; Njhd;wpaJ. mg;NghJ mz;lj;jpd; msT xU G+rzpf; fhapd; gUke;jhd;. FthHf;]; (Quarks) xUq;fpizj;J GNwhnjhd;]; (Protons) kw;Wk; epA+l;nwhd;]; (Nuetrons)  Mf khwpaJ. vy;yh mZf;fspd; fU GNwhl;ld;]; kw;Wk; epA+l;wd;]; My; MdJ.

ngU ntbg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dH 10>000 Mz;Lfs; fope;J fjpupaf;f fhyfl;lk; njhlq;fpaJ. NgusT Mw;wy; xsp> vf]; Nw> thndhyp miyfs; kw;Wk; Cjhg;G+ miyfs; Mf ,Ue;jJ. mz;lk; tpupe;j NghJ ,e;jf; fjpH miyfSk; tpupe;Jk; nrwpT Fiwe;Jk; fhzg;gl;ld.ngU ntbg;Gf;F 300>000 Mz;Lfs; fope;J jplg;nghUspd; fhyfl;lk; njhlq;fpaJ. ruhrup ntg;gk; 5>000 ghifahf ,Ue;jJ. jplg;nghUspy; ,Ue;j Mw;wYk; fjpupy; ,Ue;j Mw;wYk; rup rkkhf ,Ue;jd.

ngUntbg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dH 300>000 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J el;rj;jpuq;fSk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fSk; Njhd;wpd

500 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH vkJ QhapW kz;lyk; cUthdJ. QhapW ehk; ghy; ntsp kz;lyk; vd miof;Fk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyj;jpd; thA Kfpy;fspdhy; cUthdJ.

380 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH capupdk; Njhd;wpaJ. cyfk; FspHe;J tsp (fhw;W) kz;lyk; cUthdJ. Ez;zpa fyq;fs; Njhd;wpd. mit jhtukhfNth tpyqfhfNth ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

700>000>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tpyq;Ffs; Njhd;wpd. ngUk;;ghYk; jl;ilahd GOf;fs;> n[yp kPd;tif kw;Wk; rhjhis Njhd;wpd.   

vkJ QhapW FLk;gk; (Solar System) QhapW> Nfhs;fs;> rpWNfhs;fs;> epyhf;fs;> thy;nts;spfs;> tpz;fw;fs; (meteroids) kw;Wk; ghiwfs;> thAf;fisf; nfhz;lJ. Qhapiwj; njhiy mbg;gilapy; Rw;wptUk; Nfhs;fs; Gjd;> nts;sp> Gtp (G+kp) nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp> ANwdpa];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh (Fs;sf; Nfhs;) vd;gd. 

nrt;tha;f;Fk; tpahoDf;Fk; ,ilapy; ghiw kw;Wk; cNyhfj;jpdhy; Md rpW Nfhs;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,it midj;Jk; Qhapiw fpl;lj;jl;l xU tl;l tbtpy; rkhe;jpu kl;lj;jpy; Rw;wptUfpd;wd.  

Gjd;> nts;sp> Gtp> nrt;tha; Nfhs;fs; ghiwfspdhy; Mdit. ,twpy; Gtpf;F kl;Lk; epyh vd;Dk; Jizf; Nfhs; ,Uf;fpwJ.  

tpahod;> rdp> ANwdpa];> kw;Wk; GSl;Nlh thAtpdhy; Mdit. ,tw;Wf;F gy Jiz epyhf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,it mlHj;jpapy; Fiwe;jit. rdpf; Nfhis jz;zPupy; kpjf;ftpl;lhy; mJ mjpy; %o;fptpLk;. 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; xU Foe;ijapd; rhjfj;ijf; fzpf;Fk; NghJ ehk; thOk; Gtp> ANwdpa];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh Mfpatw;iw fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy. fhuzk; Gtp xU Nfhs; vd;gJ NrhjplHfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. ANwdpa];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh Mfpa Nfhs;fs; ntF njhiytpy; ,Ug;gjhy; mit goq;fhy kdpjHfsJ Cdf; fz;Zf;Fj; njupatpy;iy. up\pfspd; Qhdf; fz;Zf;Fk; njupatpy;iy.

 

 

 

 

 

GtpNahL xg;gpLk; NghJ Vida Nfhs;fspd; gUkd;

QhapE

Gtpiia tpl 109 klq;F ngupJ

Gjd;

Gtpiatpl miuthrp

nts;sp

Gtpia xj;j gUkd;

nrt;tha;

Gtpiatpl miuthrp gUkd;

tpahod;

Gtpiatpl 11 klq;F ngupJ

rdp

Gtpiatpl 9 klq;F ngupJ

A+NuDR;

Gtpiatpl 4 klq;F ngupJ

neg;jpA+d;

Gtpiatpl 4 klq;Ff;F nfhQ;rk; rpwpJ

 


                  
,uhrpfspd; fhyk;> njhiyT> cUtk;

,uhrp

jpfjp

ghif

cUtk;

Nklk;

Vg;upy; 19 - Nk 13

25

ML

,lgk;

Nk 14 -   A+d; 19

37

vUJ

kpJdk;

a+d; 20  - A+iy20

31

Mz;-ngz;

flfk;

A+iy 21 - Mf];l; 09

20

ez;L

rpk;kk;

Mf];l;10 - nrg;njk;gH 15

37

rpq;fk;

fd;dp

nrg;njk;gH16 -xf;NjhgH 30

45

ngz;

Jyhk;

xf;NjhgH31-nehntk;gH 22

23

juhR

tpUr;rpfk;

nehntk;gH23 - nehntk;gH  29

07

Njs;

ghk;ghl;b

nehntk;gH 30  -  bnrk;gH 17

18

ghk;ghl;b

jD

bnrk;gH18 - rdtup 18

32

tpy;

kfuk;

rdtup 19 - ngg;utup 15

28

/fly;Fjpiu

Fk;gk;

ngg;utup16 - khHr;R 11

24

Flk;

kPdk;

khHr;R 12 -  Vg;upy; 18

38

,ul;il kPd;

   

xU ehs; vd;gJ xU Nfhs; jdJ mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. Nfhs;fs; ntt;NtW Ntfj;jpy; jq;fisj; jhq;fNs Rw;Wfpd;wd. Gtpapy; 24 kzpj;jpahyk;  nfhz;lJ xU ehs;. Vida Nfhs;fspd; ehs;fis ,e;j tiuglk; fhl;LfpwJ. nts;spapy; xU ehs; vd;gJ Gtpapd; 243 ehs;fSf;F rkkhdJ. ,J mjd; Mz;iltpl (224.7 ehs;fs;) ePskhdJ. mNj rkak; tpahod; jd;idj;jhNd tpiuthfr; Rw;Wtjhy; mjd; ehs; 9.8 kzpfNs!  

nts;spapy xU ehs; Gtpapd; 243 ehs;fSf;F rkkhdJ. fhuzk; Gjd; mjd; mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd ,lkpUe;J tyhkhfr; Rw;Wk; Ntfk; kzpf;F 1>600 iky;. cz;ikapy; mjd; xU ehs; xU Mz;iltpl mjpfkhdJ. mjd; Mz;L 224.7 ehs;fisf; nfhz;lJ. Fiwe;j ehisf; nfhz;l Nfhs; tpahod; MFk;. mjd; xU ehs; Gtpapd; 9.8 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F rkkhdJ.


Nfhs;fs; jq;fsJ ghijapy; Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUk; Ntfj;ij ,e;j tiuglk; fhl;LfpwJ.
 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; Nfhs;fs; Gtpiar; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il ikakhff; nfhz;lJ. ,e;jf; Nfhl;ghl;il mup];Njhl;ly;> njhykp Nghd;wtHfs; Kd;itj;jhHfs;. Mdhy ,e;jf; Nfhl;ghL jtwhdJ vd;gij Kjd; Kjypy; epWtpatH NfhngHdpf;f]; vd;w thdpayhsH MthH. mtH Nfhs;fs; Gtpia my;y Gtp cl;gl vy;yhf; Nfhs;fSk; Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUfpd;wd vd;gij vz;gpj;jhH. Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpd; Gtp ikaf; Nfhl;ghL gpio vd;gjhy; mjd; ek;gfj;jd;ik rpije;Jtpl;lJ. mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghL gpio vd;gjhy; mjd; KbTfSk; gpio vd;gJ nts;splkiy.  

jpiuapy; ePq;fs; mup];Njhl;ly; mtHfspd; Gtp ikaf; Nfhl;ghl;by; Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;iffisAk; NfhngHdpf;f]; mtHfspd; QhapW ikaf; Nfhl;ghl;by; Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;iffisAk; fhzyhk;. Kd;djpy; Gtp eLtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. gpd;djpy; Gtp Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J %d;whtJ ,lj;jpy; - nrt;tha; NfhSf;Fk; nts;spf; NfhSf;Fk; ,ilapy; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

                                                  mup];Njhl;lypd; mz;lk;

 

                                  

 

             Copernican  Heliocentric Universe

                            NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapW ika mz;lk; 

 

 

ntg;];lupd; Mq;fpy mfuhjp Nrhjplk; xU Nghyp mwptpay; (pseudo-science) vdr; nrhy;fpwJ. mjw;fhd fhuzq;fs; gpd;tUkhW.  

NrhjplHfSf;F Gtp xU Nfhs; vd;gNjh mJ Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gNjh njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. epyh Gtpapd; Jizf; Nfhs; mJ Gtpiar; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gJk; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy.  

rhjff; fzpg;gpy; Gtp Kw;whf tpLgl;Lg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. Mdhy; Nrhjplk; mjd; Jizf; Nfhshd epyhTf;F Kf;fpa ,lj;ijf; nfhLj;Js;sJ.  

NrhjplHfSf;F Nfhs;fs; kw;Wk; el;rj;jpuq;fspd; vz;zpf;if gw;wpNah mit vt;tsT njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ gw;wpNah njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy.

A+Nwdpa];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh gw;wp mtHfs; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. Nfhs;fs; kdpjHfspd; tho;f;ifiaj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ vd;gJ cz;ikahdhy; ,e;jf; Nfhs;fSk; rhjff; fzpg;gpy; NrHf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; mg;gbr; nra;ag;gltpy;iy. 

nkhj;j Nfhs;fs; vj;jid vd;gjpYk; NrhjplHfsplk; fUj;J xw;Wik ,y;iy. 

Nfhs;fisAk; ,uhrpfisAk; Mz; - ngz - myp;> el;G gif> cr;rk; - ePr;rk; - rkk;> gpuhkzH> rj;jpupaH> itrpfH> #j;jpuH> ePH> neUg;G> vdg; gpupg;gjw;F ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;iy. kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; ,g;gbg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf xw;iw vz; ,uhrpfs; Mz; vd;Wk; ,ul;ik vz; ,uhrpfs; ngz; vd;Wk; tpjpf;fl;bd;w gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

rhj;jpukhdhYk; rlq;fhdhYk; vq;Fk; tUzNtWghL Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; vOjpatHfshy; jpl;lkpl;Lg; GFj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j tUz NtWghNl rhjp NtWghl;Lf;F mbNfhyppaJ. Nfhs;fis tUz mbg;gilapy; tFj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

                                fpufq;fspd; tUzk;

tUzk;

fpufk;

,uhrp

,uhrp vz;

gpuhkzd;

FU> Rf;fpud;

flfk;> tpUr;rpfk;> kPdk;

4> 8> 12

rj;jpupad;

#upad;> nrt;tha;

Nklk;> rpk;kk;> jDR

1> 5> 9

itrpfd;

re;jpud;> Gjd;

,lgk;> fd;dp> kfuk;

2> 6> 10

#j;jpud;

rdp

kpJdk;> Jyhk;> Fk;gk;

3> 7> 11

 

 

 

 

,uhF NfJ Nfhs;fs; epoy; Nfhs;fs;. rlg;NghUshy; Mdit my;y. thdntspapy; me;jf; Nfhs;fisg; ghHf;f KbahJ. Mdhy; NrhjplHfs; ,e;j epoy; Nfhs;fSf;F rhjff; fzpg;gpy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fpwhHfs;.    

xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; NghJ Nfhs;fSk; el;rj;jpuq;fSk; me;jf; Foe;ij kPJ jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp mjd; vjpHfhyj;ijj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ vd;W NrhjplHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; me;jj; jhf;fk; vJ> vjdhy;> vg;gb vd;gij NrhjplHfs; nrhy;y kWf;fpwhHfs;. gUg;nghUs; NghyNt ,aw;ifapy; ehy; tif mbg;gil tpir kl;LNk tpz;ntspapy; ,Ue;J fpilf;fpd;wd. mitahtd td;tpir (strong nuclear force) kpd;fhe;j tpir (electromagnetic force) nkd; tpir ( weak nuclear force) <Hg;G tpir ( gravitational  force) vd;gdthFk;. ,tw;Wf;F Nkyhf nja;tPf Mw;wy; ,y;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.  

Mjp kdpjd; tpz;zpy; QhapW nry;Yk; ghijia (,uhrp tl;lj;ij) mz;zhe;J ghHj;j NghJ rpy tpz;kPd; njhFjpfs; my;yJ $l;lq;fs; mtdJ fz;fSf;F Nklk; (ML) ,lgk; (vUJ) kpJdk; (Mz; ngz; cUtk;) flfk; (ez;L) rpk;kk; (rpq;fk;) fd;dp (ngz;) Jyhk; ( juhR) tpUr;rpfk; (el;Ltf;fhyp) jDR (tpy;) kfuk; (flw;Fjpiu) Fk;gk; (Flk;) kPdk; (,ul;ilkPd;) Nghd;W fhl;rpaspj;jd. vdNt ,uhrp vd;gJ thd tPjpapy; kdpjd; jd; Cdf; fz;zhy; ghHj;j tpz;kPd; njhFjpfSf;F mtd; nfhLj;j fw;gid cUthFk;. fpNuf;fnkhopapy; Zodiac vd;w nrhy;Yf;F tpyq;Ffs; vd;gJ nghUshFk;. tpUr;rpf ,uhrp xU el;Ltf;fhyp tbtpy; fhl;rpmspg;gij ,q;Nf jpiuapy; ghHf;fpwPHfs;. ,e;j ,uhrpf;F el;Ltf;fhyp vd;w ngaH nfhLg;gij kd;dpf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mjd; Fzhjpraq;fis tpUr;rpf ,uhrpapy; gpwe;jtHfSf;F khl;Nlw;wp ,Uf;Fk; Kl;lhs;jdj;ij kd;dpf;f KbahJ.

,jdhy;jhd; ,e;jpaHfsJ fz;Zf;F ,lgkhfTk; tpUr;rpfkhfTk; (el;Ltf;fhyp) Njhd;wpa ,uhrpfs; rPdHfsJ fz;Zf;F KiwNa vypahfTk; ghk;ghfTk; Njhd;wpapUf;fpwJ!

,uhrpfs; fw;gid nra;J ghHf;f Kbahj njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd. mit kdpjHfsJ tho;f;ifiaj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ vd;gJ cz;ikay;y. mJ mwptpay; mbg;gil ,y;yhj ntWk; CfNk.

                      Qhapwpy;; ,Ue;J ,uhrpfspd; njhiyT

 

,uhrp

Sign

Star

xsp Mz;Lfs;

QhapW

kpJdk;

Gemini  

Pollux

33.7

QhapW

kpJdk;

Gemini  

Castor

51.6

QhapW

,lgk;

Taurus

Aldbaran

65.2

QhapW

rpk;kk;

Leo

Regulus

77.6

QhapW

fd;dp

Virgo

Spica

263

QhapW

,lgk;

Taurus

Pleiades

385

QhapW

tpUr;rpfk;

Scorpius

Antares

604

QhapW

kpUfrPuplk;

Orion

Rigel

777

,uhrpfs; vt;thW el;rj;jpuq;fspd; $l;lNkh mt;thNw 27 el;rj;jpuq;fSk; xd;W njhlf;fk; EhW tiuapyhd vz;zpf;if nfhz;l el;rj;jpuf; $l;lNk.

el;rj;jpuk;;

ghif kzpj;Jspfs;

ghif kzpj;Jspfd;

tbtk;

el;rj;jpuk;

vz;zp;if 

mjpgjp

1 mr;Rtpdp

0-0

13-20

Fjpiu Kfk;

3

NfJ

2 guzp

13-20

26-40

Nahdp

3

nts;sp

3 fhHj;jpif

26-40

40-0

tisT

6

#upad;

4 Nuhfpzp

40-0

53-20

tz;by;

5

re;jud;

5 kpUfrPuplk;

53-20

66-40

khdpd; Kfk;

3

nrt;tha;

6 jpUthjpiu

66-40

80-0

uj;jpdk;

1

uhF

7 GdHG+rk;

80-0

93-20

tPL

4

tpahod;

8 G+rk;

93-20

106-40

mk;G

3

Rdp

9 Mapypak;

106-40

120-0

tl;lk;

5

Gjd;

10 kfk;

120-0

133-20

kid

5

NfJ

11 G+uk;

133-20

146-40

caHe;j ,Uf;if

2

Nts;sp

12 cj;juk;

146-40

160-0

rpwpa njhl;by;

2

#upad;

13 mj;jk;

160-0

173-20

If

1

Re;jpud;

14 rpj;jpiu

173-20

186-40

Kj;J

1

Nrt;tha;

15 Rthjp

186-40

200-0

Gtsk;

1

uhF

16 tprhfk;

200-0

213-2

thrw;gb

4

tpahod;

17 mDgtk;

213-20

226-40

RUf;F

4

rdp

18 Nfl;il

226-40

240-0

tl;lkhd NjhL

4

Gjd;

19 %yk;

240-0

253-20

rpq;fj;jpd; thy;

3

NfJ

20 G+uhlk;

253-20

266-40

ahidapd; Jk;gpf;if

11

nts;sp

21 cj;juhlk;

266-40

280-0

caHe;j ,Uf;if

2

#upad;

22 jpUNthzk;

280-0

293-20

thDhHjp

3

re;jpud;

23 mtpl;lk;

293-20

306-40

kpUjq;fk;

4

nrt;tha;

24 rjak;

306-40

320-0

ePs; tl;lk;

100

uhF

25 G+ul;lhjp

320-0

333-20

caHe;j ,Uf;if

2

tpahod;

26 cj;jul;lhjp

333-20

346-40

,ul;ilaH

2

rdp

27 Nutjp

346-40

360-0

KuR

32

Gjd;

 

,e;j el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs; rpy jdp el;rj;jpuq;fd; MFk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf rpj;jpiu> Rthjp> Mjpiu el;rj;jpuq;fs; jdpj; jdpahdit. mit KiwNa Kj;J (pearl) ePyf;fy; (sapphire) Jsrpkzp (bead) Nghd;w rhay; cilad. ngUk;ghyhd tpz;kPd;fs; 3>4>5>6 vz;zpf;ifAila el;rj;jpuq;fis xd;NwhL xd;Wld; tpjpf;fl;Lg;ghbd;wp (arbitrary) njhLg;gjd; %yk; cUthf;fg; gl;litahFk;. fhHj;jpifg; ngz;fs; MW NgH vd;gjhy; mJ 6 tpz;kPd;fs; nfhz;lit vd;gJ nrhy;yhkNy tpsq;Fk;. rja el;rj;jpuk; kl;Lk; 100 tpz;kPd;fs; nfhz;lJ. ,Ugj;NjO el;rj;jpu kz;lyj;jpYk; nkhj;jk; 192 tpz;kPd;fs; kl;LNk ,Uf;fpd;wd.                                           fhHj;jpif tpz;kPd;

mz;ikapy; ,e;j tpz;kPd; njhFjpfs; (el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs;) gy;yhapuk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; ,Uf;fpd;wd. rpy tpz;kPd;fs; fz;Zf;F mUfUNf fhzg;gl;lhYk; mtw;Wf;F ,ilapy; gy;yhapuk; xsp Mz;L ,ilntsp ,Uf;fpd;wJ.  

 

xU Foe;ij gpwe;j Neuk; vJ vd;gjpy; NrhjplHfSf;F ,ilNa xw;Wik ,y;iy. xU Foe;ij fUtpy; cw;gj;jpahd ehsh? fhy; my;yJ jiy epyj;jpy; (,d;W fl;bypy;) gl;l Neukh? njhg;Gs; nfhb mWj;j Neukh? Fth Fth vd;W Foe;ij mOj Neukh? my;yJ Foe;ij Kjy; Kjy; %r;Rtpl;l Neukh? ,jpy; vJ?

 

xU kUj;jtkidapy; ,uz;nlhU tpdhb NtWghl;by; gpwe;j ,ul;ilf; Foe;ijfsJ tho;f;if xNu khjpupahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb vq;fhtJ ,Uf;fpwjh? vkJ mDgtk; vd;dntd;why; mtHfs; ntt;NtW njhopy; ghHf;fpwhHfs;. ntt;NtW Neuj;jpy; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;. ntt;NTW Neuj;jpy; ,wf;fpwhHfs;.

 

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#upa fpufzk;

epyh 29 ehs;fs; 12 kzpj;jpahyk; 44 tpdhbf;F xUKiw Gtpia Rw;wptUfpwJ. mg;gbr; Rw;wptUk;NghJ Gtpapd; ghijAk; epyhtpd; ghijAk; ,uz;L ,lj;jpy; xd;iw xd;W ntl;Lfpd;wd.  QhapWf;Fk; Gtpf;Fk; ,ilapy; xU NeHf; Nfhl;by; epyh tUk;NghJ Gtpia Nehf;fpa epyhtpd; Kfk; njuptjpy;iy. ,jid ehk; mkthir vdf; $WfpNwhk;. mg;NghJ epyhtpd; epoy; G+kpapy; gbfpwJ. mjdhy; #upa fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ. #upa fpufzk; vg;NghJk; mkthir md;Nw Vw;gLfpwJ.

kWGwk; Gtp> QhapWf;Fk; epyhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; tUk;NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; epyh kPJ gbfpwJ. mg;NghJ re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ. 

                 

eclipse geometry orbits

 

 

epyh kiwg;G (re;jpu fpufzk;) vg;gb Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gJ cq;fSf;Fj njupAk;. epyhTf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilapy; Gtp xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; tUk;NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; epyh kPJ tpOe;J mjid kiwf;fpwJ.

KO epyhtpd; NghJjhd; epyh kiwg;G Vw;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJjhd; mJ QhapWf;F NeH vjpNu (180 ghif) epw;fpwJ. KO epyh kiwg;G EhW kzpj;Jsp ePbf;fyhk;.KO epyhtpd; NghJ epyh kiwg;G Vw;gLtJ Nghy; GJ epyhtpd; NghJ QhapW kiwg;G (#upa fpufzk;) Vw;gLfpwJ.

ghHf;fg; Nghdhy; xt;nthU khjKk; epyhkiwg;G Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> Gtpiag; NghyNt epyhTk; jdJ mr;rpy; 5 ghif  rupe;J ,Ug;gjhy; mit xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; vg;NghJk; tUtjpy;iy. nghJthf Mz;by; 3 epyh kiwg;Gf;fs; ,lk;ngWfpd;wd.  ,jpypUe;J fpufzk; NfJ vd;w ghk;G re;jpuid my;yJ Qhapiwf; ft;Ttjhy; Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gJ ghl;bf; fijahFk;. mJ kl;Lky;y fpufz fhyj;jpy; rikf;ff; $lhJ mg;gb me;jf; fhyj;jpy; rikj;Jr; rhg;gpl;lhy; czT eQ;rhfptpLk; vd;gJ fl;Lf;fijahFk;.

,e;jg; glj;jpy; ,Ug;gtH ahH vd milahsk; njupfpwjh? ,tH ngaH Yhrp. cz;ikg; ngaH my;y. 32 ,yl;rk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH vj;jpNahg;gpahtpy; tho;e;jtH. mq;F 1974 fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l vYk;Gfis itj;J ,e;jg; glk; fzpdpapd; cjtpAld; tiuag;gl;lJ.  

 


 

 

 


The Sun and The Moon

Our solar system consists of one star (the Sun), eight planets and all their moons, three dwarf planets, and several thousand small solar system objects-asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects, and other small bodies. The Sun’s age was calculated in 1989 to be 4.5 billion years old, less than the 4.7 billion years previously believed. It was formed from a cloud of hydrogen mixed with small amounts of other substances that had been produced in the bodies of other stars before the Sun was born. This was the parent cloud of the solar system. The dense, hot gas at the center of the cloud gave rise to the Sun; the outer regions of the
cloud-cooler and less dense-gave birth to the planets.

The Sun

The diameter of our closest star, the Sun, is 1,392,000 kilometres. The Sun is thought to be 4.5 billion years old. The Sun is a medium-sized star known as a yellow dwarf. It is a star in the Milky Way galaxy and the temperature in its core is estimated to be over 15,000,000 degrees Celsius.


In the Sun’s core, hydrogen is being fused to form helium. The energy created by this process radiates up to the visible boundary of the Sun and then off into space. It radiates into space in the form of heat and light.

Because the Sun is so massive, it exerts a powerful gravitational pull on everything in our solar system. It is because of the Sun’s gravitational pull that Earth orbits the Sun in the manner that it does.

The Sun has several layers: the core, the radiation zone, the convection zone, and the photosphere (which is the surface of the Sun). In addition, there are two layers of gas above the photosphere called the chromosphere and the corona.

Events that occur on the Sun include sunspots, solar flares, solar wind, and solar prominences. Sunspots are magnetic storms on the photosphere that appear as dark areas. Sunspots regularly appear and disappear in eleven-year cycles. Solar flares are spectacular discharges of magnetic energy from the corona. These discharges send streams of protons and electrons outward into space. Solar flares can interrupt the communications network here on Earth. Solar winds are the result of gas expansion in the corona. This expansion leads to ion formation. These ions are hurled outward from the corona at over 500 kilometres per second. Solar prominences are storms of gas which erupt from the surface in the form of columns which either shoot outward into space or twist and loop back to the Sun’s surface.

The Sun gives off many kinds of radiation other than light and heat. It also emits radio waves, ultraviolet rays, and X-rays. The Earth’s atmosphere protects us from the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays and the X-rays.

The Sun does rotate, but because it is a large gaseous sphere, not all parts rotate at the same speed. This is known as a differential rotation.

The Moon

The Moon travels around the Earth in an oval orbit at 36,800 kilometres per hour. The Moon does not have an atmosphere, so temperatures range from -184 degrees Celsius during its night to 214 degrees Celsius during its day except at the poles where the temperature is a constant -96 degrees Celsius.

The Moon is actually a little lopsided due to the lunar crust being thicker on one side than the other. When you look at the Moon, you will see dark and light areas. The dark areas are young plains called maria and are composed of basalt. The basalt flowed in and flooded the area created by a huge impact with an asteroid or comet. The light areas are the highlands, which are mountains that were uplifted as a result of impacts. The lunar surface is covered by a fine-grained soil called “regolith” which results from the constant bombardment of the lunar rocks by small meteorites.

Scientists theorise that the Moon was the result of a collision between the Earth and an object the size of Mars. One theory states that the debris from the impact was hurtled into space where, due to gravity, it combined. This resulted in the formation of the Moon.

The gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth affects the ocean tides on Earth. The closer the Moon is to Earth, the greater the effect. The time between high tides is about 12 hours and 25 minutes.