td;dpr; nryT (21)

khjk; &gh ,Ugjhapuk; ciof;Fk; rkhjhd ePjthd;fs;!

ef;fPud;

ehd; Kd;dH vOjpathW ,yq;iff;Fs; GFk;NghJ xU khj tprhNt Fj;jpj; jUfpwhHfs;. tprhit ePbg;gnjd;why; ,y.23 ];Nlrd; tPjp> gk;gyg;gpl;b> nfhOk;G 4 ,y; ,Uf;Fk; FbtuT Fbafy;T jpizf;fsj;J Neubahfr; nrd;W tpz;zg;gk;  nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

vjw;Fk; me;jj; jpizf;fsj;NjhL njhiyNgrpapy; njhlHG nfhz;L NgRtJ ey;ynjd;W epidj;Njd;. Fwpg;ghf gaz KftH %ykhf flitr; rPl;ilf; nfhLj;J tprhit ePbf;fyhNkh vdf; Nfl;Lg; ghHf;fyhk;.

FbtuT Fbafy;T jpizf;fsj;NjhL njhlHG nfhz;L mq;F mjw;Fg; nghWg;ghd cjtp FbtuT Fbafy;T fl;Lg;ghl;L mjpfhupNahL NgrpNdd;. ey;yfhykhf mtUf;F Mq;fpyk; njupe;jpUe;jJ. 'Neupy;jhd; tuNtz;Lk;. Mdhy; xNu ehspy; mjidg; Gjpg;gpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;' vd;whH. mjw;fhd fl;lzk; &gh 4>580 vd;whH. gUthapy;iy. fNdba ehzaj;jpy; 70 nts;spfs;.

,e;j tprh rpf;fy; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; fpspnehr;rpf;F fz;b-tTdpah neLQ;rhiy topahf NeNu NghapUf;fyhk;. ml;ldDf;F tUk;NghJ te;j mNj thidg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L nfhOk;Gf;F khHr; Kjy; ehs; fhiy gazkhNdhk;. nfhOk;G nts;stj;ijgpy; vdJ kUkfd; ,Ue;jhH. mtUf;F flitr; rPl;L vLg;gJ> tprh ePbg;gJ Nghd;w tplaq;fspy; ey;y mDgtk; ,Ue;jJ. mtiuf; $l;bf; nfhz;L FbtuT Fbafy;T  jpizf;fsj;Jf;Fg; NghNdhk;.

mg;NghJ Neuk; 9 kzp ,Uf;Fk;. ey;YhH jPHj;jf;fiu Nghy; kf;fs; nts;sk; jpizf;fsj;Jf; cs;Sk; ntspapYk; miy NkhjpaJ. cs;Ns NghfpwtHfis Nfs;tp Nfl;L mDg;GfpwhHfs;.

mq;Nf Nghq;fs; ,q;Nf Nghq;fs; vd;W miyf; fopj;jhHfs;. filrpahf xU miwiaf; fhl;b mjw;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; mjpfhupiaf; fhZq;fs; vd;W Mw;Wg;gLj;jpdhHfs;. me;j mjp;fhup NtW ahUky;y. ehd; njhiyNgrpapy; fijj;j mNj mjpfhupjhd;. rpwpJ Neuk; fhj;jpUe;Jtpl;L mtiur; re;jpj;Njhk;. mtH xU Jz;by; VNjh rpq;fsj;jpy; vOjp NtW xU gFjpf;F nry;YkhW nrhd;dhH. tprh GJg;gpf;Fk; ghuj;ij ehd; Vw;fdNt fzdpapy; ,Ue;J ,wf;fp epug;gp itj;jpUe;jjhy; mjidf; nfhLf;f ePz;l fpA+tpy; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Ml;fNshL NrHe;J nfhz;Nlhk;. mtHfspy; ngUk;ghNyhH ma;Nuhg;gpa ehl;by; ,Ue;J tUif je;Js;s Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs;.

CopaHfs; ,lg;gw;whf; Fiw fhuzkhf neUf;fp ,Ue;jhHfs;. ghuq;fis nfhLf;f Ntz;ba CopaHfs; caHe;j jLg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dhy; fzdp Kd; mkHe;jpUe;jhHfs;. fzdp mtHfSf;F Gjpa mwpKfk; vd;gij mjidg; gad;gLj;Jk; mtHfsJ  Ntfk; fhl;bf; nfhLj;jJ.

CopaHfspy; njupe;j Kfk; ahuhtJ ,Uf;fpwhHfsh vd fz;fshy; Jshtpg; ghHj;Njd;. xUj;jH $l mfg;gltpy;iy. gy Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,Nj jpizf;fsj;jpy; vdJ kUkfdpd; JiztpahH Ntiy nra;jhH. Mdhy; ,g;NghJ kUe;Jf;Fk; jkpo; CopaHfs; ,y;iyNghy; gl;lJ.

murhq;f vOJ tpidQH rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,e;j jpizf;fsj;jpy; gykhd fpis ,Ue;jij epidj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;.

xU kzpj;jpahyk; fpA+tpy; epd;wgpd;dH vkJ Kiw te;jJ. ghuj;ijAk; flTr; rPl;ilfisAk; nfhLj;Njhk;. flitr; rPl;by; ,Ue;j juTfis scanner %yk; fzdpf;F Vw;WfpwhHfs;. Mdhy; vq;fs; tplaj;jpy; me;j scanner Ntiy nra;a kWj;Jtpl;lJ. vdNt me;jj; juTfs; ifapdhy; fzdpapy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;lJ. mjd; gpd; ehq;fs; nfhLj;j Mtzq;fs; mjpfhupapd; mDkjpf;F cs;Ns mDg;gg;gl;lJ. NkYk; xU kzpf;Fg; gpd;dH mJ jpUk;gp te;jJ. ,g;NghJ tprh Gjpg;gpg;gjw;F cupa fl;lzj;ij fl;b gw;Wr; rPl;il nfhz;L tUkhW me;j CopaH nrhd;dhH.

gzk; fl;Lfpw ,lj;jpYk; ePz;l fpA+ epd;wJ. tprhit xU khjj;Jf;F ePbg;gjw;F  cupa  nkhj;j &gh 9>160 fl;b gw;Wr; rPl;Lf;fis me;j Copauplk; xg;gilj;Njhk;. ,dp mit cjtp fl;Lg;ghlL mjpfhupapd; ifnaOj;Jf;Fg; Nghf Ntz;Lk;.

jpizf;fsk; flw;fiuf;F mUfpy; ,Ue;jhYk; cs;Ns xNu GOf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. ntspapy; Ngha;tpl;L tuTk; KbahJ. mjw;fpilapy; $g;gpl;L tpl;lhy;?

vq;fSf;Fg; gpe;jp te;jtHfs; vq;fSf;F Kd;dNu Ntiyia Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L Nghtijg; ghHj;Njhk;. mtHfs; gaz KftHfs;. fl;Lf; fl;lhf flTr; rPl;Lf;fisf; nfhz;Lte;J mtw;iwg; Gjpg;gpj;Jf; nfhz;L NghfpwhHfs;. xUtNuh gyNuh cs;Sf;Fs; ,Ue;J mg;gbahd tpz;zg;gq;fis nfjpg;gLj;JfpwhHfs; Nghy; kdjpy; gl;lJ.  

,g;NghJ Neuk; xU kzp. cs;Sf;Fs; ,Ue;J rpw;WhopaH njhFjp njhFjpahf flTr; rPl;Lf;fis nfhz;L te;J Kd; tupirapy; ,Ue;j xU Copauplk; nfhLg;ghH. mtH xt;nthU ngauhff; $g;gpl;L mtw;iw cupatHfsplk; nfhLf;fpwhH. xUthW vq;fsJ flTr; rPl;Lf;fs; iff;F te;J NrHe;jJ. jg;gpNdhk; gpioj;Njhk; vd;W ntspapy; te;J thd; Xl;biaj; NjbNdhk;. mtiuf; fhztpy;iy. me;j nta;apypy; thfdj; jupg;gplj;ij Rw;wp Rw;wp tz;b my;yJ tz;b Xl;LeH ,Uf;fpwhNuh vd;W ghHj;Njhk;. tz;biaAk; fhNzhk; tz;b Xl;LeiuAk; fhNzhk;!

nta;apy; nfhLik jhq;f Kbahky; Xl;Leiu kdjpy; jpl;bf; nfhz;Nl xU ku epoypy; te;J xJq;fpf; nfhz;Nlhk;.  rw;Wj; js;sp miukjpypy; cl;fhHe;J ,Ue;j   xUtiur; Rw;wp xU ngupa $l;lk; nkha;j;Jf; nfhz;L epd;wJ.  vd;d kdpjH rhj;jpuk; nrhy;fpwhNuh my;yJ eilghij kUe;J tpahghuk; nra;fpwhNuh vd;W vl;bg; ghHj;jhy; mtH flTr; rPl;L tpz;zg;gg; gj;jpuj;jpy; jdJ Kj;jpiu Fj;jp  ifnaOj;Jg; Nghl;Lf; nfhLj;Jf; nfhz;L ,Ue;jhH.

xt;nthU ifnaOj;Jf;Fk; &gh 50 thq;fpdhH. mtH xU rkhjhd ePjthd;. Kd;gpd; njupahjtHfis Fiwe;jJ ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; njupAk; vd;W cWjp nra;J ifnaOj;Jg; Nghl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. ,g;gbg; gyH mq;F epd;W nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. gUthapy;iy. xUtH xU ,UgJ tpz;zg;gq;fis cWjp nra;J nfhLj;jhy; xU ehisf;F &gh 1>000 cioj;J tplyhk;. khjk; Fiwe;jJ &gh 20>000 Mapuk;! ngupa mjpfhupapd; rk;gsk;!

ml;lDf;F njhiyNgrpapy; njhlHG nfhz;L me;j Xl;Leupd; nry;njhiy Ngrp vz;izf; fz;L gpbj;J mtNuhL njhlHG nfhz;l NghJ mtH vq;fSf;fhf flw;fiug; gf;fk; ,Ue;j thrypy; fhj;jpUg;gjhfr; nrhd;dhH!

nts;stj;ijapy; ghHf;f Ntz;ba ,uz;nlhU tPl;lhiug; ghHj;Jg; Ngrptpl;L nfhl;lhQ;Nrid Ngha; ,wq;fpNdhk;. Xl;LeH ml;lDf;Fg; Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;whH. mtuJ thlifg; gzj;ij rfydplk; Vw;fdNt nfhLj;Jtpl;L te;J tpl;Nlhk;. mtuplk; mijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;thH.

Fspj;J czT cl;nfhz;Ltpl;L md;wpuNt td;dp Nghtnjd;W KbT nra;Njhk;.  thd; xd;iw xOq;F nra;AkhW Nfl;Nld;. fpspnehr;rpf;Fg; Nghf &8>500 Nfl;fpwhHfs; vd;W  khkdhH nrhd;dhH.  gUthapy;iy. xOq;F nra;Aq;fs; vd;W nrhd;Ndd;. Mdhy; mtH xU khw;W Nahrid nrhd;dhH. 'Vd; ,t;tsT fhR nrytopf;f Ntz;Lk;? tTdpah kl;Lk; Vrp NgUe;jpy; NghNthk;.? tTdpahtpy; ,Ue;J fpspnehr;rpf;F kfpo;Te;jpy; Nghf xOq;F nra;fpNwd;. vjw;Fk; ehDk; tTdpah tiu te;J cq;fis top mDg;gptpl;L tUfpNwd;' vd;whH. tuj; Njitapy;iy vd;W nrhy;ypAk; mtH Nfl;ftpy;iy.

,uT 8 kzp Nghy NgUe;J epiyaj;Jf;F ,uz;L jhdpaq;fpfisg; gpbj;J NghNdhk;. tTdpah Nghtjw;F tupirahf gy Vrp NgUe;Jfs; epd;wd. mjpy; xd;wpy; VwpNdhk;. elj;JeH 4 rPl;Lf;fis ePl;bdhH. ehq;fs; 3 NgHjhd; vd;W njupe;j rpq;fsj;jpy; nrhd;Ndd;. elj;JeH ngl;biaf; fhl;b mjw;Fk; xU rPl;L vd;whH. NgUe;J fl;lzk; jiyf;F &gh 180. vq;fsJ ngl;bAk; Xukhf  xU ,Uf;ifapy; mkHe;J gazk; nra;jJ!

NgUe;J gUthapy;iy. ngUksT ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; %d;whtJ cyf ehnlhd;wpy; ,ijtpl $ba trjp gilj;j tz;bia vjpHghHg;gJ jtW. 

Xl;LeH gaq;fu Ntfj;jpy; gwe;jhH. tisTfspy; ,yhtfkhf tz;biaj; jpUg;gpdhH. ,il eLtpy; xU Cupy; fhyhw tz;b epw;ghl;lg;gl;lJ. njUNthukhf Mdhy; rw;W cs;Ns xU cztfk;. ,wq;fp Mtp gwf;Fk; #l;by; NjePH thq;fpf; Fbj;Njhk;. me;j es;spuT Neuj;jpy; mJ ehTf;Fk; cs;sj;Jf;Fk; ,jkhf ,Ue;jJ.

kPz;Lk; Gwg;gl;l tz;b nrhw;g Neuj;Jf;F mDuhjGuj;jpy; epw;ghl;lg;gl;lJ. xU khjpup tpbfhiy 4.30 kzpf;F tTdpah Ngha;r; NrHe;Njhk;. NgUe;J epiyaj;jpy; kfpo;Te;J Xl;LeH vq;fs; tUiff;fhf fhj;jpUe;jhH. Mdhy; tz;biaf; fhNzhk;. tz;b nfhz;L tuhjjw;F VNjh rhl;Lr; nrhd;dhH. gUthapy;iy vd;W nrhy;yptpl;L jhdpaq;fpiag; gpbj;J rl;lj;juzp jpU. K. rpw;wk;gyk; tPl;Lf;Fg; NghNdhk;. 

nfhOk;gpy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gL Kd;dH tTdpah topahf fpspnehr;rp NghFk; vkJ gazj;jpl;lj;ij mtUf;F njhiyNgrp %yk; mwptpj;J ,Ue;jjhy; mtH vq;fs; tUifia vjpHghHj;J fhj;jpUe;jhH.

mtUld; nfhQ;r Neuk; Ngrpf; nfhz;bUe;Njhk;. jkpoH  Njrpaf; $l;lzp  Ntl;ghsuhf td;dp khtl;lj;jpy; mtH Nghl;bapLk; Nahrid ,Ue;jJ vdf;Fj; njupAk;. mijg;gw;wpf; Nrl;Nld;. 'jkpoH Njpaf; $l;lzpapy;  Nghl;bapLkhW gyH tw;GWj;jpdhHfs;. gy ehs; Nahridapd gpd;dH New;W ,uTjhd; NjHjypy; epw;gjpy;iy vd;w ,Wjp Kbit vLj;Njd;' vd;whH.  vdf;Fk; mtuJ KbT rupahfg;gl;lJ. mtuJ Rghtj;jpw;Fk; Nghf;Ff;Fk; jPtpu murpay; xj;JtuhJ.

tTdpahtpy; ePz;l fhyk; rl;lj;juzpahf njhopy; ghHj;jjd; fhuzkhfTk; kiwe;j jkpoH tpLjiyf; $l;lzpj; jiytH K. rptrpjk;guj;jpd; cld;gpwg;G vd;w KiwapYk; mtUf;F kf;fspilNa ey;y nry;thf;F ,Ue;jJ. Nghl;bapl;L ,Ue;jhy; mtH epr;rak; ntw;wp ngw;wpUg;ghH vd;W gyH nrhd;dhHfs;.

tpba tz;bNahL tUtjhf nrhy;ypg; Nghd tz;bf;fhuiuf; fhNzhk;. Neuk; fiue;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. mtH tUthH vd;w ek;gpf;if Kw;whf Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jNghJ xU gioa nkhwp]; xf;];Nghl; kfpo;Te;ij Xl;bf; nfhz;L te;J NrHe;jhH. mJ gonrd;whYk; gL Ntfkhf tlf;F Nehf;fp Xbf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. kdpjH ,e;j Ntfj;jpy; Xl;LfpwhNu vd;w ftiy vd;idg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

fle;j rdtup 18 Mk; ehs; thd;topg; Nghf;Ftuj;J tuyhw;wpy; xU nghd;dhs; MFk;. md;W gpuhd;]; Toulouse efupy; VaHg]; V380 nts;Nshl;lk; tplg;gl;lJ. 

Nfhyhfykhf ele;j ,e;j epfo;r;rpapd; NghJ 500 gpuKfHfs; cl;gl ,e;j tpkhdj;jpd; cUthf;fj;Jf;F MjuT mspj;j gpuhd;];> n[Hkdp> gpupj;jhdpah kw;Wk; ,Rg;ghdpah ehl;ilr; NrHe;j Ml;rpj; jiytHfs; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. 

cyfj;jpd; kpfg; ngupa ,e;j tpkhdk; Jhug;gwg;gpy; Gul;rpfukhd khWjiy Vw;gLj;jg; NghfpwJ. ,jd; ,wf;ifapd; ePsk; 262 mb. ,jpy; 555 gazpfs; gazk; nra;ayhk;.  Nghapq; 747 (Boeing747)  XL xg;gpLk; NghJ ,J 33 tpOf;fhL mjpfkhdJ.  jiug; gug;gsT 49 tpOf;fhL $LjyhdJ.

,e;j tif tpkhdq;fis cUthf;f nrythd gzk; 1>300 Nfhb (US130 billion) mnkupf;fh nts;spfs;!

,e;j tpkhdj;jpd; cUthf;fk; ma;Nuhg;gpa mwptpay;> ma;Nuhg;gpa nghwpapay; ,uz;bd; El;gj;Jf;F fpilj;j ntw;wp vd gpuhd;]; ehl;L Ml;rpj; jiytH Naf;]; rpuhf; (Jacques Chirac)  kfpo;r;rp nghq;ff; $wpdhH. Vw;fdNt ,e;j tif tpkhdq;fs; 18ia thq;f fl;lis fpilj;jpUf;fpwJ. xU tpkhdj;jpd; tpiy 280 kpy;ypad; mnkupf;f nts;spfs;. ,g;gb 250 tpkhdq;fis tpw;gid nra;jhy; jahupg;G nryit <L nra;J tplyhk;.  mjd; gpd; tpkhd tpw;gid jahupg;G nryT Nghf kpr;rk; vy;yhk; ,yhgk;jhd;!

mJ rup. Kjy; mj;jpahaj;jpy; nuhwd;Nuh - ,yz;ld; gwg;gpd; NghJ ,Nj VaHg]; V380 tpkhdj;jpy; gazk; nra;jjhf vOjpapUe;jPHfNs? mJ vg;gb? vd ePq;fs; Nfl;gJ fhjpy; tpOfpwJ. Ntnwhd;Wk; ,y;iy. ,e;j tif tpkhdk; ePz;lehs; jahupg;gpy; ,Ue;jJ. Nghd Mz;L Kw;gFjpapy; gad;ghl;Lf;F te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. me;j epidg;gpdhy;jhd; vd;dNth mt;thW vOjptpl;Nld;. me;jj; jtiw gy thrfHfs; Rl;bf; fhl;bdhHfs;. mtHfSf;F ed;wp. cz;ikapy; ehq;fs;  gwe;j tpkhdk;  Nghapq; 763! (gazk; njhlUk;)

 

 


 

td;dpr; nryT (22)

jiy fPohf khwptpl;l gTj;jk;

ehq;fs; gazk; nra;J nfhz;bUe;j nkhwp]; xf;];Nghl; tif kfpOe;J vOgJ Kw;gFjpapy; aho;g;ghzj;jpy; mwpKfkhdJ.  ehDk; ,e;j tif tz;b xd;iw 1971 ,y;; Gjpjhf ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;jpUe;Njd;. mg;NghJ fg;gy; fl;lzk; cl;gl nfhOk;Gj; JiwKfk; te;J Nru mjd; tpiy 775 gTz; kl;LNk!  ,g;NghJ epidj;Jg; ghHj;jhy; fg;gy; $yp cl;gl ,e;j tpiyapy; vg;gb xU tz;bia cw;gj;jp nra;J xU epWtdj;jpdhy; tpw;f Kbe;jJ vd;gJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,d;W Nghy; my;yhJ md;W ehzaj;jpd; ngWkjp mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJjhd; mjw;Ff; fhuzk;.

ntspehl;by; ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; Ntiy nra;jtHfs; my;yJ gbj;jtHfs; Nghjpa me;epa nryhtzpiaf; fhl;b xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpiyf;F cl;gl;l tz;bfis ,wf;Fkjp nra;tjw;F ,wf;Fkjp Vw;Wkjp jpizf;fsk; mg;NghJ mDkjpg; gj;jpuq;fis toq;fpaJ.

tz;bapy; ,Ue;j thndhypapy; ,Ue;J ,dpikahd ,ir te;J fhjpy; tpOe;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. vy;yhk; ,af;fg; ghly;fs;. jkpoPo vOr;rpg; ghly;fs;. jkpoPo thndhypapy; ,Ue;J me;jg; ghly;fs; xypgug;gg;gLtjhf eFNyRtud; ( mJjhd; tz;bNahl;bapd; ngaH ) kfpo;r;rpNahL nrhd;dhH. md;wpypUe;J xU khjk; fopj;J td;dpiatpl;L Gwg;gL kl;Lk; ,af;fg;ghly;fs; jtpHe;j NtW ghly;fisf; Nfl;f Kbatpy;iy.

Gypfspd; thndhyp> jkpoPo thndhyp> jdpg;gl;ltHfsJ tz;bfs;> tPLfs;> ,af;fj;Jf;F nrhe;jkhd tz;bfs;> vq;Fk; ,af;fg;ghly;fs;jhd;. my;yJ jkpopirg; ghly;fs;. 

aho;g;ghzj;jpy; kl;Lk; vkJ gl;lwpT NtW tpjkhf ,Ue;jJ. mq;F ngUksT jpiug;ghly;fisAk; rpwpjsT ,af;fg; ghly;fisAk; Nfl;Nlhk;.

tz;b Xbf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. rhiyapy; mt;tg;NghJ ,uhZt thfdq;fs; vq;fis Ke;jpf; nfhz;L Nghapd. tPjpapd; ,U gf;fj;jpYk; ,uhZt fhg;guz;fs; mbf;fb fz;zpy; gl;ld. mjw;Fs; MAjk; jhq;fpa rpq;fs ,uhZtj;jpdH fhty; ,Ue;jdH. vq;fsJ kz;iz mlhj;jhfg; gpbj;J itj;jpUf;Fk; mtHfisg; ghHf;f Nfhgk; Nfhgkhf ,Ue;jJ.

rpy gFjpfspy; rhiyapd; ,UGwKk; Gjpjhf rpW Fbirfs;  fhzg;gl;ld. tprhupj;jjpy; NghHf; fhyj;jpy;; ,lk; ngaHe;j jkpo;f; FLk;gq;fs; rpy mq;F kPsf; FbakHe;J tUtjhf eFNrRtud; nrhd;dhH. Fbiriar; Rw;wp ,uz;nlhU thiof; fd;Wfs; $lf; fz;zpy; gl;ld.

Mq;fhq;Nf Fz;Lfspdhy; Nrjk; mile;j tPLfs; nkhl;ilahf epd;W nfhz;bUe;jd.

rpy re;jpfspy; tof;fk; Nghy Gj;jH rpiyfs; fhzg;gl;ld. Gj;jiu nta;apy; kioapy; eida tpLtjpy; rpq;fs gTj;jHfSf;F xU myhjpahd ,d;gk;!

rpy fl;lhf;fhyp khLfSk; Gy;Y Nka;e;J nfhz;bUe;jd. ,uhZtj;jpdH mtw;iw mbj;Jr; rhg;gplhky; vg;gb capNuhL tpl;L itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gJ tpag;ghf ,Ue;jJ.  

mjw;F kjTzHT fhuzk; vd;W $w KbahJ. Gj;jH nfhy;yhik kw;Wk; mfpk;iria tw;GWj;jpa NghjpYk; Gyhy; czit kw;wtHfs; nfhLj;jhy; mjidg; gTj;jHfs; cz;zyhk; vdf; $wpapUf;fpwhH. Mdhy; ,iwr;rpf;fhff; nfhy;yg;gLk; gpuhzpfs; jdpNa mtHfSf;fhf nfhy;yg;gl;bUf;ff; $lhJ. 

gpr;ir thq;fpr; rhg;gpLk; NjuHfs; ,y;ywj;jhH tPl;Lf;F Kd; epd;W mirtk; Ntz;lhk; irtk; jhUq;fs; vd;W Nfl;f KbahJ. vij ,y;ywj;jhH gpr;irahff; nfhLf;fpwhHfNsh mij thq;fp cz;z Ntz;baJjhd;.

eilKiwr; rpf;fiyf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;Ljhd; Gj;jH ve;jtif czT nfhLj;jhYk; mijr; rhg;gplyhk; vdf; $wpapUg;ghH NghYk;.

gTj;j NjuH xUtH nkhj;jk; 227 tPda tpjpfisf; filg;gpbj;J xOf Ntz;Lk;. xU gTj;j gpf;Fzp nkhj;jk; 311 tpjpfisf; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,tHfs; khzhf;fHfshf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; jrrPyk; vd;W nrhy;fpd;w 10 tpjpfis filg;gpbj;jhy; NghJkhdJ.  

,e;jp tpjpfs; tPda gpj;jf (NjuHfspd; xOf;ff; fl;Lg;ghL) vd;w gTj;jkj Nfhl;ghLfspy; xU mq;fkhfr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ. gTj;j NjuHfs; ,e;j tpjpfs; kPwg;gLk;NghJ mJ gw;wp rhjhuhz kf;fSf;F nrhy;yf; $lhJ.  

tPda tpjp 35 ,y; xU gTj;j NjuH xU ehisf;F fhiy kjpak; vd ,UKiw kl;Lk; czT cl;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. kjpaj;jpd; gpd;dH gTj;j NjuHfs; nfl;bahd czit cl;nfhs;sf; $lhJ.  khiy Ntisapy; mtHfs; rj;Js;s ePuhfq;fisg; Fbf;fyhk;. khiy MW kzpf;Fg; gpd;dH ve;j czTk; cl;nfhs;sf; $lhJ. 

gTj;j NjuHfs; jq;fs; czit rikj;Jr; rhg;gpl KbahJ. md;whlk;  gpr;ir vLj;Nj cz;z Ntz;Lk;. mJTk; mtHfs; itj;jpUf;Fk; gpr;rh ghj;jpuj;jpNyNa gpr;ir Vw;f Ntz;Lk;. gpr;rh ghj;jpuk; my;yJ ifapy; nfhLf;fg;glhj czitNah ghdq;fisNah gTj;j NjuHfs; cl;nfhs;sf;$lhJ.

Gj;jH NghjidNahL epd;Wtpltpy;iy. mtNu gpr;rh ghj;jpuk; Ve;jp tPL tPlhf nrd;W gpr;ir vLj;Jr; rhg;gpl;lhH.

gTj;j NjuHfs; Jwtpfs; vd;W ntspAyfk; mwptjw;F mtHfs; cLj;jpUf;Fk; kQ;rs; mq;fpAk;  Ve;Jk; gpr;rh ghj;jpuKNk rhl;rpfshFk;.   

Vida kjq;fs; NghyNt gTj;j kjj;jpYk; jiy fPo; khWjy;fs; Vw;gl;L tpl;ld. ,d;W gpr;ir vLj;Jr; rhg;gpLfpw gTj;j NjuHfisf; fhz KbahJ. gzj;ijf; ifahy; njhlhj NjuHfisAk; fhz KbahJ.

gTj;j NjuHfs; ,d;W gy;fiyf; fof tpupTiuahsHfshfTk;> gs;spf;$l MrpupaHfshfTk;> MAs;Ntj itj;jpaHfshfTk;> njhopw;rq;fthjpfshfTk;> murpay; fl;rp cWg;gpdHfshfTk;> fl;rpj; jiytHfshfTk;> ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdHfshfTk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;!

,J ,d;iwa gTj;j kjk; murpay; kag;gLjg;gl;L tpl;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ. nfhy;yhik> md;Glik Nghjpj;j gTj;j kjj;jpy; ,d;W Nghiu Mjupf;Fk;> NghUf;;F Ms; jpul;Lk;> NghHf;fsj;jpy; NghH tPuHfisAk; NghHf; fUtpfisAk; gpupj; Xjp  Ehy; fl;b MrPHtjpf;Fk; gTj;j NjuHfisj;jhd; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

Fl;b NjuHfs; VNf47 Jg;ghf;fpfNshL fnkuhTf;F fhl;rp nfhLf;Fk; Gifg;glq;fs; njd;dpyq;if nra;jpj;jhs;fspy; ntspte;Js;sd!

xl;L nkhj;j NjuHfs; vy;NyhUNk ,g;gb khwp tpl;lhHfs; vd;W ehd; nrhy;ytpy;iy. xOf;fKs;s> fUiz cs;sk; gilj;j gTj;j NjuHfs; ,Uf;fNt nra;fpwhHfs;. 

,dr; rpf;fiy NghH %yk; my;yhJ mikjpahd topapy;> Ngrpj; jPHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhy;fpd;w NjuHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

mikjp cld;ghL vOjg;gl;l gpd;dH gy gTj;j NjuHfs; tp. Gypfis fpspnehr;rpf;F nrd;W re;jpj;J ciuahbapUf;fpwhHfs;. Jdhkp mdHj;jj;jpd; gpd;dH td;dp nrd;W ghjpf;fg;gl;l kf;fSf;F cjtp epthuzk; toq;fpAs;shHfs;.

Mdhy; vz;zpf;ifapy; murpay; kag;gLj;j gTj;j NjuHfNs ngUk;ghd;ikahf ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;Wjhd; vz;z Ntz;bAs;sJ.

NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy ,d;iwa gTj;j NjuHfs; gpr;ir vLj;J cz;gjpy;iy. gpr;ir Nfl;L tPL tPlhfj; jpupAk; NjuHfis njd;dpyq;ifapy; fhz;gJ mupJ. gy NjuHfs; jhq;fshfNt rikj;J cz;fpwhHfs;. 

CHg;Gwq;fspy; Fbkf;fs; jq;fs; CH tpfhiuapy; cs;s NjuH my;yJ NjuHfSf;F Kiwitj;J czTj; jhdk; nfhLf;fpwhHfs;.

jhdk; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba FLk;gk; Kjy; ehNs tpfhiuiapy; cs;s NjuHfisf; fz;L Ngrp mtHfSf;F tpUg;gkhd rhg;ghl;bd; gl;baiy mwpe;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;. fhiyapy; gpl;L> mg;gk;> khrpf;fUthl;Lg; gr;rb Nghd;w cUrpahd czNthL ,sePH> NjePH> Nfhg;gp> ghy;. rHf;fiu nfhLf;fpwhHfs;.

kjpa czTf;F rikj;j  Nrhw;NwhL Ml;biwr;rp> khl;biwr;rp>  kPd;> kuf;fwp fwpfNshL czT gupkhwg;gLfpwJ.

,g;gbj; NjuHfSf;F jhdk; nfhLg;gjhy; gTj;jHfs; jq;fSf;F Gz;zpak; NrUtjhfTk; mJ kWgpwg;ig Kw;whf  mWj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F my;yJ Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F Jiz epw;Fk; vd  ek;Gf;fpwhHfs;.

vd;d gTj;j NjuHfs; Ml;biwr;rp khl;biwr;rp  fwpia tpUk;gpf; Nfl;Lr; rhg;gpLfpwhHfsh?  vd ePq;fs; GUtj;ij caHj;JtJ njupfpwJ. NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy me;j MLfs; khLfs; mtHfs; rhg;gpLtjw;F Mf thq;fpNah tsHj;Njh nfhy;yg;glhj kl;Lk; mtw;iwr; rhg;gpLtjpy; Fw;wkpy;iy.

Vd; ,e;Jf;fs; $l  ,iwr;rp> kPd; rhg;gpLtijf; 'nfhd;wplg; ghtk; jpd;wplj; jPUk;' vdr; nrhy;yp epahag; gLj;jpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. 

Gj;juJ tho;f;if tuyhW vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupAk;. Mjyhy; mjid ,q;F tpupj;Jf;  $wNtz;ba mtrpakpy;;iy vd epidf;fpNwd;.

fpK 6Mk; Ehw;whz;by; Nfhryk; kfjk; vd;w ,uz;L NguuRfs; tl ,e;jpahtpy; nry;tr; nropg;Gld; tpsq;fpd. ,e;jg; NguuRfspd; fPo; gyk; tha;e;j FWepy kd;dHfs; ntt;NtW gFjpfis Ml;rp nra;jdH.

Nfhryj;Jf;F rpuht];jpAk; kfjj;Jf;F ,uhrfpUfKk; jiyefHfshf tpsq;fpd.

rhf;fpa kuigr; NrHe;j Rj;Njhjdd; fgpyt];Jf;F murdhf ,Ue;jhd;. ,tDf;F ,uz;L kidtpaH. %j;jtshfpa khahNjtpf;F gpwe;jtNu Gj;jH MthH. mtUf;F ngw;NwhHfs; ,l;l ngaH rpj;jhHj;jH vd;gjhFk;.

mtuJ gpwg;igg; gw;wp gpw;fhyj;NjhH gy Guhzg; GSFf; fijfisAk; [hjff; fijfisAk; vOjp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

rpj;jhHj;jH gpwe;j Ie;jhtJ ehs; mtUf;F ngaH #l;L tpoh ele;jJ. Ehw;wp vl;Lg; gpuhkzHfs; miof;fg;gl;bUe;jhHfs;. Mdhy; mtH gpwe;j vohtJ ehs; jhahuhd khahNjtp ,we;J NghdhH. mjd;gpd; Rj;Njhjddpd; ,uz;lhtJ murpahH ,sturiu tsHj;Jte;jhH. ,sturH murHfSf;Fupa nry;tr; nropg;NghL muz;kidapy; nry;ykhf tsHf;fg;gl;lhH.

gjpdhd;F tajpy; rpj;jhHj;jUf;F jpUkzk; ele;jJ. mtuJ murpapd; ngaH aNrhjiu. Foe;ijngaH ,uhFyd;. ,uhFyd; vd;why; ""ghrk;"" vd;W ghyp nkhopapy; nghUs;.

rpj;jhh;j;jUf;F 29 taJ elf;Fk;NghJ xU ehs; muz;kidf;F ntspNa Njupy; nrd;whH.

tPjpapy;  xU $d;tpOe;J vYk;Gk; NjhYkhff; fhl;rp je;j xU tNahjpgiu mtH  fhzNeupl;lJ.

',tH Vd; ,g;gb $d;tpOe;J elf;f KbahJ Mfptpl;lhH?"" vd rpj;jhHj;jH NjHg;ghfidf; Nfl;lhH.

mjw;F mtd; "" ,tH xU tNahjpgH. vy;yh kdpjHfSk; ,g;gbg; gpw;fhyj;jpy; %g;G milfpwhHfs;. mJjhd; ,aw;ifepajp""vd;whd;. muz;kid jpUk;gpa rpj;jhHj;jH rpe;jidapy; Mo;e;jhH. (gazk; njhlUk;)

 


 

 

td;dpr; nryT (23)

rpj;jhHj;jH Gj;juhdhH 

,d;ndhU ehs; xU Nehahsp tPjpNahuj;jpy; tPo;e;J fplf;ff; fz;lhH. ,ijf; fz;l rpj;jhHj;jH ftiyg; gl;lhH. mjidg; ghHj;j NjHr;rhujp  ',td; xU Nehahsp. Neha; vy;yh kdpjiuAk; gPbf;fpwJ" vd tpsf;fk; mspj;jhd;.

,d;ndhU ehs; xU gpNuj CHtyk; Nghtijf; fz;lhH. gpwe;j kdpjHfs; Vd; ,wf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nfs;tp mtH kdjpy; vOe;jJ.

filrpahf xU kQ;rs; mq;fp mzpe;j xU Jwtpiaf; fhzNeupl;lJ. me;jj; Jwtpapd; Kfj;jpy; mikjpAk; rhe;jKk; ,dk; njupahj kfpo;r;rpAk; glHe;jpUg;gijg; ghHj;jhH. 

vdNt mikjp> rhe;jk; ,tw;wpd; kj;jpapy; vg;gb cyfpy; %g;G> gpzp fhzg;gLfpwJ?  ,e;jf; Nfs;tpfSf;fhd tpilfisf; fz;lwpa Ntz;Lk; vd;w Mtypy; xU ehs; es;sputpy; ifg;gpbj;j kidtpiaAk;>  Foe;ijiaAk;> murNghfj;ijAk; Jwe;J muz;kidia tpl;L ntspNawpdhH.

Jwtwj;ij Nkw;nfhz;l rpj;jhHj;jH rd;dpahrp Nfhyj;jpy; fhL> NkL> CH vd;W miye;jhH.

rpj;jhHj;jupd; fhyj;jpy; tl ,e;jpahtpy; gy rkag; gpupTfs; ,Ue;jd. Ntj rkak; ,Ue;jJ. fUj;J Kjy;thjpfs;> nghUs;Kjy;thjpfs; vd;w jj;Jtthjpfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfspy; m[pthfpaH (rkzH) Kf;fpakhdtHfs;. mtHfs; epajpf;F Kjyplk; nfhLj;jhHfs;. vy;yhk; epajpg; gad; vd;whHfs;.

rkzHfs; nry;thf;NfhL ,Ue;jhHfs;. rkzk; kpff; fLikahd fl;Lg;ghLfis cila rkak;. gy; tpsf;Ftjhy; gy;ypy; cs;s Ez;fpUkpfs; ,wf;f NeupLk; vd;gjhy; gy; tpsf;Ftijj; jtpHj;jhHfs;. eldk;> ,ir Nghd;w fiyfis ntWj;jhHfs;. ngz;fs; Nkhl;rj;Jf;F jilahf ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd ek;gpdhHfs;. ,e;j ek;gpf;iffs; fiy ntWg;G ngz; ntWg;ghf khwpaJ.

flTs; ek;gpf;ifapy;yhj rkzH vy;yhtw;wpYk; Md;kh cz;L vd;W ek;gpdhHfs;. cUtj;Jf;F Vw;wthW rpwpa vWk;gpy; rpwpa Md;khTk; ngupa ahidapy; ngupa Md;khTk; cz;nld;whHfs;.

itjPf rkaj;jtH Ntjq;fis XjpdhHfs;. ahfk; nra;jhHfs;. Fjpiu> ML> khL>  cLk;G  Nghd;w tpyq;Ffis me;j ahf Fz;lq;fspy; Nghl;Lj; NjtHfSf;F MFjp nra;jhHfs;. mtw;wpd; khkprj;ij cz;lhHfs;. ,e;j capHf; nfhiyia rkzHfs; vjpHj;jhHfs;.

gy FOf;fs;> gy rkag; gpupTfs; ,Ue;jhYk; vy;NyhUk; nghJthd nrhw;fisg; gfpHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. Nkhl;rk; my;yJ epHthzk;. Md;kh my;yJ capH. Gj;jk; my;yJ Qhdk;> jHkk; my;yJ xOf;fk;> Nahfk;. fHkk;. 

                                                                                                                                   Gj;j fhah

rpj;jhHj;jH Mr;rpukq;fspy; tho;e;j gy KdptHfis mZfpdhH. jdJ kdijf; File;J nfhz;bUe;j ma;aq;fSf;F mtHfsplk; tpsf;fk; Nfl;lhH. tpsf;fk; jpUg;jpaspf;fhj NghJ NtW Mr;rpukq;fspy; tho;e;j KdptHfisj; Njb miye;jhH.

cliy tUj;jpf; fLikahd tpujq;fis mDl;bj;jhy; jtk; if$Lk; vd;Wk; mjd; Ngwhf ,fguk; ,uz;bYk; rpj;jp ngwyhk; vd;Wk; $wpa ghHf;ft KdptuJ Mr;rpukj;jpy; NrHe;J jtKiwfis kpfTk; rpuj;ijNahL gapd;whH.  cz;zh Nehd;G Nehw;whH. mjdhy; vYk;Gk; NjhYk; Mfp rhtpd; tpspk;Gtiu NghdhH.

Mdhy; mtuJ Nfs;tpfSf;F kl;Lk; tpil fpilf;ftpy;iy. gpzp> %g;G> rhf;fhL vd;w Jd;gq;fis tpl;nlhopf;Fk; topia jtk; fhz;gpf;ftpy;iy.

,d;gj;ijg; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,tHfs; Jd;gj;ij mDgtpf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ,tHfSf;F fpilf;fg; NghtJ epj;jpakhd ,d;gkh? ,wg;G gpwg;G ,uz;ilAk; jtpHf;Fkh? RtHf;f ,d;gk; ngw;W Njtgyk; fpilj;J tpl;lhy; kl;Lk; NghjhJ. kPz;Lk; gpwg;gpy;yhj mjPj epiyiag; ngwNtz;Lk;. cliy tUj;jpdhy; kl;Lk; NghjhJ.  cliyf; nfhz;L elj;JtJ rpe;ij. Mjyhy; me;jr; rpe;ijia trg;gLj;jp mjd; %yk; xU top Njl Ntz;Lk;.

,t;thnwy;yhk; rpe;jpj;j rpj;jhHj;jH ghHf;ft Kdptupd; Mr;rpukj;ij tpl;L ePq;fj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. Kdptuplk; tpilngw;Wf; nfhz;L kfjj;jpd; jiyefuhd ,uh[fpUfj;ij (,d;iwa Gj;j fhah) Nehf;fpg; gazkhdhH. Kbthd cz;ikia (Ultimate Truth) NjbNa jPUtJ vd;w ituhf;fpaj;NjhL epuQ;rd Mw;wpd; fiuNahukhf ,Ue;j CUty vd;w Ciur; nrd;wile;jhH. me;j Cupd; fz; gha;e;Njhba mofhd MWk;> Mw;wpd; kzj; jplYk;> ,jkhd kur; NrhiyfSk; mtuJ kdJf;Fg; gpbj;jkhf ,Ue;jd. CutHfsplk; czT  thq;fp cz;zyhk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifAk; mtUf;F ,Ue;jJ. vdNt me;j Cupy; jq;fp Kbthd cz;ikiaj; NjLk; Kaw;rpapy; jPtpukhf <LgLtJ vdj; jPHkhdpj;jhH.

Qhdk; ngWtjw;F Kjy; ehs; fhiy xU Mykuj;jpd; fPo; jpahdj;jpy; ,Ue;jhH. mg;NghJ me;j Ciur; NrHe;j R[hjh vd;w ngz; xU Kl;bapy; ghy;NrhW nfhz;L te;J rpj;jhHj;jUf;Ff; nfhLj;jhH. mij mtH thq;fp cz;lhH.  ,Jjhd; mtH Qhdk; ngWtjw;F Kd;dH cl;nfhz;l filrp czthFk;.  cz;l gpd;dH jdJ ,Wjp Kaw;rpapy; ,wq;FtJ vdj; jPHkhdpj;jhH.

kdjpy; Njf;fp itj;jpUe;j Fwpf;NfhSld; gfy; nghOijf; fopj;j gpd; md;W khiy mUfhikapy; ,Ue;j mur kuj;jpd; fPo; nrd;W  mkHe;J nfhz;lhH. Gj;jH Qhdk; ngw;w ,e;j mur kuNk Gfo;ngw;w kfh Nghjp kukhf ,d;Wk; topgl;L tug;gLfpwJ.

mur kuj;jpd; fPo; mkHe;j rpj;jhHj;jH 'vdJ Njhy;> ehHfs;> vYk;Gfs; kl;Lk; kpQ;rl;Lk;. vdJ FUjp> vdJ jir tuz;L Nghfl;Lk;. Mdhy; cz;ikiaf; fz;lwpAk; kl;Lk; ,e;j ,lj;ijtpl;L  efug; Nghtjpy;iy vd;w kd ituhf;fpaj;Jld; jpahdj;jpy; mkHe;jhH.

md;iwa ,utpd; KjyhtJ rhkj;jpy; khu Aj;jk; Kbe;jJk;> ,uz;lhk; rhkj;jpy; Nghjprj;JtH rkhgj;jp epiyapNy jkJ gok; gpwg;Gf;fis vy;yhk; njupe;J nfhz;lhH. %d;whk; rhkj;jpy;  'vdJ kdk; tpLjiy mile;jJ. mQ;Qhdk; mfd;wJ. Qhdk; gpwe;jJ. ,Us; ePf;fg;gl;L xsp vOe;jJ vdg; Gj;jH jdJ kdJf;Fs; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;lhH.  ehd;fhk; rhkj;jpy; Qhdk; KjpHe;jJ. capHfspd; gpwg;G ,wg;Gf;fis mwpaf; $ba QhdjpU\;b ngw;whH. gpwg;G ,wg;G ,uz;Lf;Fk; cupa fhuzKk;> mjd; epthuzKk; khHf;fKk;; njspthapw;W. filrp ,utpy; mQ;Qhdk; ePq;fg;ngw;W ehd;F caHe;j cz;ikfis czHe;J nfhz;lhH. fPo;j;jpir thdj;jpy; QhapWk; vOe;jhd;.

mg;NghJ rpj;jhHj;jUf;F mfit 35. Qhdk; ngw;wjhy; Gj;jH epiyf;F caHj;jg;gl;lhH. mtH Qhdk; ngw;w ehs; itfhrpj; jpq;fs; G+uizahFk;.

Gj;jH Qhdk; ngw;w Gj;jfhah ,d;W cyfshtpa gTj;jHfs; ahj;jpiu nry;Yk; Gdpj efuhf tpsq;FfpwJ. ,q;Nf mNrhfd; te;J topgl;lhd; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

,ilf; fhyj;jpy; gTj;jk; ,e;jpahtpy; kq;fp kiwe;j NghJ Gj;jfhah ahUk; ftdpg;ghH mw;Wg; Nghapw;W.  mjid kPs; fl;likj;jtH ,yq;ifiar; NrHe;j mefhupf jHkghyH. ,tH 1891 Mk; Mz;L kfhNghjp rq;fj;ij epWtp Gj;j fhahtpw;F ahj;jpiu Nkw;nfhs;SkhW cynfq;Fk; thOk; gTj;jHfisf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.

gPfhH khepy muR Gj;jfhah Mya mwf;fl;lis xd;wpid cUthf;fp Gj;j fhah Myaj;ij mjdplk; xg;gilj;jJ.

1956 ,y; Gj;jupd; 2>500 Mz;L gpwe;j ehisf; nfhz;lhLk; Kfkhf ,e;jpa ika muR ghupa nghUl; nrytpy; Gj;j fhahitr; Rw;wp ,Ue;j Mf;fpukpg;Gf;fis mg;Gwg;gLj;jp. tPjpfs; mikj;J> kpd;rhu trjpfisr; nra;J nfhLj;jJ.  ,d;W mq;F rPdh>  jha;yhe;J> kapdkhH> jpngj;> G+l;lhd;> rpf;fpk;> ag;ghd;> nfhwpah> jha;thd;> tpal;ehk;> =yq;fh Nghd;w ehl;L kf;fSf;F jdpj;jdp Myaq;fs;> gs;spf;$lq;fs;> jq;Fkplq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  

Qhdk; ngw;w gpd;dH VO fpoikfs; fopj;J Gj;jH tHdhrpf;Fg; gazg;gl;Lg; NghdhH. ,rpgj;jdhtpy; ( ,d;iwa rhuehj;) mtH jdJ Ie;J Kd;dhs; rfghbfisf; fz;lhH. Kjypy; Gj;jUf;F xU ma;ak;. xU jaf;fk;. jhd; fz;L gpbj;j ehd;F tha;ikfisAk; ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;ijAk; mtHfSf;Fg; Nghjpj;jhy; mtw;iw mtHfs; Vw;Wf; nfhs;thHfsh? khl;lhHfsh?

Gj;jH tUtijj; Jhuj;jpy; ghHj;j me;j 5 rd;dpahrpfSk; mtUf;F ve;j kupahijAk; nfhLg;gjpy;iy vdj; jq;fSf;Fs; jPHkhdpj;jhHfs;. Mdhy; Gj;jH mUfpy; te;jJk; mtHfis mwpahkNy vOe;J epd;W mtiu tzq;fp tuNtw;whHfs;. mtHfSf;F Gj;jH Qhdk; ngw;w nra;jp njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. vdNt mtHfs; Gj;jiu 'rNfhjuh vd;Nw mioj;jhHfs;. Mdhy; Gj;jNuh jd;id mt;thW miof;f Ntz;lhk; vd;Wk; jhd; Qhdk; ngw;W tpl;ljhfTk; nrhy;yp mtHfis jdf;F Kd;dhy; mkur; nra;jhH. mjd; gpd; jdJ Kjy; cgNjrj;ij mtHfSf;Fg; Nghjpj;jhH.

Gj;jupd; ,e;j cgNjrk; kpf Kf;fpakhdjhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ. mjpy; Gj;jupd; mbg;gilg; Nghjidfs; my;yJ gTj;jj;jpd; gpopT ,Uf;fpwJ. Gj;jupd; cgNjrk; 'jHk rf;fug; gputHj;jdk;' vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

'rd;khHf;fk; Njbj; jtj;ij Nkw;nfhs;Sk; Jwtpfs; jtpHf;fNtz;ba ,Utpj Nahf khHf;fq;fs; cs;sd - xd;W mkpjkhd ,d;gj;ijg; gw;wp epw;Fk; Nahfk;. ma;k;nghwpfspd; ,af;fq;fSf;F Kw;WNk mbikg;gl;L me;jg; Nghfj;jpy; ,d;gk; fhZk; khHf;fk; ntWf;fj;jf;fJ> ,opthdJ> rpWikAilaJ> gad; tpisf;fhjJ. ,J xU Gwk;.

kW Gwk; jtpHf;fg;gl Ntz;baJ cliy tUj;jpf; fLikahd Nehd;Gfisf; filg; gpbf;Fk; `lNahf khHf;fk;. ,JTk; ,opthdJ> Jd;gj;ij tpistpg;gJ> gadw;wJ.

,e;jg; gadw;w> mkpjkhd ,U topfspd; kj;jpapNyjhd; kpjkhd rd;khHf;f top mikag; ngw;wpUf;fpwJ. ,e;j kj;ak khHf;fk; (Middle Path) jhd; jjhfjH fz;l khHf;fk;. ,J mff; fz;fisj; jpwe;J cs;nshsp gpwg;gpf;Fk;> mwpitf; nfhLf;Fk;> rhe;jpiaj; jUk;> G+uz nka;Qhdj;ijAk; jj;Jt Nghjj;jijAk;> ,Wjpapy; epHthz Nkhl;rkhfpa tpKf;jp epiyiaAk; milaf; nfhz;L nry;Yk;.

,q;qdk; mff; fz;fisj; jpwe;J cs;nshsp gpwg;gpg;gJk;> mwpTk; rhe;jpAk; jUtJk; G+uz nka;Qhdj;ijAk; jj;Jt Nghjj;jijAk;> ,Wjpapy; epHthz Nkhl;rkhfpa tpKf;jp epiyiaAk; milaf; nfhz;L nry;tJkhfpa kj;ak khHf;fk; vz; tifahd ml;lhq;f khHf;fk; vdg;gLk;.

Gj;jupd; cgNjrj;ij nrtp kLj;j Ie;J NjuHfSk; gTj;j rq;fj;jpy; NrHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,tHfNs tuyhw;wpy; gTj;j rkaj;jpy; Kjd; Kjy; NrHe;J nfhz;l NjuHfs; MtH. 

jdJ 35 tJ mfitapy; Qhdk; ngw;w Gj;jH mLj;j 45 Mz;L fhyk; CH Cuhf> ehL ehlhfr; nrd;W jhd; fz;lwpe;j ehd;F tha;ikfisAk;> Jf;f gupfhuj;Jf;F cupa ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;ijAk; Jwtpfshd Gj;j NjuHfSk; ,y;ywj;jhUk; gpd;gw;w Ntz;ba gQ;r rPyj;ijAk;> Gj;j NjuHfSf;Nf cupa NkYk; Ie;J rPyq;fisAk; nkhj;j jrrPyq;fisAk; Gj;jH Nghjpj;jhH.

murH Mz;baH> Vio gzf;fhud;> caHe;jtH jho;e;jtH vd;w Ngjkpd;wp vy;NyhUf;Fk; mtH Nghjid nra;jhH. jdJ Nghjidf;F md;iwa ,yf;fpa tof;fpy;; ,Ue;j rk];fpUj nkhopiaf; iftpl;L vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupe;jpUe;j Ngr;R nkhopahd kfjj;ijg; gad;gLj;jpdhH. jdJ Nghjidfisg; gug;g NjuHfs; vd miof;fg;gl;l rPlHfis Gj;j rq;fj;jpy; NrHj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. (gazk; njhlUk;)

 


 

td;dpr; nryT (24)

gTj;jk; kjk; my;y jj;Jtk;  

gTj;j kjj;jpy; ,y;ywk; Jwtwk; vd ,uz;L mwq;fNs cs;sd. ,y;ywj;jhuhfpa rhtf Nehd;gpfs; Kk;kzpfis tzq;fp gQ;rrPyq;fisf; filg;gpbj;J xOFjy; Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; ,y;ywj;jhH gpwth epiyahfpa epHthz Nkhl;rk; mila KbahJ. Jwtwj;jpy; epd;wtHfs; Kk;kzpfis tzq;fp  gj;Jtifr; rPyq;fis Nkw;nfhz;L> ehd;F tha;ikfisf; filg; gpbj;J> ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;jpy; xOfp> Qhdk;> Nahfk; ,tw;iw mDl;bj;jhy; gpwth epiyahfpa my;yJ Ngupd;gkhfpa epHthz Nkhl;rj;ij milthHfs;.

gTj;j rkaj;jtH> Jwtwj;jhUk; ,y;ywj;jhUk; Gj;jH> jHkk;> rq;fk; vd;Dk; Kk;kzpfisr; ruz; mila Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;Fj; jpupruzk; vd;gJ ngaH. ,e;j jpupruzj;jpd; ghyp nkhop thrfk; ,J. ,jid Kk;Kiw nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;.

Gj;jk; ruzk; fr;rhkp
jk;kk; ruzk; fr;rhkp
rq;fk; ruzk; fr;rhkp

gTj;j kjj;jpd; mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfs; kpfTk; vspjhdit. cyfpy; ehd;F th
a;ikfs; cz;L. mtw;iw mwpe;J epHthzk; mila ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;ij filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb ml;lhq;f khHf;fj;ij filg;gpbg;gtHfs; kWgpwg;ig mWj;J epHthzk; my;yJ tPLNgW milayhk;. ,Jjhd; gTj;j kjj;jpd; mbg;gilj; jj;JtkhFk;.  ehd;F tha;ikfs; Mtd:

(1) Jd;gk;

(2) Jd;g fhuzk;

(3) Jd;g ePf;fk;

(4) Jd;gk; ePf;Fk; top.

ghypnkhopapy; ,it Jf;fk;> Jf;f fhuzk;> Jf;f epthuzk;> Jf;f epthuz khHf;fk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

(1) Jd;gk; gpwg;G Jd;gkhdJ "gpwe;jhH cWtJ ngUfpa Jd;gk;" vd kzpNkfiyapy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. Neha;fs; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpwJ. eiu> jpiu> %g;G> kuzk; Nghd;w vl;Ltifahd Jf;fk; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd.

ehk; Mirg;gLk; nghUl;fs; ekf;Fj; Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. ehk; tpUk;ghj nghUs;fs; fpilf;fhJ Nghdhy; mit Jd;gj;ijj; jUfpd;wd. RUq;ff; $wpdhy; fz;zhy; fz;Lk;> fhjhy; Nfl;Lk;> ehthy; cz;Lk;> %f;fhy; Nkhe;Jk;> nka;ahy; jPz;bAk; mDgtpf;fg;gLk; Ik;Gyd;fspdhYk; Jd;gk; Vw;gLfpwJ. Jf;fk; ,Utifg;gLk;. mit mepj;jpak;> mdhj;kk; vdg;gLk;.

(2) Jf;f fhuzk; - gpwtpf;Ff; fhuzkhfpa Mir> Ik;Gyd;fisj; Ja;f;Fk; tpUg;gk;> nja;tNyhfj;jpy; gpwe;J ngupa ,d;g Rfq;fis mDgtpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Dk; epidg;G> ,e;j tho;f;ifapy; ntWg;Gf; nfhz;L jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;tJ Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzq;fshFk;. ,f;fhuzq;fs; ehy;tifg;gLk;.

(m) ,we;jfhy fhuzk; -  Ngijik (mtp[;i[)  nra;if (rk];fhuk;)

(M) epfo;fhy fhupak;   -  czHT (tpQ;Qhdk;)  mUTU (ehk&gk;)  thapy; (\lhajdh)  CW (];guprk;)  EfHT (Ntjid)

(,) epfo;fhy fhuzk;   -  Ntl;if (jpU\;iz) gw;W (cghjhdk;)  fUkj; njhopy; (gtk;)

(<) vjpHfhy fhupak;     - Njhw;wk; ([hjp)  %g;G ([uh) rhf;fhL ( kuzk;)

(3) Jf;f epthuzk;:   -  mwpahikahfpa mQ;Qhdj;ij xopg;gJk;> Mir> mth Kjypa gw;Wf;fis ePf;FtJk; Jd;g ePf;fkhFk;.

(4) Jf;f epthuz khHf;fk; - vl;Ltpj caHe;j topfshfpa m\;lhq;f khHf;fj;ijf; filg;gpbj;J elg;gNj Jd;gj;ij ePf;Fk; topahFk;.

me;j vl;Ltpj newpfs;  (m\;lhq;f khHf;fk;) Mtd -

(1) ew;fhl;rp (];k;kh jpl;b): - NkNy $wg;gl;l ehd;F tha;ikfis (rj;jpaq;fis) ed;whf Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;J mwpe;J nfhs;tJ.

cyfpd; fz; gpwe;jhH taJnrd;whH NehAw;whH ,we;jhH vd;W $wg;gLjy; ,aw;ifNa.  Ngjik Kjy; tpidg;gad; <whf ,itnad tFf;fg;gl;l gd;dpU ,ay;GfisAk; gpwtp vLj;NjhH mwpfpy; xg;gw;w ngUk; Ngwpid miltH. mtw;iw mwpahuhdhy; Jd;gk; epiwe;j epuaj;jpid miltH.

Nkw;$wpatw;iw Iak;jpupgwj; njupe;J nfhs;tNj ew;fhl;rp vdg;gLk;.

(2) ey;nyhOf;fk; (]k;kh ]q;fg;Ngh) - jd;dyj;ij kwe;J vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; md;ghf ,Uj;jy;. tho;f;ifapd; Nehf;fk; gpwtpj; Jd;gj;jpy; ,Ue;J (Jf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J) tpLjiy miltJjhd; vd;Dk; vz;zj;NjhL vg;NghJk; vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; md;igAk; ey;nyz;zj;ijAk; tsHj;jy;> rpw;wpd;g vz;zq;fis xopj;jy;.

(3) ey;tha;ik (]k;kh thrh) - ngha;  nrhy;Yjy;> Gwq;$Wjy;> fLnkhop NgRjy;> mtJhW $wy;> gadpy;yhg; Ngr;Rf;fisg; NgRjy; Kjypatw;iw ePf;fp cz;ikNa NgRtJ. NgRk;NghJ md;ghfTk; ,dpikahfTk; NgRjy;.

(4) ew;nra;if (]k;kh fk;kNjh) - nfhiy nra;jy;> fsT nra;jy;> fhkk; tpiojy; Kjypa ghtKk; jPikAk; Mdnray;fisr; nra;ahky; ey;y nray;fisr; nra;J nfhz;L xOf;fkhfTk; mikjpahfTk; ,Uj;jy;.

(5) ey;tho;f;if (]k;kh M[PNth) - mbikfis tpw;gJ> khkprj;Jf;fhfg; gpuhzpfis tpw;gJ> kaf;fe;jUfpw fs;> kJghdk;> mgpdp Kjypa nghUs;fis tpw;gJ> nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzkhd fj;jp> <l;b> ths;> mk;G Kjypa MAjq;fis tpw;gJ> R+JthJ nra;tJ Mfpa nray;fisr; nra;ahky; mfpk;iria Nkw;nfhz;L tho;jy;.

(6) ed; Kaw;rp ( ]k;kh tpahahNkh) - jPa vz;zq;fSk; jPa nray;fSk; jd;dplk; cz;lhfhky; jLj;J ey;y vz;zq;fisAk; ey;y nray;fisAk; tsHg;gJ ed; Kaw;rp vdg;gLk;. jPa vz;zq;fs; kdj;jpy; Njhd;wpdhy; mtw;iw Kaw;rpNahL jLj;J ey;y vz;zq;fis tsHf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(7) ew;filg;gpb (]k;kh ]jp) - clk;gpd; epiyahikia Mo;e;J rpe;jpj;J Ik;nghwp Ik;Gyd; ,itfispd; cz;ikj; jd;ikia czHjy;. ,t;tpjk; rpe;jpg;gJ nka;Q;Qhdk; ngWtjw;F cjtpahFk;.

(8) ew;wpahdk; (]k;kh ]khJ) - kdij xU epiyapy; epWj;jg; goFjy;. kdijr; rpjwtplhky; mlf;fpf; ey;y vz;zq;fis epidj;J kdj;ij xU epiyapy; epWj;jg; goFjy;. ,e;jr; rkhjpg; (kd mlf;fk;) gof;fk;> Gyd;fisAk; kdj;ijAk; mlf;fpahs cjTfpwJ. mQ;Qhdk;> Mir> gif Kjypa jPa vz;zq;fs; ePf;fp Qhdk; tsu cjTfpwJ.

cyf Njhw;wj;Jf;F Kjy; fhuzd; xUtd; cz;L vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhs;shj ngsj;jkjk; xt;nthUtUk; jj;jkJ epHthzj;ij Gj;jH fhl;ba topfspy; xOfpj;jhNk Njbf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nghjpf;fpwJ.

fq;ifapy; KOFtjhNyh> fhtpupapy; Fspg;gjhNyh> tpujk; ,Ug;gjhNyh> Nts;tp> fhtb vLg;gjhNyh> G+ir> tpoh> ahj;jpiu nra;tjhNyh epHthzj;ij mila KbahJ vd;gJ Gj;jupd; NghjidahFk;.

Gj;jupd; ,e;j m\;lhq;f Nghjidf;Fk; =yq;fhtpy; fhzg;gLk; ,Uf;Fk; Gj;j kjj;jpw;Fk; ngupa ,ilntsp ,Ug;gJ fz;$L. nrhy;Yf;Fk; nraYf;Fk;> Nghjidf;Fk; eilKiwf;Fk; vy;yh kjq;fspYk; ,ilntsp ,Uf;fj;jhd; nra;fpwJ. Mdhy; Gj;j kjj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; ,e;j ,ilntsp rw;W mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

NkNy fhl;ba ml;lhq;fkhHf;fj;jpy; 5tJ khHf;fk; Cd;wpf; ftdpf;fg;ghyJ. nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzkhd fj;jp> <l;b> ths;> mk;G Kjypa MAjq;fis tpw;gJ> R+JthJ nra;tJ Mfpa nray;fisr; nra;ahky; mfpk;iria Nkw;nfhz;L tho;jy; ey;tho;f;if vd;W vLj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ. 

(1) gTj;jk; capHfSf;F jPq;F nra;tij> capHfisf; nfhy;tijf; fz;bf;fpwJ.

(2) NghH vd;gJ> mij NtW ngaH nfhz;L miog;gpDk;> capHfisf; nfhy;tJjhd;. nfhiy ml;lhq;f khHfj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;l 5tJ khHf;fj;ij kPWtjhFk;.

Vida kjq;fs; Nghyy;yhJ gTj;jkjj;jpy; flTs; gw;wpa fUj;Jg;gbtk; (concept) ,y;iy. ,jdhy; gTj;jk; xU kjk; my;y vd;w fUj;jpay; ,Uf;fpwJ. cyf kjq;fsJ khehL eilngw;w NghJ gTj;jk; kjk; my;y vdf; $wp gTj;j NguhsHfs; me;j khehl;by; fye;J nfhs;s Kjypy; kWj;jhHfs;.

Gj;jH ,e;j mz;lj;jpd; Njhw;wj;Jf;F xU fhuzd; ,Ug;ij xg;Gf;nfhs;stpy;iy. flTisg; gw;wp mtH vijAk; Nghjpf;ftpy;iy. jd;idAk; topgLkhW mtH Nfl;ftpy;iy. Mdhy; gTj;jHfs; mtiu  jq;fisf; fhg;ghw;wf; $ba flTs; vd epidj;J topgLfpwhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; mtH vy;yhk; ty;y vq;Fk; epiwe;j vy;yhk; njupe;j flTs; my;y. mjdhy;jhd; rpq;fs gTj;jHfs; Neha; nehb vd;why; fjpHfhkj;Jf;F XLfpwhHfs;.  

Gj;juJ mf;fiw khdplHfis vg;gb kuzj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; kPs; gpwg;G tl;lj;jpy; (cycle of rebirth)   ,Ue;Jk; fhg;ghw;wyhk; vd;gjpNyNa ,Ue;jJ. cyfj;ijg; gilj;j flTs; xUtH ,Uf;ff; $Lkh vd;W mtuplk; Nfl;l NghJ mtH gjpy; ,Wf;f kWj;jhH. gTj;j jHkj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp thOk; xUtUf;F mJgw;wpa tprhuiz Njit ,y;iy vd;whH.

Gj;jUila Rw;Wg; gazj;jpd;NghJ kdpjDf;F mg;ghw;gl;l VNjh xU rf;jp ,Ug;gjhfTk; mjid gpuk;kh vd;Nwh <rd; vd;Nwh Nghw;wp tzq;f Ntz;Lnkd;W gpuhkzHfs;  nrhy;YfpwhHfNs? mJ gw;wpj; jq;fs; fUj;njd;d?' vd;W Nfl;fg;gl;lJ.  mjw;Fg; Gj;jH gpd;tUkhW gjpy; ,Wj;jhH.

'gpf;FNt xU thjj;jpw;fhf mtHfs; nrhy;tij Vw;Wf; nfhs;SNthk;. ePq;fs;  XH Mw;iwf; flf;fNtz;bAs;sJ. mijf; flg;gjw;F mUfpYs;s Nty;tdj;jpy; Nty;fis (%q;fpy;; fhl;by; cs;s %q;fpy;fis) ntl;bj; Jz;Lfs; nra;J> mitfis ,izj;Jf; fapw;why; fl;bj; njg;gk; nra;J> mjidf; nfhz;L Mw;iwf; flf;fpd;wha;.  Mw;iwf; flf;fj; Jizahf ,Ue;j mj;njg;gj;ij vLj;J fiuapy; itj;J tpl;L 'vd;id Mw;wpd; mf;fiuapy; ,Ue;J ,f;fiu NrHj;j NtyNd (%q;fpNy)' vd;W Nghw;Wthah? Ntz;Lkhdhy; NtW vtUf;fhtJ mJ gad;gll;Lk; vd;W epidj;Jf; fiuapYs;s xU kuj;jpy; mf;fl;L kuj;ijf; fl;b itj;J tpl;Lr; nry;yyhk;. mJNt mwpTilik.'

,d;ndhUKiw mtH nfhLj;j tpil gpd;tUkhW:

fhl;by; xUtd; mk;Ggl;L tpOe;J tpLfpwhd;. me;j mk;ig ahH va;jJ? vjw;fhf va;ag;gl;lJ? vjdhy; me;j mk;G nra;ag;gl;lJ vd;w tprhuizapy; ,wq;FtPHfsh my;yJ mk;G gl;ltdJ capiuf; fhg;ghw;w mtidj; Jhf;fpf; nfhz;L kUj;Jtuplk; NghtPHfsh? fUj;jpayhd (abstract) Nfs;tpfis Nfl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gJ tPzhd Ntiy!' 

gTj;j NjuHfsJ jkpopd ntWg;Gk; mjp jPtpu rpq;fs-gTj;j Nfhl;ghLk; cz;ikahd gTj;j newpf;F KuzhdJ. gTj;j newpf;Ff; fsq;fj;ijf; fw;gpg;gJ.

Mdhy; ,e;j jkpopd ntWg;G mz;ikf; fhyj;jpy; vOe;jJ my;y. mJ kfh tk;r fhyk; njhl;L tUfpwJ.

jkpoH Ml;rpia KbTf; nfhz;L te;J Gj;j jHkj;ij ,yq;if KOJk; epiyepWj;jpatd; vd;w Kiwapy; Jl;l ifKDjhd; kfhtk;rj;jpd; fjhehafd;.

Gj;jH ,yq;iff;F %d;W Kiw thd; topahf te;jhH vd kfhtk;rk; $WfpwJ. Kjy; tUifapd; NghJ kfpaq;fidapy; tho;e;j ,af;fHfis Gj;jkjj;Jf;F khw;wpdhH. ,uz;lhtJ tUifapd; NghJ ehf jPgj;jpd; mupaizf;F ehf murHfshd FNyhjud; kNfhjud; elj;jpa rz;ilia KbTf;Ff; nfhz;Lte;J mtHfisAk; mq;F tho;e;j Fbkf;fisAk; Gj;j jHkj;Jf;F khw;wpdhH. %d;whtJ Kiw fy;ahzpf;F (fsdp) tUif je;jhH. Gj;jH thd; topahf ,yq;if te;jhH vd;gJ fw;gid. Mdhy; mtH fhyj;jpy; jpuhtpl ,dj;jtuhd ehfHfs; ,af;fHfs; ,yq;if KOJk; tho;e;jhHfs; vd;gJ tuyhw;W cz;ikNa.  ,tHfNs ,yq;ifapd; G+HtPf Fbfs;. Mdhy; kfhtk;r MrpupaH ,tHfs; kdpj Fyk; my;y vdf; $wptpl;lhH. (gazk; njhlUk;)

 


 

td;dpr; nryT (25)

Jl;lifKD ehfH tk;rj;ij NrHe;jtd;! 

ef;fPud;

Gj;jH epHthzk; ngw;w mNj G+uiz ehspy; tp[aDk; (fpK 483-445) mtdJ vOEhW NjhoHfSk; ,yq;ifia te;J mile;jhHfs; vd;W kfhtk;rk; nrhy;fpwJ. ,e;jf; fijAk; fhyKk; cz;ikay;y.

kfhtk;rk; ,d;iwa  msT Nfhypd;gb xU tuyhw;W Ehy; my;y. gy ,aw;iff;F khwhd mrhjhuz epfo;r;rpfisf; fw;gpj;J gf;jpAs;s gTj;jHfspd; kfpo;r;rpf;Fk; <Nlw;wj;Jf;Fk; xU gTj;j Njuuhy; vOjg;gl;l GuhzNk kfhtk;rkhFk;.

Mwhk; Ehw;whz;by; kfhtk;rj;ij vOjpa kfhehkH vd;w NjuH ,yq;ifapy; fhyj;Jf;Ff; fhyk; tl ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J FbngaHe;j gy ,df; FOf;fSf;F xU tuyhw;Wj; njhlf;fk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gijf; fhl;lNt tp[ad; fijia jPgtk;rk; Gide;jJ. mijnahl;bNa kfhehkH jdJ Ehypy; vOjpAs;shH. 

kfhtk;rk; (mjw;F Ke;jpa jPgtk;rk;) mt;thW ,yq;ifapy; FbNawpa gy ,df;FOf;fspd; ngaiuf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. rpq;fy (rpq;fk;) jur;rh (fOijg;Gyp -hyena) yk;gf;fhdh (Kay; my;yJ ML)> gypNgh[fh (fhfk;) Nkhupah (kapy;) Fypq;f (nfhy;gwit) kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpLk; ,df; FOf;fshFk;. ,e;jg; ngaHfs; Mjp kdpjd; jhd; tzq;fpa tpyq;FfisAk; gwitfisAk; jdJ kuGr; rpd;dkhff; nfhz;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ. (The Early History of Ceylon - gf;fk; 15)

tp[ad; tUiff;F Kd;dNu ngUk;ghYk; MWfis mz;b ehfH> ,af;fH> ,uhl;rj ,d kf;fsJ muRfs; Vw;gl;bUe;jd. ,uhkhaz fhyj;J ,uhtzd;  ,af;f Fy Nte;jd; Mthd;.

Mdhy; kfhtk;r MrpupaH tp[ad; tUiff;F Kd;dH khdplH ,yq;ifapy; thotpy;iy vdTk; tp[aDila tUifNahLjhd; ,yq;ifapd; tuyhW njhlq;Ftjhf vOjp itj;Js;shH. ,yq;ifapd; G+HtFb kf;fshd NtlH> ehfH> ,af;fH> ,uhl;rjH Nghd;w jpuhtpl kf;fsJ tuyhw;iw %b kiwf;fNt ,g;gb vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. NkYk; ,e;j G+HtPf Fbkf;fis kdpjuy;yhNjhH my;yJ miukdpjHfshf kfhtk;rk; rpj;jpupg;gjd; Nehf;fk; rpq;fstNu Mjpf;Fbnad;w khiaiaj; Njhw;Wtpg;gjw;NfahFk;.

,g;NghJ Flhehlhf tpsq;Fk; aho;g;ghzk; Kd;ndhU fhyj;;jpy;> mjhtJ fpwpj;J gpwg;gjw;F mNef Ehw;whz;fSf;F Kd;dH ,uz;L jPTfshf ,Ue;jJ.

Nkw;Nf ehfjPgk;> kzpehfjPgk;> kzpGuk;> kzpgy;ytk; vd;Dk; ngaHfshy; toq;fg;gl;l ngUe;jPTk;> fpof;Nf vUik Ky;iyj;jPT vd;W ngaHngw;w rpWjPTk; ,Ue;jd.

tl-Nkw;Nf flk;gejp (ky;tj;J Xah) fyhXah Mfpa ejpfspd; gLf;ifapy; jhkpuguzpAk;> Nkw;Nf fy;ahzpia (fsdp) mz;ba gFjpapy; fy;ahzpAk;> njw;Nf tstfq;if khzpf;f fq;if ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l gFjpapy; kfh kfKk;> fpof;Nf gl;bg;gis (fy;Xah) Mw;iw mLj;J jPfthtpAk; tp[ad;  fhyb (fijapd;gb) vLj;J itg;gjw;F Kd;dNu ,yq;ifapy; tho;e;j G+HtPf Fbfshd ehfH> ,af;fH> ,uhl;rjH MfpNahHfsJ ,uhr;rpaq;fshf tpsq;fpd.   

kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpLk; ,df; FOf;fspy; rpq;fs ,df; FO nry;thf;NfhL tpsq;fp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjdhy; ehsiltpy; vy;yh ,df; FOf;fSf;Fk; ,e;jg; ngaNu #l;lg;gl;L tpl;lJ.  tp[ad; xU fw;gidg; ghj;jpuk; my;y vd;W itj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk; mtd; gTj;jd; my;yd;. Ntj rkaj;jtd;. mtd; Ngrpa nkhopAk; rpq;fsk; my;y. gTj;jk; Njtek;gpa jPrd; (fpK 247) fhyj;jpNyNa ,yq;ifapy; gutpaJ. kfj ehl;il Mz;l mNrhfr; rf;futHj;jpNa ,yq;if cl;gl njw;fhrpah vq;Fk; gTj;jj;ijg; gug;gpdhd;.

kfhtk;r MrpupauJ Guhzf; fijapd; gb tp[ad; thupR ,y;yhky; ,we;j NghJ mtdJ kUkfd; ghz;LthRNjtd; (fpK 444- 413) ,yq;ifapd; murdhf Kb#l;lg;gl;lhd;.

ghz;LthRNjtidj; njhlHe;J mtd; kfd; mgad; (fpK 414-393)murhz;lhd;. mgaDf;Fg; gpd; mtdJ kUkfd; ghz;Lfhgad; (fpK 377-306) Ml;rpf;F te;jhd;.  mtDf;Fg; gpd; mtdJ kfd; %j;jrptd; (fpK 307-246) murhz;lhd;. ,tDf;F 10 Mz; Foe;ijfSk; 2 ngz; Foe;ijfSk; gpwe;jd.

%j;j rptdJ ,uz;lhtJ kfNd Njtek;gpa jPrd; (fpK 247-206) Mthd;. ,tdJ Kb#l;L tpohtpd; NghJ gy mjpraq;fs; ele;jjhfTk; G+kpf;F mbapy; Gije;J fple;j ngUksT nghd;Dk; kzpAk; ntspte;jjhfTk; kfhtk;rk; GSFfpwJ.

NkNy Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy; Njtek;gpa jPrd; Ml;rpapd; NghJjhd; Nguurd; mNrhfd; mDg;gpa kfpe;jd; rq;fkpj;ij ,UtuhYk; gTj;jk; ,yq;ifapy; gutj; njhlq;fpaJ.

kfpe;jd; mNrhfdJ kfd; vdf; $wg;gLtjw;F tuyhw;Wr; rhd;W ,y;iy. ,JTk; xU fw;gidg; ghj;jpuNk. NkYk; kfpe;j Njuiug; ghHj;J 'vt;thW te;jPHfs;' vd;W Njtek;gpa jPrd; Nfl;lNghJ mtH 'ehq;fs; jiutopahfNth ePHtopahfNth tutpy;iy' vd;W gjpy; ,Wj;jhuhk;. mjd; mbg;gilapy; kfpe;j NjuUk; mtNuhL te;jtHfSk; thd; topahf te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd Njtek;gpa jPrd; Cfpj;Jf; nfhz;ljhf kfhtk;r MrpupaH vOjp itj;Js;shH.

Njtek;gpa jPrid kfpe;j NjuH re;jpj;j nghOJ ,UtUk; vd;d nkhopapy; Ngrpf; nfhz;lhHfs; vd;gJ gw;wp kfhtk;rk; kTdk; rhjpf;fpwJ. epr;rakhf mJ rpq;fs nkhopahf ,Uf;f KbahJ. fhuzk; rpq;fs nkhop xU jdp nkhopahf mg;NghJ cUthftpy;iy!

,yq;ifapd; Mjp nkhop vY vd;gJ tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; vy;NyhUk; xj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; cz;ikahFk;. kfpaq;fidg; gFjpapy; tho;e;j ,af;fHfsJ nkhop  vY nkhop MFk;.  ehfHfs; vY nkhopia my;yJ mJNghd;w xU jpuhtpl fyg;G nkhopiag; NgrpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;. vdNt Njtek;gpa jPrd; Ngrpa nkhop jpuhtpl nkhopf; FLk;gj;ijr; NrHe;j nkhopahf ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

vYnkhopia mj;jpthukhff; nfhz;Ljhd; rpq;fs nkhop gpw;fhyj;jpy; (fpgp Kjy; Ehw;whz;L mstpy;) cUthdJ. aho;g;ghzj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; typfhkk;> ky;yhfk;> gwhis Nghd;w nrhw;fs; vY nkhopr; nrhw;fs; MFk;> mit rpq;fs nkhopr; nrhw;fs; my;y.

%j;jrptd; mDuhjGuj;ijj; jiyefuhff; nfhz;L  60 Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;jhd; vd kfhtk;rk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. mtdJ kfd; Njtek;gpa jPrd; 40 Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;jhd; vd;W mNj kfhtk;rk; $WfpwJ.

tp[adJ tUifia Gj;jH epHthzk; mile;j Mz;NlhL kfhtk;r MrpupaH gpd;Df;Fj;  js;spajhy; mtDk;; mtDf;Fg; gpd;dH murhz;ltHfsJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;ij ePl;b vOjpAs;shH. 

kfhtk;rk; Njtek;gpa jPrd; gw;wpAk;  Nguurd; mNrhfd; fhyj;jpy; gutpa gTj;j kjj;ijg; gw;wpAk; mjpfhuk; 11 njhlq;fp 20 tiu tpgupf;fpwJ. Jhu ehLfshd f\;kPuk;  fhe;jhuk; (,d;iwa Mg;fdp];jhd;) Nghd;w gy ehLfspy; tho;e;j kf;fis mNrhfdJ JhJtHfs;  gTj;j kjj;Jf;F khw;wpaJ gw;wp kfhtk;rk; kpFe;j MHtj;NjhLk; kfpo;r;rpNahLk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

Njtek;gpa jPrd; ehfH tk;rj;ij NrHe;jtd;. mtdJ jk;gpAk; mtDf;Fg; gpd; Ml;rpf; fl;by; Vw ,Ue;j ,sturdpd; ngaH kfhehfd;. jdJ fztd; Njtek;gpa jPrdpd; kiwTf;Fg; gpwF jdJ kfd; ehlhs Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpa gl;lj;jurp  kfhehfDf;F eQ;R fye;j khk;goj;ij cz;zf; nfhLj;J mtidf; nfhy;yr; rjp nra;fpwhs;. Mdhy; vjpHghuhj tpjkhf me;j khk;goj;ij mtsJ Foe;ij rhg;gpl;L ,we;J tpLfpwJ.

kfhehfd; jd;idf; nfhiy nra;a murpahH vLj;j Kaw;rp Njhy;tp mile;jhYk; capUf;Fg; gae;J jdJ kidtpaH> gps;isfs;> Rw;wj;jhH MfpNahNuhL cNuhfzj;Jf;F (,d;iwa mk;ghe;Njhl;il) Xb xspe;J nfhz;lhd;. gpd;dH mq;F xU muir epWtp Ml;rp nra;jhd;. mJ kfhfkk; vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. ,J ,d;iwa tst fq;if khzpf;f fq;if ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l gpuNjrkhFk;. 

Njtek;gpa jPrDf;Fg; gpwF 31 Mz;Lfs; mtdJ cld; gpwg;Gf;fs; xUtH gpd; xUtuhf mDuhjGuj;ij jiyefuhff; nfhz;L Mz;lhHfs;.

cjpad; (Njtek;gpa jPrdpd; cld;gpwg;G) (fpK 207-196)

kfhrptd; (Njtek;gpa jPrdpd; cld; gpwg;G) (fpK 197-186)

#uj;jPrd; (Njtek;gpa jPrdpd; cld; gpwg;G)  (fpK 187-176)

Nrdd;> Fl;bad; (fpK 177-154)

mNryd; (fpK 155-144)

vy;yhsd; (fpK 145-100)

NkNy Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s murHfspy; Nrdd; kw;Wk; Fl;bad; ,UtUk; Fjpiu thzpfk; nra;a te;j jkpoHfs; (njkpyh];) vd;Wk; vy;yhsd; Nrhoehl;L caH Fbapy; gpwe;j jkpod; vd;Wk; kfhtk;rk; rpj;jpupf;fpwJ.

,J kfhtk;r MrpupaH fhyj;jpy; (6 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) gTj;j kjj;ijj; jOtpa ehfHfis Ntj rkaj;jtuhd jkpoHfsplk; ,Ue;J gpupj;J NtW ,dj;jtuhfg; ghHf;Fk; Nghf;Fj; njhlq;fptpl;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

jkpoHfis rpq;fsj;jpy; njkpyh]; vd;W Fwpg;gpLtJ ,ope;j nghUspy; nrhy;tjhFk;. jpuhtpl vd;W Fwpg;gpLtNj caHe;j nghUspy; $WtjhfTk;. kfhtk;r MrpupaH ,ope;j nghUs; jUk; njkpyh]; vd;w nrhy;iyNa jkpoHfis Fwpf;f Ehy; KOJk; ifahs;fpwhH.

cNuhfzj;ij Mz;l kfhehfDf;Fg; gpd;dH mtdJ kfd; aj;jya jPrd; Ml;rpf;F te;jhd;. jdJ ngupa je;ijapd; (Njtek;gpa jPrd;) epidthfNt jPrd; vd;w milnkhopia kfhehfd; jdJ gps;isf;Fg; ngaH itj;jhd; vd kfhtk;rk; $WfpWJ.  aj;jya jPrd; kfd; mgad; Mthd;.

mgad; ,we;jgpd; ,sturdhf ,Ue;j fhf;iftz;z jPrd; Ml;rpf;F te;jhd;. fhf;iftz;z jPrd; fy;ahzpia (Kw; fhyj;jpy; fsdp MW fy;ahzp vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ.) Mz;l  jPrd; vd;w ehfH tk;r murdJ Gjy;tp tpfhuNjtpia kzk; nra;J nfhz;lhd;.

jPrDf;F ma;ah cj;jpfd; vd;w cld;gpwg;G ,Ue;jhd;. mtDf;Fk; jPrdpd; murpahHf;Fk; cwT ,Ue;jJ. ,jdhy; jPrd; Nfhgk; nfhz;lhd;. mtdJ Nfhgj;jpy; ,Ue;J jg;Gtjw;fhf cj;jpfd; jiyefiutpl;L Xbtpl;lhd;.

Mdhy; murpahH gw;wpa mtdJ epidg;G kl;Lk; xopatpy;iy. jdf;F Ntz;ba xUtdplk; xU ke;jpu (,ufrpa) Xiyiaf; nfhLj;J gTj;j gpf;F Ntlj;jpy; murpahuplk; mDg;gp itj;jhd;. mtd; NghFk; NghJ tof;fkhf muz;kidapy;  cztUe;jg; NghFk; gpf;FTk; cs; Eioe;jhH. murNdhL xd;whf ,Ue;J cztUe;jp tpl;L vOk;NghJ murpahH ghHf;FkhW gpf;F Ntlj;jpy; ,Ue;jtd; Xiyia nky;y jiuapy; Nghl;lhd;.  Mdhy; vjpHghuhj tpjkhf Xiy tpOe;j Xiriaf; Nfl;Lj; jpUk;gpa murd; mijg; ghHj;J tpLfpwhd;. Xiyia vLj;Jg; gbj;j murd; fLk; Nfhgk; milfpwhd;.  KbT Nghyp gpf;FitAk;  mry; gpf;FitAk; ntl;bf; nfhd;W mtHfs; cly;fis flypy; vwpAkhW murd; cj;jutpl;lhd;.

xU gTj;j NjuH nfhy;yg;gl;lijg; ghHj;J fly; nja;tq;fs; Rk;kh ,Uf;Fkh? Mopg; Nguiyfs; ehl;Lf;Fs; GFe;J mopit Vw;gLj;jpd. kd;dd; mtru mtrukhf jdJ kfs; Njtpia xU jq;fg; ngl;bapy; itj;J mjd; kPJ ",ts; xU murFkhup' vd;W vOjp mNj flypy; tpl;lhd;.

me;jg; ngl;b nrhy;yp itj;jhy; Ngha; ,yq;fh tpfhiuiar; nrd;wile;jJ. mijf; fz;nlLj;j fhf;iftz;z jPrd; Njtpia jpUkzk; nra;J jdJ gl;lj;jurp Mf;fpf; nfhz;lhd;. mtsJ ngaUk; tpfhuNjtp vd khw;wk; ngw;wJ.

tpfhuNjtp Mapuf;fzf;fhd gTj;j NjuHfSf;F jhd jUkk; nra;jhs;. kjpa czit cl;nfhs;Stjw;F Kd;dH NjuHfSf;F mKJ gilj;jhs;. mjd; gpd; mtHfSf;F thrdhjp jputpaq;fs;> kyHfs;> Jzpkzpfs; toq;fp tzq;fpdhd;. ,g;gbj; jhd jUkk; nra;Jk; Foe;ijg; ghf;fpak; murpahUf;Ff; fpl;ltpy;iy. mtSf;F mJ ngupa ftiyahf ,Ue;jJ.

xUehs; mts; jdJ kdf; Fiwia jiyikj; Njuuplk; njuptpj;jhs;. jiyikj; NjuuJ Nahridapd;gb rhtpd; tpopk;gpy; ,Ue;j ,d;ndhU Njuiug; Ngha;g; ghHj;Jg; nghd;Dk; nghUSk; nfhLj;J tzq;fpdhs;. NjuH kdk; ,uq;fp kPz;Lk; cyfpy; gpwf;f Mirg; gl;lhH. mJTk; mur Fyj;jpy; gpwf;f Mirg;gl;lhH. mt;thNw mtH ,we;j NghJ murpahupd; fUg;igapy; kW gpwtp vLj;jhH!

,t;thW murpf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ijjhd; fhkpdp vd;w Jl;lifKD.  jkpoHfNshL NghHGupa khl;Nld; vd;W je;ijf;F thf;FWjp nfhLf;f kWj;J mtUf;F ngz;fspd; Nriyia mDg;gp itj;jjhy; Jl;lfhkpdp vd;w ngauhy; miof;fg;gl;lhd;. Jl;ld; vd;why; Nfhgf;fhud; vd kfhtk;rk; nghUs; nfhs;fpwJ.

,t;thW kfhtk;r MrpupaH jdJ Guhzf; fijia tsHj;Jf; nfhz;L nry;fpwhH.

Mdhy; ,e;jf; fijapd; Clhf xU ngupa cz;ik njupfpwJ. Jl;lifKD jha; topapYk; je;ij topapYk; ehfH tk;rj;ijr; NrHe;jtd; vd;gNj me;jg; ngupa cz;ikahFk;.

mLj;j fpoik vy;yhsDf;F vjpuhfg; gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;w Jl;lifKD cNuhfzj;Jf;Fk; mDuhjGuj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; KbNahLk; gilNahLk; Ml;rp nra;j 32 jkpo; rpw;wurHfis ntw;wp nfhz;l fijiag; gbg;Nghk;. (gazk; njhlUk;)

 

 


 

td;dpr; nryT (26)

kfhtk;r kdg;Nghf;F (Mahavamsa Mind-Set) 

ef;fPud;

Jl;lifKD Gj;j jHkj;Jf;F Gfo; Njbj;juj; jdJ gilfs; rfpjk; fq;ifiaf; (kfhtyp) fle;J jkpoHfNshL NghH Gupag; Gwg;gl;lhd;. mtdJ if <l;bapd; Kidapy; (Gj;jupd;) jpUr;rpd;dk; nghwpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. mtdJ ghJfhg;Gf;Fj;  Jizahf Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd gTj;j NjuHfSk; cld; nrd;wdH.

ifKD kfpaq;fidg; gFjpia Mz;l  rhj;jd; vd;w jkpourid thSf;F ,iuahf;fpdhd;.

mLj;J mk;gjpj;jfk; ( gpd;jidf;F fpl;ba njhiytpy; cs;sJ) gFjpia Mz;l jkpo; murdhd jpj;jk;gNdhL MW khj fhyk; Nghupl;L mtidj; je;jpuk; nra;J ntd;whd;. ifKD jd;Dila jhapd; Nkdp moiff; fhl;bAk; mtDf;F mtis kzk; Kbj;Jj; jUtjhfr; nrhy;ypAk; Vkhw;wpajhf kfhtk;rk; njuptpf;fpwJ.

njhlHe;J Mw;wpd; fiuNahukhfr; nrd;w ifKDtpd; gil xNu ehspy; 7 jkpourHfisj; Njhw;fbj;jJ. nfhs;isabf;fg;gl;l nghUl;fs; ifKDtpd; gilapdUf;F gfpHe;J mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; me;j ,lj;Jf;F N`kuhk vdg; ngauplg;gl;lJ.

mLj;J me;jhuNrhgtpy; kfhNfhl;ld; Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lhd;. njhlHe;J Njhdfthuh> `ynfhy ,];ruhah> eypNrhg ehypf> jpfghahit Mz;l jpfghad;> ehd;F khjj;jpy; fr;rjPjhtpia  Mz;l  fg;gpjPrd;> nfhj;jefupy; Nfhl;ld;> thfpj;jhit Mz;l mytfehfd;>  tfpj;jtpy;iy Mz;l jkpodhd thfpj;jd;> fhkpdpapy; fhkpdp> Fk;gfktpy; Fk;gfd;> ee;jpfkhtpy; ee;jpfd;> fhDfktpy; fhDgd;> jk;ghtpy; jk;gd;> cz;zkpy; cz;zkd;> (,tHfs; KiwNa khkDk; kUkfDk;) [k;G Nghd;w jkpo; murHfs; ifKDtpdhy; Njhw;fbf;fg; gl;ldH. ifg;gw;wg;gl;l CHfSf;F ifKDtpd; gilj; jsgjpfsJ ngaH #l;lg;gl;lJ.

,e;j ntw;wpfSf;Fg; gpd;dH ifKD ',uhr;rpaq;fisg; gpbf;f my;y ehd; NghH njhLj;jJ. Gj;jupd; jHkj;ij epiy ehl;lNt ehd; NghH nra;Njd;. ,JNt cz;ik vd;gij vz;gpf;f vdJ gilapdupd; Nkdp jPapd; epwj;ij vLf;fl;Lk;' vd #Siuj;jhf kfhtk;rk; njuptpf;fpwJ.  (kfhtk;rk; - mjpfhuk; 25)

jkpoHfNshlhd filrp Aj;jk; tp[aefuj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;wJ.

kfhtk;rk; ifKD gilapy; jkpoUk; vy;yhsd; gilapy; rpq;fstUk; ,Ue;jij kiwKfkhff; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. ifKDtpd; gilj; jsgjpfspy; ee;jkpj;jd; NtYRkzd; ,UtUk; jkpoHfshtH. vy;yhsd; gilapy; jpfh[e;J vd;w gilj;jsgjp ,Ue;jhd;.

vdNt vy;yhsd;- Jl;lifKD ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilapyhd NghH Ml;rpf; fl;bYf;fhd NghNu my;yhJ kfhtk;rk; rpj;jpupg;gJ Nghy jkpoH-rpq;fstH NghH my;y. ifKD fhyk; rpq;fstH vd;w ,d milahsk; cUthfhj fhyk;.

Mdhy; kfhtk;rk; 'Gd;newp' (false beliefs ) nfhz;ltHfsplk; ,Ue;J njd;gFjpia Mz;l gTj;j ,sturd; Jl;lifKD vy;yhsid ntd;W ,yq;if KOtijAk; xU Filf;Fs; nfhz;L te;jhd; vdf; $Wfpd;wJ.

cz;ikapy; Jl;lifKD njd;gFjp KOtijAk; Mstpy;iy vd;gij mtd; mDuhjGuk; nry;Yk; topapy; vjpHg;gl;l 32 jkpo;r; rpw;wurHfNshL NghH Gupe;J nty;y Ntz;b ,Ue;jJ vd mNj kfhtk;rk; njuptpf;fpwJ.

,q;F NtnwhU cz;ikiaAk; Nehf;f Ntz;Lk;. tp[adJ tUiff;F (fpK 483) Kd;dH ,yq;ifapy; kdpjHfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy>  ,af;fHfSk; ,uhl;rjHfSk; kl;LNk ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;W $Wk; kfhtk;rk; Jl;lifKD fhyj;jpy; (fpK 101-77) kfpaq;fid njhlq;fp mDuhjGuk; <whf ,Ue;j epyj;ij jkpourHfs; Mz;lhHfs; vdf; $WfpwJ.

Jl;lifKDTf;Fg; gpd;dUk; mDuhjGuj;jpy; ,Ue;J mLj;j 1>000 Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;jtHfspy; gyH jPrd; my;yJ ehfd; vd;w milnkhopg; ngaHfNshL Mz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. ,tHfs; ehfH tk;rj;jpdNu vd;gij mtHfsJ ngaHfs; fhl;Lfpd;wd. gpw;fhyj;jpy;jhd; mtHfs; jq;fs; milahsj;ij ,oe;J rpq;fstHfshf khwpdhHfs;.

vy;yhsidg; Gwk;fz;l Jl;l ifKD jd; muz;kidapy; ,Ue;jthW Nghupdhy; Vw;gl;l capuopTfis vz;zp ftiyapy; %o;fp ,Ue;jhd;. ,jidf; Nfl;lwpe;j gTj;j NjuHfs; muz;kid Vfp mtidr; re;jpf;fpwhHfs;.

Jl;lifKD mtHfis tuNtw;W> topghL nra;J ,Uf;iffspy; mkUkhW $wpa gpd;dH mtHfs; te;j fhuzj;ijf; Nfl;fpwhd;.

'muNr ehq;fs; cq;fSf;F MWjy; nrhy;y gTj;j rq;fj;jpd; gPlj;jpdhy;  mDg;gg; gl;Ls;Nshk;'

'tzf;fj;Jf;Fupa NjuHfNs! vdf;F vt;thW kd MWjy; fpilf;Fk;? ehd; NghHf;fsj;jpy; gy ,yl;rk;  Ngiuf; nfhd;W Ftpj;Js;NsNd?'

'muNr! ePq;fs; nrhHf;fk; GFtjw;F Nghupdhy; Vw;gl;l capupog;G ve;j tpjj;jpYk;  jilahf ,Uf;fhJ! NghHf; fsj;jpy; xd;wiu kdpjHfNs nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;! 

xUtH Kk;kzpfspy; ruz; mile;jtH. kw;wtH gQ;r rPyj;ij kl;Lk; mDl;bj;j  miu kdpjH. vQ;rpNahH ek;gpf;if<dHfs;. NfL nfl;ltHfs;. ,tHfs; tpyq;Ffistpl Nkyhf kjpf;ff; $batHfs; (Unbelievers and men of evil life were the rest,  not more to be esteemed than beasts) my;yH! Mdhy;  cq;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; muNr! ePq;fs; Gj;jupd; jHkj;Jf;F gytpjj;jpYk; Gfo; Njbj;ju Ntz;batH. vdNt cq;fs; cs;sj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ftiy midj;ijAk; xopj;J tpLq;fs;!'

kfhtk;rj;jpd; fjhehafd; Jl;l ifKDTk; mjw;Fg; gpe;jpa #stk;rj;jpd; fjhehafd; jhJNrdDk; gTj;jj;Jf;Fupa me;j];ij  kPz;Lk; epiyehl;l jkpoUf;F vjpuhfg; NghH Gupe;jhHfs; vd tHzpf;fg;gLfpwhHfs;. 

kfhtk;rk; vd;w Ehiy kfhehk NjuH ghsp nkhopapy; vOjpdhH vd;gJ njupe;jNj. gTj;j NjuHfspd; rka nkhopahf kl;Lk; tpsq;fpa ghsp nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l me;j Ehy; rhjhuz nghJkf;fisr; nrd;wilatpy;iy.

ghsp nkhopapy; ,Ue;j kfhtk;r Ehiy Kjd; Kjyhf Turnour vd;gtH Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopngaHj;J 1987 Mk; Mz;L gjpj;J ntspapl;lhH. gpd;dH KjypahH vy;.rp. tp[arpq;fh vd;gtH mjid 1989 Mz;L kWgjpg;Gr; nra;J
ntspapl;lhH.  NguhrpupaH
Wilhelm Geiger vd;gtH n[Hkhdpa nkhopapy; nkhop ngaHj;jhH. me;j nkhopngaHg;ig ghsp tpsf;fTiu rq;fk;  (Pali Text Society ) 1908 Mk; Mz;L gjpj;J ntspapl;lJ. gpd;dH mjid jpUkjp Bode vd;gtH Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhop ngaHj;jhH.

kfhtk;rk; nkhopngaHg;G ntspte;j gpd;dNu gTj;j rpq;fs Njrpa czHT nky;y nky;y rpq;fs mwpTg; gpiog;ghsH kw;Wk; Nky; jl;L rpq;fstH kj;jpapy; Nt&d;wj; njhlq;fpaJ. ,jd; tpisthf 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; ,Wjpf; fl;lj;jpy; ,yq;ifapy; md;dpa Ml;rpahsuJ Mjpf;fj;jpdhy; rpq;fs r%f gz;ghl;Lj; jsq;fspy; Vw;gl;l khw;wq;fis vjpHj;J rpq;fs Njrpathjpfs; Fuy; nfhLf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;.  rpq;fs gTj;j Njrpaj;Jf;F Gj;JapH nfhLg;gjd; %yk; rpq;fstHfsJ ghuk;gupakhd nkhop> rkak;> gz;ghL Mfpatw;wpd; jdpj;Jtij;ijAk; jd;khdj;ijAk; epiyehl;l ,tHfs; Kad;whHfs;.

,e;j vjpHg;GzHTfSf;F mikg;G tbtk; nfhLf;Fk; nghUl;L 1880 Mk; Mz;L gTj;j ,iwQhd rq;fk; (Buddhist Theosophical Society) njhlq;fg;gl;lJ. gTj;j fy;tpia gug;GtNj ,e;j rq;fj;jpd; Nehf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. gTj;j rpq;fs ghuk;gupa mbg;gilapy; muR mika Ntz;Lk; vdTk; ,e;jr; rq;fk; tpUk;gpaJ. 

gTj;j rpq;fs Njrpa ,af;fj;jpw;Fj; jiyik jhq;fpa gyupy; Nltpl; N`ttpj;jhud vd;Dk; ,aw;ngaH nfhz;l mefhupf jHkghyh Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftH. nry;tf; Fbapy; gpwe;j (fpgp 1864) ,tH Nkiy ehl;L fy;tp gz;ghl;ilf; iftpl;L gTj;j jHkj;jpd; ghJfhtyH vdg; nghUs; Fwpf;Fk; jHkghyh vd;w ngaiur; #l;bf; nfhz;lNjhL gTj;j rq;fj;jpy; xU NjuuhfTk; NrHe;J nfhz;lhH.

gTj;j rpq;fs kf;fSf;F mefhupf jHkghyh gTj;j rpq;fs Njrpaj;jpd; jiytuhfTk;> jd;dykw;w NjrpathjpahfTk;> rpq;fs gTj;j kWkyHr;rp ,af;fj;jpd; rpd;dkhfTk; Njhw;wkspj;jhH.

Mq;fpy Ml;rpf;F vjpuhd mefhupf jHkghyh jiyikapyhd Nghuhl;lk; fhyg; Nghf;fpy;  jkpoH - K];ypk;fs; Mfpa r%fj;jpdUf;F vjpuhd vjpHg;G ,af;fkhf tbtk; nfhz;lJ.

,jd; tpisthf ,yq;if gTj;j rpq;fstUf;Nf nrhe;jkhdJ jkpoH- K];ypk;fs; te;NjW Fbfs; vd;w fUj;jpay; tYg; ngw;wJ. mjid cWjp nra;Ak; nghUl;L rpq;fs gTj;jHfisf; Fwpf;f 'rpq;fsgTj;jha' vd;w GJr; nrhy;iy mefhupf jHkghyh cUthf;fpdhH.

,yq;if Rje;jpuk; ngw;w gpd;dH Ml;rpf;F te;jtHfs; ,yq;if gTj;j rpq;fstHfSf;F kl;LNk nrhe;jkhdJ> jkpoHfs; md;dpaH vd;w kfhtk;rf; Nfhl;ghl;il kPs;thrpg;Gr; nra;j mefhupf jHkghyuJ rPlHfshfNt tpsq;fp tUfpwhHfs;.

b.v];. Nrdehaf;fh Kjy; ehlhSkd;wj;jpy; nfhz;Lte;J epiwNtw;wpa FbAupikr; rl;lk; (1948) NjHjy; jpUj;jr; rl;lk; (1949)> jkpoupd; ghuk;giug; G+kpapy; jpl;lkpl;l gl;bg;gis (fy; Xah)> my;iy-fe;jsha; rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wj; jpl;lq;fs;>   v];.lGs;A+.MH.b. gz;lhuehaf;f nfhz;L te;j rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;lk; (1956);> jpUkjp gz;lhuehaf;fhtpd; jug;gLj;jy; (1972)> N[.MH. n[atHj;jdhtpd; gTj;j kjj;Jf;F mur me;j];J nfhLf;Fk; murpay; ahg;G (1978) mefhupf jHkghyupd; 'kfhtk;r kdg;Nghf;if' (Mahavamsa mind-set ) xl;b Ml;rpahsHfs; njhlHr;rpahf vLj;j murpay; eltbf;iffshFk;.

mz;ikf; fhykhf mk;ghiu khtl;lj;jpy; Rdhkp moptpd; gpd;dH gTj;j rpq;fstHfs; Gj;jupd; rpiyfis Gjpjhf epWtp tUfpwhHfs;. mjw;F K];ypk; fhq;fpu]; jiytH uht; `f;fPk; ehlhSkd;wj;jpy; vjpHg;Gj; njuptpj;jhH. mjw;Fg; gjpy; mspj;Jg; Ngrpa n`y cUka jiytH Nrhgpj NjuH 'Gj;jH rpiyia epWt gTj;jHfshfpa ehq;fs; ahUila xg;GjiyAk; ngw Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy. =yq;fhtpd; xt;nthU mq;Fy epyKk; gTj;jHfshfpa vq;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ........' vdg; gjpy; ,Wj;jhH. ,JTk; kfhtk;r kdg;Nghf;fpd; xU ntspg;ghlhFk;.

=yq;fhtpd; rkfhy murpaiy Ma;T nra;gtHfs; ,e;j kfhtk;r kdg;Nghf;fpd; gpd;dzpapy; my;yJ mjd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; mjidr; nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

'rpq;fs fpuhk kf;fs; ey;ytHfs;. mtHfisr; rpq;fs murpay;thjpfs;jhd; gpioahf top elj;JfpwhHfs;' vd;w rpy jkpoHfs; ek;GfpwhHfs;. ,e;j ek;gpf;if jtwhdJ. rpq;fs ,yf;fpaq;fs;> ehNlhbg; ghly;fs; jkpoHfis rpq;fstHfsJ guk itupfshfNt rpj;jpupf;fpd;wd. mjpy; rpq;fs fpuhk kf;fs; Cwpg;Ngha; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

kiwe;j khkdpjH rptuhk; (juhf;fp) rpq;fs gTj;jj;ijg; Gupe;J nfhs;tJ Ngr;RthHj;ijf;F mtrpak; vd;w jiyg;gpy; tPuNfrup thuntspaPl;by; (24-10-2004) mUikahd Ma;Tf; fl;Liu xd;iw vOjpapUe;jhH. xt;nthU jkpo;j; NjrpathjpAk; vOj;njz;zp me;jf; fl;Liuiag; gbj;Jr; nrupf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ vdJ tpUg;gk;. mjpy; ,Ue;J rpy Kf;fpa gFjpfis kl;Lk; fPNo jUfpNwd;. 

1) rpq;fs Njrpaj;jpd; gphpf;fKbahj mk;rk; ngsj;j kjkhFk;. rpq;fs milahsj;jpd; tbtk;> tuyhW> r%f cstpay; vd midj;JNk VNjhnthUtifapy; ,yq;ifapd; Njuthj ngsj;jj;NjhL gpd;dpg; gpize;jitahfNt fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  

2) Kjypy; vOjg;gl;l jPgtk;rk;> mijnahl;bg; gpd;te;j k`htk;rk;> #stk;rk;> uh[thspa vd rpq;fs milahsj;jpd; Cw;W%yq;fshf cs;s midj;Jk; ngsj;j gpf;Ffshy; ,yq;ifj; jPtpy; Njuthj ngsj;jj;jpd; murpay; Nkyhz;ik fUjp cUthf;fg;gl;litahFk;. ,itapd;wp rpq;fs Njrpakpy;iy. Vd;? rpq;fsk; vd;w ,dg;ngahpd; Njhw;Wthahd tp[ad; fijNa ,y;iy.  

3) rpq;fs Njrpaj;ijAk; ,yq;ifapd; Njuthj ngsj;j gPlq;fspd; murpay; Nkyhz;ikf; fyhrhuj;ijAk; gphpj;Jg; ghHj;jpl KbahJ vd ehd; fUJfpNwd;.   

4) ,yq;if ngsj;jj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fshf ,uz;L tplaq;fs; tuyhw;wpy; njhlHr;rpahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. xd;W> ngsj;j jHkj;ijf; fhg;ghw;wpg; NgZtjw;fhd tpNrl ,lkhf ,yq;ifj; jPT Gj;jgfthdhy; MrpHtjpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w ek;gpf;if. ,uz;L> ngsj;j murpay; Nkyhz;ikf;Fk; rpq;fs Njrj;jpd; ,Ug;gpw;Fk; jkpoNu ngUk; mr;RWj;jy; vd;w vz;zk;. (gazk; njhlUk;)