xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;!

ef;fPud;

(1) 

,d;W cyfpy; Ngrg;gLk; Ie;J njhd;ikahd nkhopfspy; vq;fs; jha; nkhopahd jkpo; nkhopAk; xd;whFk;. ,e;jpaj; Jizf; fz;lj;jpy;  toq;Fk; nkhopfspy;  jkpo; nkhopkl;LNk  ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fzr; rpwg;NghL tpsq;FfpwJ.  ,r;rpwg;gpd; fhuzkhf jkpo;nkhop caHjdpr; nrk;nkhop vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. jkpo;nkhop NghyNt tlnkhopf;F   ,yf;fpa-,yf;fzr; rpwg;gpUe;Jk; mJ fpwpj;J rfhg;jj;jpw;F Kd;dNu Ngr;R tof;if ,oe;J tpl;lJ.  

nrk;nkhop vd;why; nrk;ikahd> jpUj;jkhd nkhop vdg; nghUs;gLk;. jkpo;nkhop Vidagy nkhopfs;Nghy; mope;njhopahJ my;yJ Ngr;R tof;F ,of;fhJ rPupsikNahL> thdk;mse;j midj;Jk; mse;J>  Vo;fly; itg;gpDk; jd; kzk; tPrp>  vj;jpirAk; ,ir nfhz;L> thdk; mwpe;j midj;Jk; mwpe;J> Gfo;kzf;ff; nfhY tPw;wpUf;fpwJ. ,jw;;Ff;fhuzk; mjd; ,Wf;fkhd ,yf;fzf; fl;likg;Gf;fNs. 

jkpo;nkhopapy; ,d;W fhzg;gLk; Ehy;fspy; kpfg; gioikahdJ njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpak; vDk; ,yf;fz Ehy; MFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpou; jk; nkhop> ,yf;fpak;> ,yf;fzk; gw;wp kl;Lk;  my;yhJ jkpoupd; mftho;T> Gwtho;T> fiy> gz;ghL> ehfupfk; Nghd;wtw;iwAk;  vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; xU rpwe;j tuyhw;W EhYkhFk;. 

njhy;fhg;;gpak; ,aw;wg;gl;l fhyk; vJntd;W mwpjpapl;Lr; nrhy;yKbahJ ,Uf;fpd;wJ. fp.K. Ie;J Ehw;whz;L goikahdJ vd;gJ mwpQHfs; nghJthf xj;Jf;nfhz;l my;yJ xg;Gf;nfhz;l   fUj;jhFk;. ,jidtplj; njhy;fhg;gpak; goikahdJ> Kjy;> ,il> filr; rq;fq;fspy; njhy;fhg;gpak; ,ilr; rq;;fj;ij rhHe;j Ehy; vd;W $WthUk; csH. 

vJ vg;gb ,Ug;gpDk; njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpo;kf;fspd; kpfg; goikahd xU r%ff; fl;likigg; glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhy; mJ cz;ikapNyNa xU njhd;ikahd Ehy; vd;gjpy; vJtpj IaKk; ,y;iy.  

njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpa fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpa nkhopfspNyh> NtW ve;j cyf nkhopfspNyh mJNghd;w xU ,yf;fz Ehy; Njhd;wtpy;iy vd;W Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;. 

gpwnkhopAk;> gpwgz;ghLk; jkpo; nkhopNahLk; jkpo;g; gz;ghNlhLk; cwTnfhs;sj; njhlq;fpa fhyj;jpy;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpapUf;fpwJ. jkpo; nkhopapd; jdpj;jd;ikfisAk;> jkpo; kf;fsJ gz;ghl;bd; jdpj; jd;ikfisAk; ghJfhj;J  mtw;wpw;F NtypNghlTk;> gpwnkhopahsHfSk;> gpwgz;ghl;lhsHfSk; jkpo;nkhopiag;gw;wpAk;> jkpo;kf;fsJ gz;ghl;ilg; gw;wpAk; mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpYk; njhy;fhg;gpak; cUthf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;yyhk;.  

vs;spy; ,Ue;J vz;nza; gpwg;gJ Nghy; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj ,yf;fzk; gpwf;Fk;. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F Kd;dH Vuhskhd  ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; jkpo; nkhopapy; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ GydhfpwJ. 

NguhrpupaH nj.ngh. kPdhl;rpRe;judhH ,e;j cz;ikiag; gpd;tUkhW vLj;J ,ak;GthH:  

Tholhappiyam is a book on phonology, grammar and poetics. Therefore, it implies the prior existence of Thamizh literature.

There is a distinction made therein between literary language and colloquial or non-literary language- ceyyuL and valaKku,

thus implying certain literary conventions not only in grammatical forms but also in literary forms and subject matter? 

njhy;fhg;gpaNu jdJ Ehw;ghf;fspy; $wg;gLk; tpjpfSf;Fj; jdf;F Kd;dH ,Ue;J Ehy;nra;j GytHfsJ $w;Wf;fisr; rhd;whff; fhl;LthH.  ,g;gbj; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; Vwj;jho260 ,lq;fspy;  Kd;ida GytHfsJ ,yf;fz  newpfisNa jhd; vLj;Jiug;gjhff; njhy;fhg;gpaH kpf mlf;fj;NjhL $WthH. 

vd;g>

vd;kdhH GytH>

nkhopg

ahg;ngd nkhopg ahg;gwp GytH

Njhnyd nkhopg njhd;nkhopg; GytH

,ay;G czHe;NjhNu

vd;g Fwpawpe;NjhNu 

vd;W Ehypd; ,ilapilNa gutyhf mtH Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. NkYk; njhy;fhg;gpaH "ehlf tof;fpDk; cyfpay; tof;fpDk;> ghly; rhd;w Gynewp tof;fpDk;" vd;W jkf;F Kw;gl;l ,yf;fpa kuigf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,jdhy; mtUf;F Kd;Ng ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; jkpopy; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ vjd;gij mWjpapl;Lf; $wyhk;.   

njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w nrhy;   Ehiyf; Fwpf;Fk; NghJ xU nrhy;yhf ,Ue;jhYk;> nghUis tpsf;Fk; NghJ mijj; njhy; rf fhg;G rf ,ak; vdg;   gpupj;Jg; nghUs; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. njhy; vd;why; goik - goikia> jkpoupd; njhd;ikiaf; fhj;J ,ak;Gk; Ehy;vd;W nghUs;gLk;. 

njhy;fhg;gpad; vd;w ngaH Gidngauhfj;jhd; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij vOjpajhy; njhy;fhg;gpad; vd;W ngaH ngw;whH vd;W njupfpwJ. 

njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpw;F ghapuk; ghba gdk;ghudhH vd;w GytH- 

    tlNtq;flk; njd;Fkup Mapil

    jkpo;$Wk; ey; cyfj;J>

    tof;Fk; nra;ASk; MapU Kjypd;

    vOj;Jk; nrhy;Yk; nghUSk; ehb>

    nre;jkpo; ,aw;if rptzpa epyj;NjhL

    Ke;J Ehy; fz;L> Kiwg;gl vz;zp

    Gyk; njhFj;NjhNd--Nghf;F mW gDty;

    epyk; jU jpUtpd; ghz;bad; mitaj;J

    mwk; fiu ehtpd; ehd; kiw Kw;wpa

    mjq;Nfhl;L Mrhw;F mupy; jgj; njupe;J

    kaq;fh kugpd; vOj;J Kiwfhl;b>

    ky;F ePH tiug;gpd; Ie;jpuk; epiwe;j

    njhy;fhg;gpad; vdj; jd; ngaH Njhw;wp>

    gy; Gfo; epWj;j gbikNahNd""

 

"vdj; jd; ngaH Njhw;wp" vd;gjhy;  "njhy;fhg;gpad; vdg; ngaH itj;Jf; nfhz;lhH" vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.  

,e;jg; ghapuk; %yNk gz;ila jkpofj;jpd; vy;iy tlf;Nf Ntq;flk; vd;gJk; (,d;iwa Me;jpu khepyj;jpy; cs;s jpUg;gjp) njw;Nf Fkup  vd;gJk;> njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; MrpupaH njhy;fhg;gpadhH vd;gJk;> njhy;fhg;gpak; muq;Nfwpa ,lk; epye;jU jpUtpw; ghz;bad; mit vd;gJk;>  me;j mitf;Fj; jiyikjhq;fpa GytH mjq;Nfhl;lhrhd; vd;gJk; njhy;fhg;gpaH mtH fhyj;J toq;fpa Ie;jpu newpiag; gpd;gw;wpj;  njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij ,aw;wpdhH vd;gJk; njupatUfpwJ. (tsUk;).

 


 

xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;!

  (2) 

njhy;fhg;gpak; topEhy; vd;Wk; mjd; Kjy; Ehy; mfj;jpak; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLtJ cz;lhapDk; mjw;F Kd;dH nrhd;d ghapuj;jpNyh my;yJ njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpNyh rhd;Wfs; ,y;iy. 

mfj;jpak; ,d;W mope;Jgl;L tpl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; mfj;jpak; vd;w ,yf;fz Ehy; Kjw;rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jjw;Fk;> mJ ,ay;> ,ir> ehlfk; vd;w Kj;jkpOf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; fz;ljw;Fk; Gwr; rhd;Wfs; cs. ,iwadhufg; nghUSiu mfj;jpaH Kjw;rq;fj;J jiyikg; Gytnud;Wk;> jiyr;rq;fj;jhUf;F  mfj;jpaNk  Kjy;Ehyhf ,Ue;jnjd;Wk;> ,ilr;rq;fj;jhUf;F mfj;jpaKk;  njhy;fhg;gpaKk;  ,yf;fz Ehy;fshf ,Ue;jnjdTk; njuptpf;fpd;wJ.  

,yf;fz ciuahrpupaHfSk; mfj;jpak; Kjy;Ehy;> njhy;fhg;gpak; mjd; topEhy; vd;Wk;> mfj;jpaH njhy;fhg;gpaupd; MrpupaH vd;Wk; jj;jk; ciufspy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shHfs;.  

mfj;jpak; gd;dPuhapuk; R+j;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;l Ehy; vd;gH. ,jdhy; ,jw;F Ngufj;jpak; vd;w fhuzg; ngaUk; cz;lhfpw;W.  

njhy;fhg;gpak;> ed;Dhy;> rpyg;gjpfhuk;> rPtfrpe;jhkzp ciuahrpupaHfs; mfj;jpa Ehw;ghf;fis Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b ciu nra;Js;shHfs;. ,g;gb Nkw;Nfhs;fhl;b vOjpa nkhj;jk; 26 Ehw;ghf;fs; kl;Lk; ,d;W fpilj;Js;sd. 

njhy;fhg;gpak;  vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; vd %d;W mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. xt;nthU mjpfhuKk; KiwNa xd;gJ ,ay;fisf; nfhz;lJ. nkhj;jk; 1>610 Ehw;ghf;fis cs;slf;fpaJ.  

nghUsjpfhuk;  NtW ve;j cyfnkhop ,yf;fzq;fspy; fhzg;glhj rpwg;gpyf;fzkhFk;. Vida ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; vOj;J> nrhy; ,tw;Wf;F kl;Lk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;Yk; NghJ njhy;fhg;gpak; nghUSf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; etpy;fpwJ. 

""nre;jkpo; khztd;"" vd;W jd;idg; ngUikahff; $wpf;nfhz;l G.U. Nghg; IaH njhy;fhg;gpa  Ehypd;  rpwg;igg;gw;wp gpd;tUkhW $WfpwhH: 

“The ancient grammatical works existing in Tamil and its wonderful metrical system proves its assiduous cultivation for ages. An elaborate scientific series of metres such as Tamil glories is adapted to every style and theme of composition is the growth of centuries. Classical Tamil bears every mark of slow and natural evolution.” (G.U. Pope- Thamilar Charithtram-Swami Gnanapragasar).        

vy;yhr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; nghUs;jhd; mbg;gil. nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ij  tpsf;f nrhw;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. mr; nrhw;fs; vOj;Jf;fspdhy; Mdit. vdNt nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ijr; nrhy;yj;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpaH vOj;J ,yf;fzj;ijAk;> nrhy; ,yf;fzj;ijAk; nrhd;dhH.  

nghUsjpfhuk; cyfj; Njhw;wk;> capHfspd; tifg;ghL> ntt;NtW epyk;> me;j epyj;Jf;Fupa nja;tq;fs;> kf;fs;> kf;fspd; mftho;f;if Gwtho;f;if newpfs;> MltHf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> ngz;fSf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> kuq;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;> ,yf;fpa tiffs;> ,yf;fpaf; Nfhl;ghLfs;> ,yf;fpa kuGfs;> ,yf;fpaj; jpwdha;Tfs;> clypYk; cs;sj;jpYk; Njhd;Wk; nka;g;ghLfs; ,g;gb xl;L nkhj;j r%fj;ijg; gw;wpr; nrhy;fpwJ>  

njhy;fhg;gpak; nrhy;Yk; nghUs; ,yf;fzk; jkpoHfSf;F kl;Lk; nrhd;d ,yf;fzk; md;W. cyf kf;fSf;Fr; nrhd;d ,yf;fzkhfTk; mJ tpsq;FfpwJ. 

vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf njhy;fhg;gpak; nrhy;Yk; vl;Ltif nka;g;ghLfshd eif> mOif> ,sptuy;> kUl;if> mr;rk;> ngUkpjk; cyfj;jtH ahtUf;Fk; nghUe;JtdthFk;. 

ngUkpjj;Jf;F ,yf;fzk; nrhy;y te;j njhy;fhg;gpaH- 

fy;tp jWfz; ,irik nfhil vdr;
nrhy;yg;gl;l ngUkpjk; ehd;Nf. 

vd;W nrhy;tJ vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; ngUkpjk; Vw;gLtjw;F mbg;gilahdit fw;w fy;tp> mQ;rhik>  Gfo;>> mwk;  vd;gtidahFk;.  

vOj;jjpfhuj;jpy; Ehy; kuG> nkhopkuG> gpwg;gpay;> Gzupay;> njhifkuG> cUgpay;> capH kaq;fy;> Gs;sp kaq;fpay;> Fw;wpaYfug; Gzupay; vd xd;gJ ,ay;fs; tpupj;Jf; $wg;gl;Ls;sd.  

KjyhtJ ,ayhd Ehy; kugpy; jkpo; nkhopapYs;s vOj;Jf;fspd; vz;zpf;if> vOj;Jf;fis xypf;Fk; fhy msT> xypapd; mbg;gilapy; vOj;Jf;fspd; tifg;ghL> mtw;wpd; ngaHfs;> vOj;Jf;fs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W NrHe;J tUfpd;w NrHf;if epiy Kjyhd nra;jpfs; jug;gl;Ls;sd. ,g;gbNa Vida ,ay;fSk; kpf El;gkhf tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wd. 

nrhy;yjpfhuKk; xd;gJ ,ay;fisf; nfhz;lJ. fpstpahf;fk;> Ntw;Wikapay;> Ntw;Wik kaq;fpapay;> tpspkuG> ngaupay;> tpidapay;> ,ilapay;> cupapay;> vr;rtpay; vd;gdNt me;j xd;gJ ,ay;fshFk;.  

Ie;J njhlf;fk; vl;Ltiuapyhd ,ay;fs; KiwNa ngaHr;nrhy;> tpidr;nrhy;> ,ilr;nrhy;> cupr;nrhy; Mfpa ehy;tifr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; $Wfpd;wd.    

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu vOjpNahH gyuhtH. mtw;wpy; ,d;W vkJ iff;Ff; fpilj;jpUg;gJ xU rpyuJ ciufNs MFk;. 

Vwf; Fiwa 10-Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; gpd;dNu njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;fhd ciufs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd. njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; ,k; %d;Wf;Fk; ,sg;G+uzH vOjpa ciu fpilj;jpUf;fpwJ. njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F KjyhtJ Njhd;wpa ciuAk; KOikahff; fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ciuAk; ,JNt MFk;. (tsUk;)

 


xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;!

(3)

njhy;fhg;gpa ciufspy; Ke;jpaJ ,sk;G+uzH ciuahFk;. fhyj;jhy; gpe;jpaJ eHr;rpdhHf;fpdpauJ ciu. vOj;J  mjpfhuj;Jf;F ,sk;G+uzhH ciu ePq;fyhff; fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ciu er;rpdhHfpdpauJ ciuNa.

nrhy; mjpfhuj;Jf;F ,sk;G+uzH> NrdhtiuaH> er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH> nja;tr;rpiyahH> fy;yhlH vd;gtHfs; vOjpa ciufs; jw;NghJ fpilf;fpd;wd. nghUs;  mjpfhuj;Jf;F Vw;fdNt $wpathW ,sk;G+uzH vOjpa ciuia tpl nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpd; Kjy; Ie;J ,ay;fSf;Fk; nra;As; ,aYf;Fk; er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH ciu cs;sJ. NguhrpupaH nghUs; mjpfhuk; nka;g;ghl;;bay;> ctk ,ay;> nra;As; ,ay;> kuG ,ay; ehd;fpw;Fk; ciu vOjpAs;shH. cz;ikapy; NguhrpupaH njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; %d;W mjpfhuq;fSf;Fk; ciu vOjpajhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ. nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpd; nkhj;j ,ay; xd;gjpy; ehYf;F ciu vOjpatH Kjy; Ie;ijAk; tpl;L tpl;L filrp ehd;Ff;F  kl;Lk; ciunra;jpUg;ghH vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ.

ciu MrpupaHfisg;gw;wp ,t;thW tpupthff; $Wtjw;Ff; fhuzk; ,e;j ciuahrpupaHfs; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu nra;jpuhJ tpl;bUe;jhy; Fiwe;jJ ,uz;lhapuj;J Ie;EhW Mz;L goik tha;e;j njhy;fhg;gpaj;ijg; gbj;J mjd; cl;fUj;ij cs;sthW czHe;J nfhs;tJ rpukkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.

fpilf;fpw ciufSk; gj;jhk; Ehw;whz;Lf;Fg; gpwF nra;jitNa. ,jdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH R+j;jputbtpy; ,Wf;fkhfr; nrhy;tjw;F mtH ifahz;l mtuJ fhyj;J nrhy;yhl;rpfSf;F nghUs; fhz;gjpy; fUj;J NtWghL ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfr; nrhy;y Ntz;Lnkd;why; nghUsjpfhuk>; Gwj;jpizapay; (27)-

 

nfhbepiy> fe;jop> ts;sp vd;w

tLePq;F rpwg;gpd; Kjyd %d;Wk;

flTs; tho;j;njhL fz;zpa tUNk.

 

nfhbepiy> fe;jsp> ts;sp ,e;jr; nrhw;fSf;Fg; nghUs; vd;d? ,sk;G+uzH nfhbepiy> fe;jsp> ts;sp ,tw;wpw;F Neubahfg; nghUs; nrhy;yhJ Gwg;ghly;fis cjhuzk; fhl;b> ",J nfhbepiy">  ",J fe;jsp" vd;W nrhy;thH.

 

tL ePq;F rpwg;gpd; nfhbepiy fe;jop vd;w Kjyhd %d;Wk; - Fw;wk; jPHe;j rpwg;gpidAila nfhbepiy Kjyhfr; nrhy;yg;gl;l Kw;gl;l %d;Wk;>  flTs; tho;j;njhL fz;zpa tUNk - ghl;Lilj; jiykfidr; rhHj;jp tUq;fhyj;Jf; flTs; tho;j;jp tUk;.

 

nfhbepiy vd;why; fPo;j;jpirf; flTs;. fe;jsp - gw;Wf; Nfhlw;w nja;tk;. ts;sp vd;why;ts;sy;jd;ik. Mdhy; ,e;jr; nrhw;fSf;F NtWtpjkhfTk; ciu nrhy;tH. ""fjpH> jP> kjp ,k;%d;iwAk; tho;j;JtJk; flTs; tho;j;Jg; NghyNt vz;zg;gLk;"" vd;Wk; ciu nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; Ml;rpapypUe;j rpy nrhw;fs; gpd;dH tof;nfhope;J Nghapd. cjhuzk; ",Njhsp"> "mNjhsp"> "cNjhsp"> "vNjhsp" vd;w nrhw;fs; ,d;W tof;fpy; ,y;iy.

 

,e;j ,lj;jpy; xd;iwf; $wNtz;Lk;. njhy;fhg;gpaH flTs; vd;w nrhy;iy NjtH vd;w nghUspy;jhd; ifahs;fpwhH. "vy;yhk; fle;j nka;g;nghUs; flTs;" vd;w nrhy;yhl;rp mtH fhyj;jpy; ,y;iy. njhy;fhg;gpak; Fwpg;gpLk; flTs; tho;j;njd;gjw;F "mkuH tho;j;J" vd;gJjhd; nghUs;.

 

fhkg; gFjp flTSk; tiuahH

VNdhH ghq;fpDk; vd;kdhH GytH.     (njhy;.nghUs;-Gwj;jpizapay; -R+j;jpuk; 23)

 

",d;gg; gFjpfisf; flTsplkpUe;Jk; ePf;fkhl;lhHfs;. kf;fsplj;Jk; ,Ue;Jk; ePf;f khl;lhHfs; vd;W GytH $WtH"" vd;gNj ,jd; nghUs;. mJ flTs; khl;Lf; flTl; ngz;bH eag;gdTk;> mtH khl;L khdplg; ngz;bH eag;gdTk;> flTs; khdplg; ngz;biu eag;gdTk;> gpwTk; Mk;" vd;gJ er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH ciu.  

 

,/J flTs; vd;w nrhy; NjtHfisf;  Fwpj;jijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;jpy; gy nja;t tzf;fq;fs; ,Ue;jd. jpUkhy;> KUfd;> ,e;jpud;> tUzd;> nfhw;wit> QhapW> jpq;fs;> jP Kjypaitfisj; jkpoHfs; nja;tq;fshf tzq;fp te;jdH. ,ikatHfs; vd;w NjtHfisAk; nja;tq;fshff; nfhz;bUe;jdH.

 

kpfTk; tpag;ghd nra;jp vd;dntd;why; njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; rpt  topghL ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rptidf; Fwpf;Fk; nrhy; 1610 njhy;fhg;gpa Ehw;ghf;fspy; xd;wpYk; ,y;iy. (ehy; Ntjq;fspy; Kjy; Ntjkhd ,Uf;F NtjKk; rptidf; Fwpf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ <q;F Fwpj;jw;ghyJ.)

 

NrNahd; vd;w nrhy; rptidf; Fwpg;gjhfr; rpyH nrhy;fpwhHfs;. NrNahd; vd;why; nrk;ik> rpte;j epwj;Njhd;> vdNt NrNahd; rptidf; Fwpf;fpwJ vd;gH.

 

FwpQ;rp epyj;Jj; nja;tj;ij NrNahd; vd;W njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpg;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. FwpQ;rp epyj;J nja;tk; KUfd;> nrt;Nts;> NrNahd; vd;gNj njhd;W njhl;L tUk; tof;fkhFk;. FwpQ;rp epykf;fs; FwtH> Fwj;jpaH vdj;  njhy;fhg;gpak; etpYk;. KUfd; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lJ Fwg;ngz;zhd ts;sp vd;gJ Guhz tof;F. ,jdhNyNa KUfd; jkpo;f; flTs; vd;W Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH NghYk;.

 

vdNt "",yf;fpa tof;fpYk;> cyfpay;  tof;fpYk; FwpQ;rpj; nja;tk; KUfdhfNt vz;zg;gLfpwhd;. rptngUkhd; FwpQ;rpj; nja;tk; vd;gjw;F ,yf;fpa tof;Fk; ,y;iy. cyf tof;Fk; ,y;iy."" ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH epr;rak; Rl;bapUg;ghH.

 

,jdhy; fp.K. Ie;jhk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpofj;jpy; rptd; vd;w nja;tNkh rptkjNkh ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;;gJ rhkp rpjk;gudhH Nghd;w jkpowpQHfsJ JzpghFk;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fg; gpe;jpa filr;rq;f ,yf;fpf;fpaq;fs; rptidf; Fwpf;fpd;wd. ""Kf;fl; nry;tH efH"" vdg; GwehDhw;wpd; 6k; ghly; Fwpf;fpwJ. Ehw;wpj; njhz;Zhw;nwl;lhtJ ghly; jpUkhiy ""My; mkH flTs;"" vdf; Fwpf;fpwJ.

 

vl;Lj;njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;whd GwehDhW ntt;NtW fhyj;jpy; ntt;NtW GytHfs; ghba ghly;fspd; njhFg;ghFk;. njhFj;jtH> njhFg;gpj;jtH ngaH njupatpy;iy. ,jpy; fhzg;gLk; gioa - Gjpa ghly;fspw;F ,ilapy; 200-300 Mz;L ,ilntsp ,Ug;gjhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ. (tsUk;)

 

 


 

xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak; 

 

(4)

 

njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpoHfSf;F fpilj;j GijayhFk;. mjd; rpwg;Gf; fhuzkhfNt Vida gy rq;f ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; fhynts;sj;jpy; ms;Sz;L mope;njhope;J Nghf njhy;fhg;gpak; jg;gpg; gpioj;jJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd ,yf;fz Ehy;fs;> gy topEhy;fshf>  vOjg; gl;Ls;sd. mtw;wpy; xd;NwDk; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; nfhLKbia vl;bg; gpbf;f Kbatpy;iy.

 

jkpopy; gpw;fhyj;jpy; vOe;j Guhzq;fs; GidfijfisAk;> gFj;jwpTf;Fg; nghUe;jhj fw;gidfisAk; kdk;Nghd Nghf;fpy; nrhy;ypAs;sd.

 

,e;j cyfj;ij xU mRud; ghiag;Nghyr; RUl;bf; nfhz;LNgha; flypy; xspj;Jg; Nghl;ljhf nrhy;Yk; Guhzf; fij ,Uf;fpwJ. G+kpf;F NkNy VOYyfk;> G+kpf;Ff; fPNo VOYyfk;> nrhHf;fNyhfk;> eufNyhfk;> NjtNyhfk; vd;w vz;zpwe;j cyfq;fis GuhzpfHfs; fw;gidf;F vl;bathW gilj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

,jid kdjpy; itj;Jj;jhd; kfhftp ghujpahH gpd;tUkhW ghLthH.  

 

flypidj; jhTk; Fuq;Fk; - ntq;

    fdypw; gpwe;jNjhH nrt;tpjo;g; ngz;Zk;

tlkiy jho;e;jjdhNy - njw;fpy;

    te;J rkd;nrAk; Fl;il KdpAk;

ejpap Ds;NsKO fpg;Ngha; - me;j

    ehfH cyfpNyhH ghk;gpd; kfis

tpjpAw Ntkzk; nra;j -jpwy;

    tPkDk; fw;gid vd;gJ fz;Nlhk;.

xd;W kw; nwhd;iwg; gopf;Fk; - xd;wpy;

    cz;iknad; Nwhjpkw; nwhd;Wngha; nad;Dk;

ed;W Guhzq;fs; nra;jhH - mjpy;

    ey;y ftpij gyg;gy je;jhH.

ftpij kpf ey;y NjDk; - mf;

    fijfs; ngha;nad;W njspTwf; fz;Nlhk;

Gtpjdpy; tho;newp fhl;b -ed;ik

    Nghjpf;Fk; fl;Lf; fijfs; mitjhk;.    (ghujpahH Gjpaghly;fs;)

 

vdNt Guhzq;fs; vy;yhk; ey;y ftpijfs; vd;whYk; mitnay;yhk; fl;Lf; fijfs; vd;gij ehk; kwe;Jtplf;$lhJ.

 

rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfs; ,aw;ifNahL ,ize;J> ,aw;ifiaf; fz;L kfpo;e;J ,aw;if tho;f;if tho;e;jhHfs;.  me;j ,aw;if tho;f;ifiaNa ghly;fSf;Fg; ghL nghUshff; nfhz;lhHfs;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; ,e;j cyfj;jpd; Njhw;wj;ijg;gw;wpAk;> cyfpYs;s capHfspd; tsHr;rp gw;wpAk; Muha;e;J mwpTG+Htkhf njhFj;J  kugpaypy; vOjpapUf;fpwhH. kugpay; vd;gJ  guk;giuahf> toptopahf tUk; Kiwik> tof;Ffs; gw;wpf; $WtjhFk;.

 

""epYKk;> ePUk;> fhw;Wk;> tpz;Zk; fye;jnjhU kaf;fkhd epiyapy; cyfk; cz;lhapw;W. ,itahTk; XH vy;iyf;F cl;gl;L ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j epiyapy; capHfs; Njhd;wpw;W"" vdj; njhy;fhg;gpaH $WfpwhH.

 

epyk; jP ePH tsp tpRk;NghL Ie;Jk;

fye;j kaf;fk; cyfk; Mjypd;

,Ujpiz Ik;ghy; ,ay;newp tohmikj;

jpupT,y; nrhy;nyhL johmy; Ntz;Lk;.

 

(njhy;. kugpay; 1589)

 

(,t;Tyfk; epyk;> jP> ePH> fhw;W> thd; vd;w Ik;G+jq;fspd; fyitjhd;. mjdhy; caHjpiz> my;jpiz> Mz;> ngz;> gyH> xd;W> gy vd;w ,Ujpiz> Ie;J ghy;fspd; ,ay;gpdp;d;Wk; tOthJ> jpupG ,y;yhj nrhw;fshy; $wpj; jOtpf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.)

 

capupd; Njhw;wj;ijAk; mjd; ghFghl;ilAk; gpd;tUkhW njhy;fhg;gpaH nrhy;thH.

 

xd;W mwptJNt cw;W mwptJNt

,uz;L mwptJNt mjndhL ehNt

%d;W mwptJNt mtw;nwhL %f;Nf

ehd;F mwptJNt mtw;nwhL fz;Nz

Ie;J mwptJNt mtw;nwhL  nrtpNa

MW mwptJNt mtw;nwhL nrtpNa

MW mwptJNt mtw;NwhL kdNd

Neupjpd; czHe;NjhH newpg;gLj;jpdNu.      (njhy;. kugpay; -1526)

 

(clk;ghy; kl;Lk; mwptd XH mwpT capHfs;. clk;ghYk; ehthYk; mwptd ,uz;L mwpTapHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F %d;whYk; mwptd %mwp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> ,it ehd;fhYk; mwptd ehywp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> fhJ vd;Dk; Ie;jhy; mwptd Itwp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> fhJ> kdk; ,e;j MNwhLk; mwptd Mwwp capHfs;. ,tw;iwj; njspthf czHe;NjhH newp Kiwahf czHj;jp cs;sdH.)

 

njhy;fhg;gpaupd; ,e;jr; R+j;jpuk; gz;ila jkpoHfSf;F $Hjy; mwk; ( kdpjdpd; gupzhk tsHr;rp) njupe;jpUe;jijj; njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ.

 

,jid mLj;J XuwpT Kjy; MwwpT capHfSf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf; fhl;LfpwhH.

 

Gy;Yk;> kuKk; XH mwpT>

rq;F> ej;ij> rpw;gp  <uwpT>

fiwahd;> vWk;G  %d;wwpT>

ez;Lk;> Jk;gpAk; ehd;fwpT>

tpyq;Ffs;> gwitfs; Ie;jwpT>

kdpj ,dk; kl;LNk MwwpT>

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; fhfpjk;> mr;R> ik> etPd vOJNfhy; fz;Lgpbf;fg; gltpy;iy. Muha;r;rp nra;a cjTk; cgfuzq;fs; ntg;gkhdp> cUg;ngUf;fp> njhiyg;ngUf;fp vJTk; fz;L gpbf;fg; gltpy;iy. mg;gbahd xU fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,t;tsT Muha;e;J $wpapUg;gJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH kdpj ,dj; Njhw;wk; gw;wpr; nrhy;tJ lhHtpd; nfhs;iff;F Vwf;Fiwa xj;Js;sJ. ,t;tsT Muha;r;rp nra;j jkpod;gw;wp ngUikg;glf; fhuzk; ,Ue;jhYk;  gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtw;iw tsHf;fhky; tpl;L> nrhHf;fk;> eufk;> tPLNgW Ngupd;gk;> ght Gz;zpak;> ahfk; Nts;tp> Ntjhe;j- rpj;jhe;j Muha;r;rpapy; jkpod;  ,wq;fp  ""tho;thtJ  khak;> kz;zhtJ jpz;zk; "" vd;w jpz;izg; Ngr;Rg; Ngrp mwpahikapy; %o;fpaJ  ftiyiaj;  jUfpwJ.   

 

murpay; gz;ghl;Lj; jsj;jpy; jha;j; jkpofk; vOEhW Mz;Lfs; me;epauhy; mbik nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Nra;j; jkpofk; ehDhW Mz;Lfs; me;epa Ml;fpf;F mbikg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; jkpopdk; fyg;gpdkhfp tho;Tk; tsKk; ,oe;jJ.

 

jkpopdk; ,d;W jd;id kPo;fz;L gpbf;Fk; Kaw;rpapy;>  Gfo; G+j;j jdJ gioafhy tuyhw;iwg; jpUg;gpg; ghHf;f  tpUk;GfpwJ. ehfupfj;jpd; nfhL Kbiaj; njhl;l ,dk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; ghjhsj;jpy; tPo;e;J tpl;ljw;F njhy;fhg;gpak; jUk; juTfs; rhd;whf cs;sJ. ,we;j fhyj;jpy; ,Ug;gjw;fhf my;y ,we;jfhyk; Gfl;Lk; ghlj;ijg; gbj;J vjpHfhyj;ij nrg;gdplNt jkpoHfs; njhy;fhg;gpak;> kw;Wk;rq;ffhy; ,yf;fpaq;fis nfhQ;rk; Kaw;rp nra;J   gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpodJ murpay; kWkyHr;fpf;F mj;jifa  ,yf;fz ,yf;fpa tuyhw;W czHT ifnfhLf;Fk;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpak; ,yf;fz Ehy; vd;gjhy; mijj; njhl tpUk;ghjtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij jkpoHfsJ nkhop ehfupfr; rpwg;ig mwpa cjTk; fhyf; fz;zhb vd;w czHNthL gbj;jhy; njhy;fhg;gpak; epr;rak; ,dpf;Fk;. me;j Mtiyj; Jhz;lNt xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij> ngUk;ghYk; nghUs; mjpfhuj;ij cq;fSf;F RUf;fkhf mwpKfk; nra;fpNwd;. mLj;j Kiw njhy;fhg;gpa fhyj;J r%f mikg;igg; ghHg;Nghk;. (tsUk;)

 

 


 

xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;!

  

(5) 

  

nkhop vd;gJ kf;fs; r%fj;jpd; $l;Lg; gilg;ghFk;. r%fj;jpd; fUj;Jg; gupkhwYf;F nkhop xU fUtpahfg; gad;gLfpwJ. r%fk; tsHr;rp milAk; NghJ $lNt nkhopAk; tsHr;rp milfpwJ. nkhop tsHr;rpapd; xU gbepiyahf vOj;Jj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mjd; gpd;dH ehNlhb tha;nkhop ,yf;fpaq;fs; vOj;jpy; tbf;fg; gLfpd;wd. ,e;j ,yf;fpaq;fisr; nrk;ikg; gLj;jp xOq;fikf;f ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; Njhw;wk; ngWfpd;wd. nkhopia xU kuj;Jf;F xg;gpl;lhy;  ,yf;fzk;  mjd; tpOJfshFk;. Mykuk; Nghd;W tsHe;j jkpo; nkhopf;F gy Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd ,yf;fz tpOJfs; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd. ,jpy; Kjypy; Njhd;wpa ,yf;fz Ehy; mfj;jpak; vdr; nrhy;yg;gl;lhYk; mJ ,d;W fpilj;jpyJ. vdNt  njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpopy; vOjg; gl;l Kjy; ,yf;fz Ehyf ,d;W nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.

 

njhy;fhg;gpak; vOjg;gl;L 1>200 Mz;Lfs; fopj;Nj gtze;jp KdptH ,aw;wpa topEhyhd ed;Dhy; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ.

 

,e;j ePz;l ,ilntspapy; jkpo; r%f mikg;gpd; midj;Jj; JiwapYk; khw;wq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd.

 

njhy;fhg;gpak; njhlq;fp ed;Dhy; Njhd;Wk;tiu jkpofj;ijf; fsg;gpuH> gy;ytH> Nru> Nrho> ghz;baH Mz;ldH. ,tHfistpl rhSf;fpaH (njYq;fH)> n`ha;rhiyaH> fypq;fH> Rq;fH Nghd;w mur guk;giuapduJ njhlHG Vw;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; ngsj;jk;> rkzk;> irtk;> itztk; Nghd;w kjq;fspd; vOr;rpAk;> tPo;r;rpAk; jkpo; r%fj;jpy; ngUk; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpd. ,e;j rkaq;fspd; topahf tlnkhop> ghyp> gpuhfpUjk; vd;gtw;wpd; CLUty;> Mjpf;fk;  jkpo;nkhopapd; NtiuNa mirj;jJ. nkhopapy; kl;Lk; my;yhJ fiy> gz;ghl;bYk;  khw;wq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd.

 

,uhruhrd;> ,uhNre;jpud; ,tHfsJ fpof;fhrpa gilnaLg;gpd; NghJ NrhoHfsJ fg;gy;fs; <ok;> rhtfk;> flhuk;> Gl;gfk;> rPdk; kl;Lk; nrd;W jpUk;gpd.

 

INuhg;gpaH tUiff;Fg; gpd;dH Mq;fpyk; %yk; jkpiof; fhz Kw;gl;lJNghy> tlnkhop %yk; jkpiof; fhZk; Kaw;rp ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; epytpaJ.

 

,tw;wpd; tpisthf jkpo; nkhopapd; jdpj;Jtj;ijf; fhz Ntz;ba Njs;it vOe;jJ. jkpo;nkhopapd; fl;likg;Gg; gw;wpf; fw;Wj; njspa Ntz;ba fl;lhak; cz;lhapw;W.

 

,e;jj; Njit fhuzkhf njhy;fhg;gaj;ij kPsha;T nra;J mjid Kd;Df;Ff; nfhz;L tuNtz;ba gzp njhlq;fpw;W vdyhk;. njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;l xU ngupa Ehy;. mjd; R+j;jpuq;fs; jkpopyf;fzj;jpd; gpopthf ,Ue;jJ. mjid 1>200 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J tho;e;j jkpoHfshy; vspjpy; gbj;J tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tJ fbdkhf ,Ue;jJ. vdNt njhy;fhg;gpa EhYf;F ciufs; Njhd;wpd. fhy ,ilntsp fhuzkhf njhy;fhg;gpa kuGfisr; Kw;Wk; rupahf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s ,e;j ciuahrpupaHfshy; Kbatpy;iy.  gy R+j;jpuq;fSf;F gy cj;jpfs; %yk; rpwpJk; ngupJkhd tpsf;fq;fis ciuahrpupaHfs; vOjpdhHfs;. ciuahrpupaHfsJ njhy;fhg;gpa kPl;Gg; gzpapd; %yk; vOe;j ciufs; ,d;W fpilj;jpuh tpl;lhy;>  2>500 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu fhz;gJk;> mjd; %yk; jkpopd; Ntiuf; fhz;;L gpbg;gJk;  fbdkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.

 

KjyhtJ kPl;Gg; gzp tlnkhopahy; kiwg;Gz;bUe;j> kiwf;fg;gl;bUe;j jkpo; nkhopapd; Ntiuf; fhzy; vd;why; ,uz;lhtJ kPl;Gg; gzp njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; rpwg;ig ntspAyFf;Ff; nfhzHjy; MFk;. ,jid mz;ikf;fhy nkhopapayhsHfs; nra;Js;shHfs;.

 

nrf;NfhrpNyhtpf;fpa ehl;L nkhopawpQH K. Zvelebil  njhy;fhg;gpak; gw;wpg; gpd;tUkhW rpwg;gpg;gpj;Jf; $wpAs;shH:

 

It is not only one of the finest monuments of human intelligence and intellect presented in the Indian tradition; it is also the first literary expression of the indigenous, Pre-Aryan Indian civilization; it represents the essence and the summary of classical culture.

 

For the evaluation of Indian linguistic thought, it is probably as important and crucial as the grammar which goes under the name of Panini. To the field of general linguistics, it would add, if sufficiently known, some new important insights on a number of phonetic, etymological, morphological and syntactic problems.?  

 

'' kdpjdJ Ez;khz; Eio Gyj;Jf;Fk;> ,e;jpa mwptpay; ghuk;gupaj;jpw;Fk; ,/J ( njhy;fhg;gpak;) xU epidTr; rpd;dkhfTk; kw;Wk; ,e;jpa guk;gupaj;jpy; fhg;ghw;wg;gl;Ls;s mwptpay; fUT+yfkhfTk;  ,Ug;gJ kl;Lky;yhky;> Mupa ,e;jpa ehfupfj;Jf;F Ke;jpa Kjy; G+HtPf ,yf;fpa ntspg;hl;bd; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfTk; tpsq;FfpwJ.

 

,e;jpa nkhopgw;wpa kjpg;gPl;bw;F ghzpdpapd; ,yf;fzk; vt;tsT Kf;fpakhdJk;> KbthdJk; Mf ,Uf;fpwNjh mNjNghy;  ,JTk; (njhy;fhg;gpak;) ,Uf;fpwJ. nkhopapay; Jiwfspd; gpupTfshd xypg;G> nrhy;yb nrhy;ypzf;fdk;> nrhw;nwhlupyf;fzk; Nghd;w tw;wpy; Mokhd Gjpa mwpit $l;LfpwJ.''

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;Jj; jkpo; r%f mikg;Gg; gw;wpj; njupe;J nfhs;tjw;F njhy;fhg;gpak; gw;wpa Nkw;$wpa gpd;Gyk; cjtpahf ,Uf;Fk; vd ek;GfpNwd;.  

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH; epyj;ij ikakhf itj;Nj mtH fhyj;J jkpo; r%fj;jpd; tho;f;if gw;wpAk;> me;j epyq;fSf;Fupa nja;tq;fs;> xOf;fq;fs; gw;wpAk;  nghUsjpfhuj;jpd; mfj;jpiz ,aypy; vLj;J tpsf;FfpwhH.

 

flyhy; r+og;gl;l md;iwa jkpofj;jpd; epyj;ij Gtpapay; mbg;gilapy; ehy;tifahfg; gFj;J  mit xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; cupa jdpj;jd;ikiaAk;> nja;tq;fisAk; njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

khNahd; Nka fhLiw cyfKk;

NrNahd; Nka iktiu cyfKk;

Nte;jd; Nka jPk;Gdy; cyfKk;

tUzd; Nka ngUkzy; cyfKk;

Ky;iy FwpQ;rp kUjk; nea;jy; vdr;

nrhy;ypa Kiwahy; nrhy;yTk; gLNk!        (njhy;. nghUs; mfj;jpiz 951)

 

jpUkhy; tpUk;Gfpd;w fhLila Ky;iy epyKk;> KUfd; tpUk;Gfpd;w Nkfk; R+o;e;j kiyiaAila FwpQ;rp epyKk;> ,e;jpud; tpUk;Gfpd;w kpFjpahd ePiuAila kUj epyKk;> tUzd; tpUk;Gfpd;w kpFjpahd kziyaila nea;jy; epyKk; vd Kiwahfr; nrhy;yg; ngWk;.

 

(khNahd; - jpUkhy;> NrNahd; - KUfd;> Nte;jd; - ,e;jpud;> Nka - tpUk;Gfpd;w> cyfk; - epyk;> iktiu - Nkfk; R+o;e;j kiy> jPk;Gdy; -kpFe;j ePiuAila)

 

gpd; me;je;j epyj;Jf;Fupa Kjw;nghUis (epyKk; nghOJk;)  tpupf;Fk; NghJ ghiyf;F rpWnghOJ ez;gfy;> ngUk;nghOJ ,sNtdpy;> KJNtdpy; vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

vdNt ghiy epyk; kio ngha;g;gjpdhy; Vw;gLk; tul;rpahy; Ky;iyAk; FwpQ;rpAk; jpupAk; NghJ mJ ghiy vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. ghiyf;Fj; nja;tk; nfhw;wit vdTk; njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

Itif epyj;Jf;Fk; cupahH>  mt;tt; epyj;Jf;Fk; cupahH mt;tt; epyj;Jf;Fupa jiykf;fs; MfptpLfpd;wdH. mfj;jpizapy; jiyik gw;wpg; ngaH ngWk; jiykf;fs; jpizg; ngauhd; ,d;wp ,aw;ngauhy; Rl;lg;glhH. ,e;j njhy;fhg;gpa tpjpf;F mikaNt rq;ffhyg; GytHfs; mfj;jpizg; ghly;fisg; ghbAs;shHfs;. tpjptpyf;fhf mfj;jpizg; ghly;fspy; jiytd; my;yJ jiytp ngaH Rl;lg;gl;ltplj;J mg;ghly;fs; Gwj;jpizapy; itf;fg;gl;ld.

 

fUg;nghUshtd capHg; nghUSk; capuy; nghUSk; MFk;. nja;tk;> czT> tpyq;Ffs;> kuk;nrb nfhbfs;> gwit> Njhw;fUtpfs;> CH> ePH> G+ Nghd;wit. ,jid -

 

nja;tk;> czhNt> kh> kuk;> Gs;> giw>

nra;jp> ahopd; gFjpnahL njhif,

mt;tif gpwTk; fU vd nkhopg.           (njhy;. mfj;jpiz 964)

 

cupg;nghUshtd GzHjYk; GzHjy; epkpj;jKk;> gpupjYk; gpupjy; epkpj;jKk;> ,Uj;jYk; ,Uj;jy; epkpj;jKk;> ,uq;fYk; ,uq;fy; epkpj;jKk;> ClYk; Cly; epkpj;jKk; vd ,it mfj;jpizf;Fupait MFk;. GzHjy; nghUis FwpQ;rpAk;>  ,Uj;jy; nghUis Ky;iyAk;>  Cly; nghUis kUjKk;> ,uq;fy; nghUis nea;jYk;> gpupjy; nghUis ghiyAk; Fwpf;Fk;. ,it Ie;J tif epyj;Jf;Fupa xOf;fhWfs; vdTk; ngwg;gLk;.

 

,dp FwpQ;rp tho; kf;fs; FwtH Fwj;jpaH> Ntl;LtH Ntbr;rpaH vdg;gl;ldH. Ky;iy tho; kf;fs; MaH Ma;r;rpaH vdTk;> kUjepy kf;fs; cotH> coj;jpaH vdTk;> nea;jy; epy kf;fs; ckzH> ckzr;rpaH vdTk;> ghiy epy kf;fs; kwtH> kwj;jpaH vdTk; miof;fg; gl;ldH. (tsUk;)

 

 


 

njhy;fhg;gpaH jkpoPoj;jtuh?

 

(6)

 

njhy;fhg;gpak; nghUSf;F $Wk; ,yf;fzk; thapyhf gz;ilj; jkpofj;jpd; nghUs; rpwg;igAk;> goe;jkpoHfspd; ehfupfr; rpwg;igAk; RUf;fkhff; $wp njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; gw;wpf; $Wk; ,yf;fz EhyhdhYk; m/J ""jkpo;njhopapd; rPupa> $upa> ,dpa> nky;ypa xypaikg;GKiw> mjd; GzH epiyahy; xyp khw;w mikg;G> nrhy;ypd; rpwg;Gk;> jpiz ghy; Kjypa capHg;gFg;G capupy;gFg;G KiwAk;> jkpoH ehfupfr; nrhw;wpiwikAk;> xt;nthU nrhy;Yk; fhuzj;NjhL mikf;fg;gLtJk;> kf;fspd; kd ,ay;ghfpa mfKk; tPuKk;> vz;ghd; RitfSk;> ctkq;fSk;> kuGKiw"" Kjypa ahTk; xUq;Nf tpsf;fpf; fhl;LtjhFk;. goe;jkpoupd; nkhopr;rpwg;G> mftho;f;if> Gwtho;f;if> muR> gil> nfhb> nry;tk;> khdk; ,tw;iwAk; njhy;fhg;gpak; tpupthf vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ.

 

jpUts;StH jpUf;Fwspy; ,J Nghd;w rpwg;Gf;fisr; nrhy;ypapUe;jhYk;> njhy;fhg;gpak; jpUf;FwSf;F Fiwe;jJ Ie;EhW Mz;LfshtJ Ke;jpaJ. njhd;ik tha;e;jJ.  jpUf;Fws; thapyhf ehk; fhZk; jkpoH r%f mikg;igtpl njhy;fhg;gpak; %yk; ehk; kpfTk; gioikahd xU jkpo; r%f fl;likg;igf; fhz;fpNwhk;.

 

NkYk; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; cs;s fUj;J eaj;ijAk;> nrhw; rpwg;igAk;>  jkpoHfSf;F nrhe;jkhd rpe;jidj; jpwj;ijAk; vLj;Jf; fhl;b mg;gbg;gl;l xU fUT+yj;jpy;  xU <Lghl;il cz;lhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj vdJ Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Ue;jJ.

 

"njhy;fhg;gpakh? mJ ahUf;Fk; tpsq;fhj xU  ,yf;fz Ehy;> eilKiwj; jkpo;  ,yf;fzk; njupe;jhy; NghJk;> njhy;fhg;gpak; Njs;it ,y;iy"" vd;W nrhy;yp mjidj; js;sptplhky; jkpo; kf;fs; mjidg; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;> Fwpg;ghf nghUs; mjpfhuj;ij> mjpYk; nra;Aspay;> ctikapay; ePq;fyhf vQ;rpa VO   ,ay;fisahtJ fl;lhak;  gbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd tpUk;gpNdd;. ehNd mz;ikf;  fhyk; tiu njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; mUik ngUik njupahky; mJgw;wpa Nfs;tp Qhdj;NjhL ,Ue;J tpl;Nld;.

 

ciuahrpupaHfsJ cjtpAld; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij vOj;Jf; $l;bg; gbj;Jg; ghHj;jNghJ> rpwg;ghf nghUsjpfhuj;ijg; gbj;Jg; ghHj;jNghJ> Rg;gpukzpa ghujpahH jkpo;nkhop tho;j;jpy;-

 

thdkse;j jidj;Jk; mse;jpLk;

 tz;nkhop thopa Nt !

 ...............................................

thdk; mwpe;j jidj;Jk; mwpe;J

 tsHnkhop thopa Nt !

 

vd;W ghbaJ ""cz;ik ntWk; Gfo;r;rp ,y;iy"" vd;gijj; njupe;J nfhz;Nld;. ,t;tstpw;Fk; ghujpahUf;F njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; ngupa ghz;bj;jpak; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;fpwhHfs;. Md fhuzj;jpdhy;jhd; mtuJ ghly;fspy; ,yf;fz-ahg;G tOf;fs; ,Uf;fpwnjd mtH fhyj;Jg; gz;bjHfSk;  ghtyHfSk; NghHf;nfhb Jhf;fpdhHfs; NghYk;!

 

,g;NghJ ,e;jj; njhliug; gbg;gtHfs; mJ gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;fpwJ njhlHe;J vOJq;fs; vd;W  Nfl;fpwhHfs;. vdNt nghUs; ,yf;fzk; njhlHghd Vida rq;fjpfisAk; NrHj;J rw;W tpupthf vOjyhk; vd epidf;fpNwd;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fk; jkpoPoj; jkpoHfSf;Fk; cwT ,Uf;fpwJ. aho;g;ghzj; jkpopy; fhzg;gLk; gdhl;L vd;w nrhy; jkpofj;jpy; ,d;W tof;fpy; ,y;iy.

 

njhy;fhg;gpa vOj;jjpfhuj;jpy; gpd;tUk; R+j;jpuq;fs; tUfpd;wd.

 

gdp vd t&cq; fhy Ntw;Wikf;F

mj;Jk; ,d;Dk; rhupiaahFk;..                  (njhy;.vOj;J 7 capH kaq;fpay;-39)

 

gdp vd;w fhyj;ijr; czHj;Jk; nrhy;Yf;F Ntw;Wikg;  GzHr;rpapy; mj;Jk; ,d;Dk; rhupifahf tUk;. vLj;Jf;;fhl;L - gdpaj;Jr; nrd;whd;> gdpapw; nfhz;lhd;.

 

"kio" vd; fpstp tsp ,ay; epiyAk;            (njhy;. vOj;J 7 capH kaq;fpay;-85)

 

kio vd;Dk; nrhy; tsp vd;Dk; nrhy; Nghd;W mj;Jk; ,d;Dk; ngw;W KbAk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;L - kioaj;Jf; nfhz;lhd;. kioapw; nrd;whd;.

 

"ntapy;" vd; fpstp kio ,ay; epiyAk;         (njhy;. vOj;J 8 Gs;sp kaq;fpay;- 82)

 

ntapy; vd;w nrhy; kio vd;w nrhy; Nghd;W mj;Jr;rhupiaAk;> ,d;rhupiaAk; ngw;W tUk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;L - ntapyj;Jg; gpupe;jhd;. ntapypw; Nghdhd;.

 

,e;j njhy;fhg;gpa R+j;jpuq;fspy; tUk;  gdpaj;J> kioaj;J> ntapyj;J Nghd;w nrhy; tof;Ffs; vq;Nf fhzg;gLfpd;wd?  

 

,Jgw;wp Muha;e;j NguhrpupaH itahGupg;gps;is gpd;tUkhW vOJfpwhH.

 

"jkpo; toq;Fk; ehl;by; ,g;nghOJ Xuplj;Jg; NghYk; ,t;tof;F fhzg;gLkhwpy;iy. ,w;iwf;Fr; RkhH 350 Mz;Lfl;F Kd;Gk; ,t;tof;F ,y;iy vd;gJ mf;fhyj;jpy; Njhd;wpa ,yf;fz tpsf;fj;jpy; Nkw;fhl;ba tpjpaike;j R+j;jpuk; ,d;ikahy; czuyhk;. ed;DhypYk;> njhy;fhg;gpa newpiaNa Nghw;wpr; nry;Yk; Nekpehjj;jpYk; ,t;tpjp fhzg;ngwtpy;iy. vdNt ,tw;wpd; fhykhfpa 12k; Ehw;whz;bd;  gpw;gFjpapYk; ,t; tof;F ,y;iynady; njspthFk;. 11k; Ehw;whz;by; ,aw;wg;ngw;w tPUNrhopaj;jpYk; ,t;tpjp Fwpf;fg;gltpy;iy. 10k; Ehw;whz;Lf;F Kd;G Njhd;wpa Ik;ngUk; fhg;gpaq;fspYk;> Njthuk;> ehyhapuk; (gpuge;jk;) Kjypatw;wpYk; ,t;tof;Ff; fhZkhwpy;iy. gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fspYk; mt;thNw. Kbtpy; rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspYk; ,t;tof;fpw;F Mjhuk; ,y;iy.

 

"rq;f fhyk; njhl;L ,d;Wtiu jkpopy; fhzhj ,t;tof;F ve;jg; gpuNjrj;jpy; gz;ilf;fhyj;jpy; gapd;W te;jpUj;jy;  $Lk;? jkpNohL neUq;fpa njhlHGs;s ahjhDnkhU nkhopapy; ,t;tof;Fg; gapd;wpUe;jnjdy; nghUe;j Kilj;jhfj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mk; nkhop ahJ?

 

"kiyahs nkhop xd;wpNyNa  ,t;tof;Ff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. 'gdpaj;Jg; NghfUNj' - 'kioaj;Jg; NghfUNj'  - 'nta;apyj;Jg; NghfUNj' vd;gd Nghd;w tof;Ffs; ,g;nghOJ Nfl;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,q;qdk; toq;Fk; gpuNjrj;jpy; gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; jkpo; nkhopNa toq;fp te;jnjd;gJk;> kpfg; gpw;fhyg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; ,g;gpuNjrj;J nkhopahfg; gupzkpj;jnjd;gJk;> kpfg; gpw;fhyg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; ,g;gpuNjrj;J nkhop jkpopd; gpuhe;jpa nkhopaha; khwp> kiyahs nkhopahfg; gupzkpj;jnjd;gJ rupj;jpuk; $Wk; cz;ikfs;.

 

",g;gpw;fhy kiyahsg; gpuNjrj;ij mLj;J tho;e;J te;jtNu Nkw;fhl;ba ,yf;fz tpjpfis mikj;jdH vd;W fUjy; jf;fNjahFk;. vdNt njhy;fhg;gpaH jpUtpjhq;Nfhl;Lg; gpuNjrj;ijr; rhHe;jtuhf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;w fUj;Jr; rw;Nw cWjpailfpwJ. Mdhy; rpwpJk; Iag;ghbd;wp ,k;KbT xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lkhapd; ,d;Dk; rpwe;j rhd;Wfs; Ntz;Lk;""(jkpo;r; RlHkzpfs; gf;fk; 4-5).

 

mg;gbnad;why; njhy;fhg;gpaH Nruehl;Lf;fhuuh? ,y;iy mtH jkpoPoj;ijg; (aho;g;ghzj;ij) gpwg;gplkhff; nfhz;ltH vd;W thjpLfpwhH jkpowpQH njd;GNyhypA+H K. fzgjpg;gps;is! (Kw;Wk;)