,dpa mbg;gilj; jkpopyf;fzk;

 

.Kjypy; mwpa Ntz;ba njhlf;f ,yf;fzk;:

 

fPo; tUk; mbg;gil ,yf;fzk; gs;sp khzt khztpfSf;Fk; jkpo; njupe;J jkpopyf;fzk; mwpa Kw;gLgtUf;Fk; njhlf;f  ,yf;fzk; fw;gtUf;Fk; Jizahf ,Uf;Fk;. ahg;G gw;wp mjpfkwpa tpUk;GNthH Ehy;fis thq;fpg; gbf;fTk;. my;yJ ,izajsj;jpy;  Njbg; gbf;fTk;.  

 

capnuOj;J

 

jkpo; nkhopf;F capnud tpsq;Fk; vOj;Jf;fs; gd;dpnuz;L. mit gpd;tUkhW. 

 

(m) Fwpy;  - m> ,> c> v> x

 

(v-fh) md;G> ,dpik> cz;ik> vd;G> xOf;fk;

 

(M) neby;: - M> <> C> V> ma;> X> mt;

 

(v-fh) Mly;> <jy;> Co;j;jy;> Vwy;> ma;ak;> Xjy;> mt;ljk;

 

 

Ma;j vOj;J

 

capnuOj;Jf;fSld; Nru;e;Nj gbf;fg;gbDk; ,e;j vOj;J jdpahf Ma;j vOj;njd;Nw miof;fg;gLfpwJ:

 

Ma;jk;

(v-fh)  m/J> ,/J> v/F>

 

nka;naOj;J

 

,it Gs;spnaOj;J my;yJ xw;nwOj;J vdg;gLk;. 18 nka;naOj;Jf;fs; Mtd -

 

ty;ypdk;:-

f;> r;> l;> j;> g;> w;

(v-fh) rf;fuk;> kr;rk;> gl;lk;> kj;jsk;> fg;gy;> rpw;gk;.

 

nky;ypdk;

q;> Q;> z;> e;> k;> d;

(v-fh) rq;F> kQ;rs;> J}z;> ge;jk;> mk;kh> md;dk;

 

,ilapdk;:

a;> u;> y;> t;> o;> s;

(v-fh) Nju;> My;> mt;it> rpkpo;> Njs;

 

capu;nka; vOj;J

 

capnuOj;Jf;fs; gd;dpnuz;Lk;> nka;naOj;Jf;fs; gjpndl;Lld; Nru;e;J cUthFk; vOj;Jf;fNs capu;nka;naOj;Jf;fs;.

(v-fh)  f; + m =  f.

 

nkhj;jj; jkpo; vOj;Jf;fs;

 

capnuOj;Jf;fs; 12> Ma;j vOj;J 1> nka;naOj;Jf;fs; 18 kw;Wk; capu;nka;naOj;Jf;fs; 216 (12 x 18) Nru;e;J nkhj;j jkpnoOj;Jf;fs; 247.

 

Xu; vOj;J jdpj;J epd;Nwh gy vOj;Jfs; njhlu;e;J epd;Nwh nghUs; jUtJ nrhy; vdg;gLk;.

 

(v.fh) tPL> fz;> Ngh

 

nrhy;ypd; tiffs;

 

ngau;r;nrhy;

tpidr;nrhy;

,ilr;nrhy;

cupr;nrhy;

 

nghUs; ,uz;L tifg;gLk;. mit

 

mfg;nghUs;

Gwg;nghUs;

 

ek; ,yf;fpaqSf;Fg; ghLnghUs;fshf miktd mfg;nghUs;fSk; Gwg;nghUs;fSk;. xj;j md;Gila jiytDk; jiytpAk; xUtiunahUtu; fhjypj;J elj;Jk; tho;f;if epfo;r;rpfis tpsf;fpf; $WtJ mfg;nghUs;.mwk;, nghUs;, tPL Mfpa (,d;gk; xope;j) %d;W NgWfis gw;wpAk; fy;tp> tPuk;> nfhil> Gfo; Kjypad gw;wpAk; $WtJ Gwg;nghUs;.

 

khj;jpiu

 

fz;rpkpl;Lk; tpdhb my;yJ fl;iltpuYk; neLtpuYk; xUNru nrhLf;Fk; fhy msNt xU khj;jpiunad;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. fPOs;s gl;bay; vOj;Jf;fSf;fhd khj;jpiuastpid Fwpf;fpd;wd:-

 

nka;naOj;Jf;fs;.  ) miu khj;jpiu

Ma;j vOj;J.     )

 

capu;f; Fwpy;fs;.   ) xU khj;jpiu

capu;nka;Fwpy;fs;  )

 

capu; neby;fs;    ) ,U khj;jpiu

capu;nka; neby;fs;)

 

 

xw;Wg; gpiofs; - 1 

 

ty;nyOj;J kpFkplq;fs;:

 

fPo;tUk; cjhuzq;fspd; gb ,U nrhw;fs; NrUk; NghJ> ,uz;lhtJ nrhy;ypd; KjnyOj;J f;> r;> j;> g;> Kjypa ehd;F nka;naOj;Jfspy; cUthd capu; nka;naOj;Jf;fshf ,Ug;gpd; (ck; - f> fh> r> rh> j> jh> g> gh Kjyhdit) eLtpNy f;> r;> j;> g; Mfpa ty;ypd nka;naOj;Jf;fs; rpy tpjpfspd; gb> rpy nrhw;fspy; kl;Lk; eLtpy; NrUk;. ,jidNa ty;nyOj;J kpFjy; vd;fpNwhk;. Nju;TfspYk;> fl;LiufspYk; khztu;fl;F kjpg;ngz;fs; Fiwtjw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; ty;nyOj;J kpFk;/kpfh ,lq;fis mwpahikNa. rhjhuzkhf njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba rpy Kf;fpa tpjpfs; kl;LNk ,q;F tpsf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ. ,tw;iw epidT nfhz;lhNy ngUk;ghy gpiofis ePf;fptplyhk;.  

 

ty;nyOj;J kpFk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf;fs;

 

jkpio + fz;Nld;   = jkpiof; fz;Nld;.

 

jkpio + re;jpj;Njd; = jkpior; re;jpj;Njd;.

 

jkpio + je;Njd;   = jkpioj; je;Njd;.

 

jkpio + ghu;j;Njd;  = jkpiog; ghu;j;Njd;.

 

mjpfkhfg; gpio nra;Akplq;fs;

 

fPo;tUk; ,lq;fspy; nghJthf midtUNk xU rpy rkaq;fspy; jtWfpNwhk;.

 

,uz;lhk; Ntw;Wik cUgpw;Fg; gpd; kpFk; (cUG = I)

 

(v-fh)

 

,yf;fzj;ij + gbj;Njd; = ,yf;fzj;ijg; gbj;Njd;>

,yf;fpaj;ij + fz;Nld; = ,yf;fpaj;ijf; fz;Nld;>

 

ehd;fhk; Ntw;Wik cUgpw;Fg; gpd; kpFk; (cUG = F)

 

(vfh)

 

jkpOf;F + nghd;dhs; = jkpOf;Fg; nghd;dhs;

Nju;Tf;F + Nghdhd; = Nju;Tf;Fg; Nghdhd;

 

Vohk; Ntw;Wik cUigaLj;J kpFk; (cUG  = ,il)

 

(v-fh)

 

ey;yhupil + Gf;F = ey;yhupilg; Gf;F

 

Mwhk; Ntw;Wikj; njhifapy; m/wpizg; ngau;fspd; gpd; kl;Lk; kpFk; (cUG = mJ> cila):-

 

(v-fh)

 

ahid + fhy; = ahidf;fhy; (ahidapdJ fhy;)

 

,uz;L> %d;W> ma;e;J> vO Mfpa cUGk; gaDk; cld;njhf;fj; njhiffspy; kpFk;.

 

(v-fh)

 

,uz;lhk; Ntw;Wik c.g.c. njhif

 

Nkhu; + Flk; = Nkhu;f; Flk; (Nkhiu cila Flk;)

 

%d;whk; Ntw;Wik c.g.c. njhif

 

ku + fjT = kuf; fjT (kuj;jhy; Md fjT)

 

ma;e;jhk; Ntw;Wik c.g.c. njhif.

 

kiy + fy; = kiyf; fy; (kiyapdpd;W tUk; fy;)

 

Vohk; Ntw;Wik c.g.c. njhif

 

ePu; + nrb = ePu;r; nrb (ePupd; fz; cs;s nrb)

 

nghJthf ty;nyOj;Jf;fs; kpFk; rpy ,lq;fs;::-

 

gpd;tUk; nrhw;fisaLj;J tUk; ty;nyOj;Jfs; kpFk;:-

 

me;j> ,e;j> ve;j> mg;gb> ,g;gb> vg;gb> mq;F> ,q;F> vq;F> ,dp> jdp> vd> kw;w> kw;W> kw;iw> Kd;du;> gpd;du;> vy;yh> mt;tif> ,t;tif> vt;tif.

 

(v-fh)  

 

me;j + fuz;b   = me;jf; fuz;b.

 

,e;j + rpw;gk; = ,e;jr; rpw;gk;.

 

ve;j + gl;lk;     = ve;jg; gl;lk;.

 

mg;gb + Nghdhd;  = mg;gbg; Nghdhd;.

 

,g;gb + ghu;j;jhd;   = ,g;gbg; ghu;j;Njd;.

 

vg;gb + fz;lhd; = vg;gbf; fz;lhd;.

 

mq;F + nrd;whd;     = mq;Fr; nrd;whd;.

 

,q;F + jq;fpdhd;  = ,q;Fj; jq;fpdhd;.

 

vq;F + fz;lha;  = vq;Ff; fz;lha;.

 

,dp  + Nfs;  = ,dpf; Nfs;.

 

jdp  + jkpo;  = jdpj; jkpo;.

 

vd + nrhd;dhs;  = vdr; nrhd;dhs;.

 

kw;W + ghlyhk;  = kw;Wg; ghlyhk;.

 

kw;w + Fjpiufs;  = kw;wf; Fjpiufs;.

 

kw;iw + fdT  = kw;iwf; fdT.

 

Kd;du + fz;l  = Kd;du;f; fz;l.

 

gpd;du; + Nfl;l  = gpd;du;f; Nfl;l.

 

vy;yh + ngz;fs;  = vy;yhg; ngz;fs;.

 

mt;tif + rpw;gk;  = mt;tifr; rpw;gk;.

 

,t;tif + gz;G  = ,t;tifg; gz;G.

 

vt;tif + Njhw;wk;  = vt;tifj; Njhw;wk;.

 

ty;nyOj;J kpFk; kw;Wk; rpy ,lq;fs;:-

 

gpd;tUk; nrhw;fisAk; nghUs; jUk; jdp nebiyAk; mLj;J kpFk;

 

(v-fh)

 

gpd;tUk; vOj;Jfspy; tUnkhop> ngau;r; nrhy;yhf ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk kpFk;

m> ,> v> a;> u;> o;

 

(v-fh)

 

m + gf;fk; = mg;gf;fk;>

, Fuy;  = ,f;Fuy;>

jha; + ghrk; = jha;g;ghrk;

jkpou; + gz;G = jkpou;g; gz;G

jkpo; + gad; = jkpo;g; gad;

 

XnuOj;njhU nkhop

 

jP> G+> <

 

(v-fh)

 

jP + fdy; = jPf;fdy;>

G+ + ruk;  = G+r;ruk;>

< + gz;lk; = <g;gz;lk;

 

ctikj; njhif

 

(v-fh)

 

kjp + Fil = kjpf; Fil (kjpnahj;j Fil)

 

gz;Gj; njhif

 

(v-fh)

GJ + ngz; = GJg;ngz; (GJikahd ngz;)

 

"j;J" vd;W KbAk; nrhw;fisaLj;J

 

(v-fh)

ghu;j;J + Nghdhd; = ghu;j;Jg; Nghdhd;

fhj;J + fple;jhd; = fhj;Jf; fple;jhd;

 

<Wnfl;l vjpu;kiw nganur;rk; mLj;J

 

(v-fh)

 

ghlh + fpsp = ghlhf; fpsp (ghlhj fpsp)

xlh +   Nju; = xlhj; Nju; (Xlhj Nju;)

 

,U nganuhl;Lg; gz;Gj;njhif mLj;J

 

(v-fh)

rhiu + ghk;G = rhiug; ghk;G

kUj;Jt + fy;tp = kUj;Jtf; fy;tp

 

tpidnar;rq;fspy; xw;W

 

gpd;tUk; nrhw;fs; tpidnar;rq;fshf te;jhy; kl;LNk xw;W kpFk;.

Mf> Ma;> Ngha;> md;wp> ,d;wp> Nghy;

 

(v-fh)

ed;whf + ghbdhs;  = ed;whfg; ghbdhs;.

 

XLtjha; + nrhd;dhd; = XLtjha;r; nrhd;dhd;.

 

Ngha; + nra;   = Ngha;r; nra;.

 

md;wp + nrhy;yhd; = md;wpr; nrhy;yhd;.

 

,d;wp + Nghthd;  = ,d;wpg; Nghthd;.

 

Nghy + nra; = Nghyr; nra;.

 

 

xw;Wg; gpiofs; - 2

 

ty;nyOj;J kpfh ,lq;fs;

 

fPo;tUk; cjhuzq;fspd; gb ,U nrhw;fs; NrUk;NghJ> ,uz;lhtJ nrhy;ypd; Kjypy; tUk; vOj;J "f;> r;> j;> g;>" Kjypa ehd;F nka;naOj;Jfspy; cUthd capu; nka;naOj;Jf;fshf ,Ug;gpd; (ck; - f> fh> r> rh> j> jh> g> gh Kjyhdit) eLtpNy f;> r;> j;> g; Mfpa ty;ypd nka;naOj;Jf;fs; rpy tpjpfspd; gb> rpy nrhw;fspy; kl;Lk; eLtpy; NrUkplq;fisNa ty;nyOj;J kpFjy; vd;fpNwhk;. Nju;TfspYk;> fl;LiufspYk; khztu;fl;F kjpg;ngz;fs; Fiwtjw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; ty;nyOj;J kpFk;/kpfh ,lq;fis mwpahikNa. rhjhuzkhf njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba rpy Kf;fpa tpjpfs; kl;LNk ,q;F tpsf;fg; gl;bUf;fpwJ. ,tw;iw epidT nfhz;lhNy ngUk;ghyhd gpiofis ePf;fptplyhk;.

 

ty;nyOj;J kpfh vLj;Jf; fhl;Lf;fs;

 

mj;jid> ,j;jid> vj;jid> mt;tsT> ,t;tsT> vt;tsT> mit> mJ> ,it> ,J> vit> vJ> ahit> VJ.

 

mj;jid + ngupaJ = mj;jid ngupaJ.

 

,j;jid + rpwpaJ = ,j;jid rpwpaJ.

 

vj;jid + J}uk; = vj;jid J}uk;?

 

mt;tsT + fUiz = mt;tsT fUiz.

 

,t;tsT + Nfhgk; = ,t;tsT Nfhgk;.

 

vt;tsT + J}uk; = vt;tsT J}uk;?

 

mit + ngupait = mit ngupait.

 

mJ + ngupaJ = mJ ngupaJ.

 

,it + rpwpait = ,it rpwpait.

 

,J + rpwpaJ = ,J rpwpaJ.

 

vit + je;jd = vit je;jd?

 

vJ + je;jJ = vJ je;jJ?

 

ahit + ngupait = ahit ngupait?

 

VJ + fly; = VJ fly;?

 

xw;nwOj;J kpfhj rpy Kf;fpakhd ,yf;fzf; Fwpg;Gfs;

 

vOtha;j; njhlu;fspy; (Kjy; Ntw;Wik)> <W nfl;l vjpu;kiwg; nganur;rk; jtpu;j;J gpw nganur;rq;fspy;> tpidj;njhiffspy;> ck;ikj;njhiffspy;> "j;j"> "e;J" vd KbAk; nrhw;fisaLj;J xw;W kpfhJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf;fs; fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

 

vOtha;j; njhlu; (Kjy; Ntw;Wik)

 

(v-fh)

mtu; + gbj;jhu; = mtu; gbj;jhu;>

fdpnkhop + rpupj;jhs; = fdpnkhop rpupj;jhs;>

 

<W nfl;l vjpu;kiwg; nganur;rk; jtpu gpw nganur;rq;fs;

 

(v-fh)

ey;y + ghk;G = ey;y ghk;G

mbj;j + Gay; = mbj;j Gay;

 

tpidj; njhiffs;

 

(v-fh)

CW + fha; = CWfha;

tsu; + gpiw = tsu;gpiw

 

ck;ikj; njhiffs;

 

(v-fh)

,uT + gfy; = ,uT gfy; (,uTk; gfYk;)

Nru + Nrho + ghz;bau; = Nru Nrho ghz;bau; (NruUk;> NrhoUk;> ghz;baUk;)

 

"j;j> e;J" vd KbAk; nrhw;fs;

 

(v-fh)

 

ghu;j;j + ngz; = ghu;j;j ngz;

te;J +  nrd;whs; = te;J nrd;whs;

 

njhifnad;gJ ahJ?

 

,U nrhw;fs; Nru;e;J tUtJ jkpopyf;fzj;jpy; njhifnadg;gLk;. (c-k;) nre;jhkiu (nrk;ik + jhkiu). njhiffs;: Ntw;Wikj;njhif> tpidj;njhif> gz;Gj;njhif> ,Unganuhl;Lg; gz;Gj;njhif> ctikj;njhif> ck;ikj;njhif> md;nkhopj;njhif vd;W gytifg;gLk;. mit gpd;tUkhW.

 

 

Ntw;Wikj; njhif:

 

,U nrhw;fSf;fpilNa "I"> "My;"> "F"> ",d;"> "mJ"> "fz;" Kjyhd cUGfs; kiwe;jpUf;Fkhdhy; mJ Ntw;Wikj; njhifahk;: -

 

(v-fh)

 

,uz;lhk; Ntw;Wik

 

(v-fh) jkpo; fw;whd; - "ma;" kiwe;Js;sJ.

 

,uz;lhk; Ntw;WikAUGk; gaDk; cld; njhf;fj;njhifAk;

(v-fh): japu;f;Flk; - "ma;" cUGk;> cila vDk; nrhy;Yk; kiwe;Js;sd.

 

%d;whk; Ntw;Wik

 

(v-fh) jiy tzq;fpdhd; - "My;" kiwe;Js;sJ

 

%d;whk; Ntw;WikAUGk; gaDk; cld; njhf;fj;njhifAk;

(v-fh): nghw;Flk; - "My;" cUGk; nra;j vDk; gaDk; kiwe;Js;sJ.

 

ehd;fhk; Ntw;Wik

 

(v-fh) Neha; kUe;J - "F" kiwe;Js;sJ.

 

ma;e;jhk; Ntw;Wik:

 

(v-fh) kiyaUtp - ",y;" (m) ",d;" kiwe;Js;sJ

 

Ie;jhk; Ntw;WikAUGk; gaDk; cld; njhf;fj;njhifAk;

(v-fh)Gz;zPu; - ",y;" vDk; cUGk; ,Ue;J vd;Dk; gaDk; kiwe;Js;sd

 

Mwhk; Ntw;Wik

 

(v-fh)

jkpou; gz;G - "mJ" kiwe;Js;sJ

(v-fh)

mtd; tz;b - "cila" kiwe;Js;sJ

 

Vohk; Ntw;Wik

(v-fh)

kzp xyp - "fz;" kiwe;Js;sJ

 

Vohk; Ntw;WikAUGk; gaDk; cld; njhf;fj;njhifAk;:-

(v-fh) tapw;Wj;jP - "fz;" cUGk;> Njhd;wpa vd;Dk; gaDk; kiwe;Js;sd.

 

tpidj;njhif

 

,we;jfhyk;> epfo;fhyk;> vjpu;fhyk; Mfpa %d;W fhyq;fShk; ,Unrhw;fSf;F ,ilapy; kiwe;jpUg;gpd; ,it tpidnjhif vdg;gLk;. vspatop: (1) ,j;njhifapy; ,U nrhw;fNs ,Uf;Fk; (2) Kjypy; ,Uf;Fk; nrhy; tpidr; nrhy;yhf ,Uf;Fk; (3) ,uz;lhtJ nrhy; ngau;r; nrhy;yhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

(v-fh)

 

"RLNrhW" - RLfpd;w NrhW (epfo;fhyk;)

Rl;l NrhW - (,we;jfhyk;)

RLk; NrhW - (vjpu;fhyk;)

 

gz;Gj;njhifAk; ,Unganuhl;Lg; gz;Gj;njhifAk;

 

gz;Gg; ngau;r;nrhw;fSld; NtW ngau;r;nrhy; Nru;e;J tUkhapd; mit gz;Gj;njhifnadg;gLk;. mJNghy ,uz;L nrhw;fs; nfhz;l xU gz;Gj;njhifapy; Kjypy; tUk; nrhy; rpwg;Gg; ngau;r;nrhy;yhfTk; ,uz;lhtJ tUk; ngau;r;nrhy; nghJg;ngau;r;nrhy;yhfTk; ,Ug;gpd; mJ ,Unganuhl;Lg; gz;Gj;njhifnadg;gLk;.

 

gz;ghtd: Fzk;  (ed;ik> jPik)> cUtk; (tl;lk;> rJuk;)> epwk; (ePyk;> gRik)> vz;zk;(xd;W> gj;J)> Rit(Jtu;> fhuk;)

 

(v-fh)

gz;Gj;njhif

 

"gz;Gj;njhif" "Nrtb"> "nrq;fz;"> "neLq;fly;"> "%J}u;"> "jz;japu;"> "ige;njhb"> "ntz;rpiy"> "ehw;gil"

 

(v-fh)

,Unganuhl;Lg; gz;Gj;njhif

 

"ifj;jyk;" "gyhkuk;"> "kbj;jyk;"> ",e;jpaehL"> "tpw;gil"> "ntz;japu;"> "xz;nlhb"> "fUQ;rpiy"> "ehw;gil"

 

ctikj; njhif

 

ctikj; njhif fz;Lgpbf;f (1) ,U nrhw;fSs;s njhifr; nrhy;yhf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;. mjpy; Kjw;nrhy; xU ctikr ;nrhy;yhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,JNt ctikj;njhif.

 

(v-fh) ghidtha; - ,jpy; ghid vd;gJ ctik (ghidapd; thiag; Nghd;w)

 

NkYk; rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 

"kjpKfk;" "kyub"> "Jbapil"> "fkyf;fz;"> "fdptha;"> "Njd;nkhop"> "nrq;fz;"> "khd;tpop"> "ths;kPir"

 

ck;ikj; njhif

 

ck;ikj; njhif fz;Lgpbf;f (1) Nru;e;j ,U nrhw;fSk; njhlu;Gs;s nrhy;yhf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.(v-fh) khLfd;W. (2) ,U nrhw;fSf;fpilapy; "ck;" Nru;g;gpd;> nghUs; rupahf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW ,Ug;gpd; mJ ck;ikj;njhif vd;W nfhs;f.

 

(v-fh)

 

Nru Nrho ghz;bau; - ,jpy; NruUk; NrhoUk; ghz;baUk; vd;W nghUs; jUk;

 

NkYk; rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 

"Ntz;Ljy; Ntz;lhik" "mUshz;ik"> "jha;je;ij"> "eiujpiu"> "fhapiyf;fpoq;F"> "fgpyguzu;"

 

md;nkhopj; njhif

 

,Jtiuapw; $wpa njhiffspy; my;yhj nrhw;fs; kiwe;JtUkhapd; mJ md;nkhopj;njhifahFk;. NkYk; ,t;td;nkhopj;njhif Kd; nrhd;d ma;e;J njhiffspy; xd;whf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

(v-fh)

 

"Mapio te;jhs;" - ,jpy; Mapionad;gJ fhyq;fhl;lhj tpidj;njhif (Muha;e;j ,io> Muha;fpd;w ,io> MuhAk; ,io). Mapd; ,t;tplj;jpy; me;j ,ioazpe;j ngz;nzd;W nghUshjjhy;> ,J tpidj;njhifg; Gwj;nj gpwe;j md;nkhopj;njhif vdg;gLk;. ,t;thNw kw;w njhiffspd; Gwj;Nj ,e;j md;nkhopj;njhif mike;jpUf;Fk;.

 

NkYk; rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;:

 

"Nfhw;nwhbiaf; nfhd;W vd; nra">

"Ve;jpio <kf; fldpWtpg; NghJ"

"tPkd; jpUkfshk; nky;ypaiy">

"MaKk; fhtYk; Mapio jdf;F">

"je;Jau; fhzh jifrhy; G+q;nfhb">

"tpsq;fpio jkpad; Mdhs;">

"mQ;nrhy; ,stQ;rp mbnae;Njhs; VW" 

 

 

ngau;r;nrhy; tiffs;

 

ngau;r; nrhy;nyd;gJ ahJ?

 

cyfpYs;s nghUs;fspd;/capu;fspd; ngau;fisf; $Wtd ngau;r;nrhy; vdyhk;.

 

gz;Gg; ngau;

 

xU nghUspd; Fzj;ij> tbtj;ij> Ritia> epwj;ij> nrhy;tdnty;yhk; gz;Gg; ngau;fshk;. -

 

(v-fh)

 

ntz;ik> tl;lk;> Jtu;g;G

 

MFngau;

 

xU nrhy; mjd; nghUisf; Fwpf;fhky; mjndhL njhlu;Gila nghUisf; Fwpg;gJ MFngau;. ,e;j MFngau; 19 tifg;gLk;. ngUk;ghYk; tof;fpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLgit nghUshFngau;> ,lthFngau;> gz;ghFngau;> ctikahFngau;> jhdpahFngau; Mfpa ma;e;Nj.

 

jhkiu Nghd;w Nrtb   - kyiu kl;LNk Rl;LfpwJ

mdpr;rk; Nghd;wtu;     - kyiuf; Fwpf;fpwJ

efu; ntd;wJ         - efu;tho; kf;fis Fwpf;fpwJ

nts;is mbj;jhd;    - ntz;ikahd Rz;zk; Fwpf;fpwJ

ghit te;jhs;        - rpiyNghd;w ngz;izf; Fwpf;fpwJ

tQ;rp te;jhs;        - tQ;rpf; nfhbaida ngz;zhFk;"

 

 

tpidahyizAk; ngau;

 

tpidKw;iwg; NghypUf;Fk; Mdhy; ngau;nrhy;yhf gad;gLj;jg; gl;bUf;Fk;. ,r;nrhy;Ny tpidahyizAk; ngau;. "mtu; mwpe;jtu;" - ,j;njhlupy; "mwpe;jtu;" tpidKw;W. "mwpe;jtu; gupR ngWtu;" - ,j;njhlupy; "mwpe;jtu;" ngau;r;nrhy;yhf gad;gLfpwJ.

 

(v fh)

 

"tpj;Njhd; kUf"

"ts;spNahu;g; glu;e;J"

"jkJ gFj;Jz;Zk;"

"nghWj;jhNdhL Cu;e;jhdpil"

"kpr;rpy; kpirthd;"

"jg;gpau; ml;l fsj;J"

"nfhLg;gJ mOf;fWg;ghd;"

"vz;zpa vz;zpahq;F"

 

njhopw; ngau;

 

xU nraiy czu;j;jf; $ba fhyq; fhl;lhj ngau;r;nrhy; njhopw;ngau; vd toq;fg; gLk;. ,J Kjdpiyj; njhopw; ngau;> Kjdpiyj; jpupe;j njhopw;nganud ,Utifg;gLk;. Kjdpiyj; njhopw;ngau;

 

(v-fh)

 

vz; ciuj;jpl thuPu;

 

,jpy; vz;zk; vd;w njhopw;ngau; vz;nzd;w KjdpiyNahL te;jjJ.

 

Kjdpiyj; jpupe;j njhopw;ngau;

 

(v-fh)

 

nfLjy; vd;Dk; njhopw;ngaupd; Kjdpiyahd nfL vd;gJ jpupe;j;J NfL vd;W tupd; m/nj Kjdpiy jpupe;j njhopw;ngau;.

 

 

 

tpidKw;W> vr;r tiffs;

 

tpidKw;nwd;gJ ahJ?

 

xU thf;fpaj;jpy; Fwpg;gpLk; nray;/ gaepiy KbT ngw;wpUe;jhy; mJ tpid Kw;W vd;W toq;fg;gLk;.:-

 

(v-fh)

 

gbj;j khztd; - gbj;j vd;gJ khztndDk; ngaupid Rl;Ltjhy; nganur;rk; vdg;gLk;.

gbj;Jr; nrd;whd; - gbj;J vd;gJ nrd;whndDk; tpidiar; Rl;Ltjhy; tpidnar;rk; vdg;gLk;.

khztd; gbj;jhd; - ,jpy; khztd; nra;j nraiy Kw;Wngw nrhy;tjhy; tpidKw;W vdg;gLk;.

 

Fwpg;G tpidKw;W

 

mtd; ey;ytd; - vd;gjpy; ey;ytd; ey;ytd; vd;gJ Nghy fhyq;fhl;lh tpidKw;Wfs; cz;L. mit Fwpg;G tpidKw;W vdg;gLk;. ngau; mbahfg; gpwe;J fhyk; fhl;lhj Fwpg;G tpidKw;Wfs; fPo;tUkhW:- -

 

(v-fh)

 

ePu;j;J> cilj;J> ed;W> ,y;iy> NtW> ,dpJ> cz;L> ,d;W> kUfid> csd;.

 

%d;wplj;Jk; nghUe;Jk; tpidKw;Wfs;

 

jd;ik tpidKw;W

 

ciuj;jndd;> ,Ue;jndd;> Nghw;WNfd;> nra;Nfd;> Nehw;wpNyd;> ahj;jpNyd;> ghu;j;jndd; - ,itaidj;Jk; jd;ikaplj;ijf; $Wk; jd;ik tpidKw;Wfshk;.

 

jd;ikg; gd;ik tpidKw;W

 

Nju;e;jpyk;> mwpthk;> njupJk;> Mw;WJk; - ,itaidj;Jk; jd;ikaplj;jpy; tUk; gd;ik tpidKw;Wfs;.

 

Kd;dpiy xUik tpidKw;W

 

nfhd;wid> ghu;j;jid> nra;jha;> Fbj;jha;> tUjp> ,irj;jp> Nfl;b> Nfhb> fhz;b> ciuj;jp> fplj;jp - ,itaidj;Jk; Kd;dpiy xUik tpidKw;Wfshk;.

 

Kd;dpiyg; gd;ik tpidKw;W:

 

nrd;wPu;> nry;tPu; - vd;gdahTk; Kd;dpiyg; gd;ik tpidKw;Wfshk;.

 

glu;f;if tpidKw;W

 

glu;f;ifaplj;jpy; cs;s ma;e;J ghy;fspYk; tUgit glu;f;if tpidKw;Wfshk;.

 

(v-fh)

 

te;jhd; - Mz;ghy;

te;jhs;> gbj;jhs; - ngz;ghy;>

va;jpd;W> te;jJ> Kjw;W> ijj;jd;W - xd;wd;ghy;>

Kjy;> ePu> Nghd;w> te;jd - gytpd;ghy;>

Nrhfhg;gu;> va;Jg> Mg> czu;g> te;jdu; - gyu;ghy;>

 

vjpu;kiw tpidKw;W

 

vjpu;kiwg; nghUis czu;j;Jk; tpidKw;Wfshd - Neuh> flthu;> JQ;Nry;> ePq;fh> njupe;jpyd;> mwpfpNyd; - Nghd;wit vjpu;kiw tpidKw;Wfs vdg;gLk;.

 

Vty; tpidKw;W

 

Kd;dpiyapy; MizapLtjhf tUk; nrhw;fs; Vty; tpidKw;Wfs; vdg;gLk;.

 

(v-fh)

el> th> Ngh   - ntWk; gFjp khj;jpuk;

Njw;wha;> tUjp - Ma;> , tpFjpAilr; nrhw;fs;

cz;zy;> cz;Nzy;> kwhy;> cz;zhjp> cz;zhNj -

my;> My;> Vy;> ,> V tpFjpAilr; nrhw;fs;

ngWkpd;> $Wkpd;> cz;zPu;> cz;Zk; -

kpd;> <u;> ck; - tpFjpAilr; nrhw;fs;

 

tpaq;Nfhs; tpidKw;W

 

MizapLtJ Nghyy;yhky; Ntz;LNfhisg; Nghd;W njhdpf;Fk; tpidKw;Wfs; ,it.

 

(v-fh)

 

tho;f> epw;f> njhlq;fw;f - "f" tpFjp

thopa               - ",a" tpFjp

thopau;              - ",au;" tpFjp

vdy;                - "my;" tpFjp

 

vr;rq;fspd; tpsf;fk;

 

rpy Neuq;fspy; xU thf;fpaj;jpy; ,uz;L tpidKw;Wfs; ,Ug;gJ Nghd;W tUtJz;L. mjpy; Kjypy; tUk; tpidKw;W Kw;nwr;rk; vd;W toq;fg;gLfpwJ:-

 

(v-fh)  

 

fz;ldd; tzq;fpdhd;    - fz;ldd; vd;gJ Kw;nwr;rk;.

cilapdd; Njhd;wpdd;   - cilapdd; vd;gJ Kw;nwr;rk;.

cte;jdd; Vj;jp        - cte;jdd; vd;gJ Kw;nwr;rk;

 

nganur;rk;

 

ngaiuf; nfhz;L KbTWk; fhyq;fhl;Lfpd;w> Kw;Wngwh tpidr; nrhw;fs; nganur;rq;fshk;

 

(v-fh)

 

cz;l fz;zd;     - cz;l vd;gJ ,we;jfhyk; fhl;Lk; nganur;rk;

cz;Zfpd;w nghUs; - cz;Zfpd;w vd;gJ epfo;fhyk; fhl;Lk; nganur;rk;

cz;Zk; Ntis    - cz;Zk; vd;gJ vjpu;fhyk; fhl;Lk; nganur;rk;

vdy;             - "my;" tpFjp

 

 

nganur;r tiffspy; "M" vd;Dk; vOj;jpy; Kbfpd;witAk; vjpu;kiwg; nghUisj; jUfpd;witAk; mLj;j nrhy;iyg; ngau;r;nrhy;yha; nfhz;L KbgitAk; Vwf;Fiwa <W nfl;l vjpu;kiwg; nganur;rq;fshFk;:-

 

(v-fh) 

 

va;Jtu; va;jhg; gop - va;jh vd;gJ <W nfl;l vjpu;kiwg; nganur;rk;       ehwh kyuidau;   - ehwh vd;gJ <W nfl;l vjpu;kiwg; nganur;rk; 

 

Ntw;Wikfs;

 

Ntw;Wik

 

ngau;r; nrhy;nyhd;W NtWgl;l nghUisj; jUtJ Ntw;Wikahk;. "khwd; ntl;bdhd;" - ,e;jj; njhlupy; ntl;batd; khwd;. "khwid ntl;bdhd;"  ,e;jj; njhlupy; ntl;Lz;ltd; khwd;. ,g;nghUs; NtWghl;ilj; jUtJ "ma;" vd;DQ; nrhy;. ,/Nj Ntw;Wik vd;wiof;fg;gLk;. ,e;j Ntw;Wiknad;gJ vl;L tifg; gLk;.

 

Kjy; Ntw;Wik (m) vOtha; Ntw;Wik:

 

"nrhw;nwhlupy; xU ngau;r;nrhy; ngauhf kl;Lky;yhJ kw;nwhU tpidf;F vOthahfTk; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ, m/nj vOtha; Ntw;Wik my;yJ Kjy; Ntw;Wik vdg;gLk;. fPo;tUk; vLj;Jffhl;Lf;fspy; Kjyhtjhf khwd; vd;w ngau;r;nrhy; ntl;bdhd; vd;w tpidf;F vOthahfTk; ,Ug;gjhy; Kjy; Ntw;Wik (m) vOtha; Ntw;Wiknad;W toq;fg;gLk;. ,t;Ntw;Wik tpidKw;W> ngau;> tpdhf;fspy; xd;iwf; nfhz;L KbAk;.

 

(v-fh)

 

khwd; ntl;bdhd;

nts;sp Kisj;jJ

 

,uz;lhk Ntw;Wik

 

xU ngau;r;nrhy;ypd; nghUis nrag;gLnghUshf NtWgLj;jpf; fhl;LtJ ,uz;l;lhk; Ntw;Wik. ,jd; cUG "ma;.

(v-fh)

epyj;ij cOjhd;.(epyk; + ma; + cOjhd;)

kuj;ij ntl;bdhd;.(kuk; + ma; + ntl;bdhd;)

 

%d;whk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikf;fhd cUGfs;: "My;"  "Md;"  "xL"  "XL". fPo;tUk; nrhw;nwhlu;fs; cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdpnad %d;whk; Ntw;Wikia tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

 

v-fh)

fyg;igahy; cOjhd;

thshd; mWj;jhd;

ghnyhL Njd;fye;J

jhNahL mWRit Nghk;

 

ehd;fhk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikf;Fupa cUG "F". nrhy;YUG "nghUl;L". fPo;tUk; cjhuzq;fs; ,t;Ntw;Wikia tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

 

(v-fh)

Viof;F czT nfhLj;jhd;

$ypapd; nghUl;L gzp nra;jhd;

 

 

ma;e;jhk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikf;fhd cUGfs;: ",y;" ",d;" nrhy;YUG: "epd;W" ",Ue;J" "fhl;bYk;" "ghu;f;fpYk;" "tpl". fPo;tUk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfis ftdpf;fTk;:

 

(v-fh)

mwptpw; rpwe;jtu; ts;Stu;

GJitapd; njw;Ff; flY}u;

kuj;jpdpd;W ,wq;fpdhd;

gzpapypUe;J xa;T ngw;whu;

tpe;jpaj;ijf; fhl;bYk; ,kak; cauk;

,Uk;ig tpl nghd; kjpg;GilaJ

 

Mwhk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikapd; cUG "mJ". nrhy;YUG: "cila". fPo;tUk; vLj;Jfhl;Lfs; cUgpd; gaid tpsf;Ffpd;wd.

 

(v-fh)

KUfdJ Ntw; gil

vd;Dila Kfk;

 

Vohk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikapd; cUG: "fz;" ",il" "Kd;" ",lk;" "Nky;" "fPo;" "gpd;" "cs;" ",y;". ,it gadhFk; nrhw;nwhlu;fs; ,Njh:

 

(v-fh)

Cupd; fz; cs;sJ Fsk;

ey;yhupil mwpT rpwf;Fk;

vd; Kd; epy;yhNj

mtdplk; gz;G cz;L

rpuNkw; nfhs;f

thioapd; fPo; fd;W

fe;jDf;Fg; gpd; KUfd;

jkpo;f; flYf;Fs; ftpKj;J

Cu; eLtpy; Fsk;

 

vl;lhk; Ntw;Wik

 

,t;Ntw;Wikia tpsp Ntw;Wik vd;gu;. ,jw;F cUG ,y;iy. fPo; tUk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfis ftdpf;f.

 

(v-fh)

kfd;    - kfNd!  - <w;wpy; "V" kpFe;jJ.

eq;if  - eq;fha;!  - <w;wpy; "ma; "Ma;" Mfj; jpupe;jJ.

md;gd; - md;g!    - <W nfl;lJ

Gytu;  - GytPu;!    - <w;way; jpupe;jJ

jk;gp    - jk;gp!    - ,ay;ghjy;

 


 

 

jkpopy; vOjg;gl;l ,yf;fz Ehy;fs;

 

njhy;fhg;gpak;         - njhy;fhg;gpaH             fpK 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;L

tPuNrhopak;           -  Gj;jkpj;jpudhu;            -  11 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

rpjk;gug; ghl;bay;      - guQ;Nrhjpahu;              - 11 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

,yf;fz tpsf;fk;     - itj;jpaehj Njrpfu;         - 17 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

,yf;fz R+lhkzp     - ftpghyghujp               - 17 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

njhd;D}y; tpsf;fk;    - tPukhKdptu;               - 18 Mk; E}w;whz;L

nre;jkpo; tpsf;fk;     - tPukhKdptu;               - 18 Mk; E}w;whz;L

Rthkpehjk;           - Rthkpftpuhau;              - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

Kj;JtPupak;          - Kj;JtPu cghj;jpahau;       -  19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

tz;zj;jpay;G        - jz;lghzp Rthkpfs;         - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

fl;lisf; fypj;Jiw   - rp.it. jhNkhjuk; gps;is    -  19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

tpUj;jg; ghtpay;   ;   - jp. tPugj;jpu Kjypahu;        - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

mWtif ,yf;fzk;   - jz;lghzp Rthkpfs;         - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

vohk; ,yf;fzk      - jz;lghzp Rthkpfs;         - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

nra;Aspyf;fzk;      - G+it fypahzRe;juH         - 19 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ahg;gpyf;fz ciu     - irt rpj;jhe;j gjpg;G        - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ahg;gUq;fy tpUj;jpAiu - gjpg;G - gthde;jgps;is     - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ahg;nghsp            - Mu;. rPdpthr uhfthr;rhupahu;   - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ahg;gjpfhuk;          - Gytu; Foe;ij            -  20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

,yf;fz tpsf;fk; - ahg;gpay; - Nf. ,uh[Nfhghyhr;rhupahu; - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ftpQuhf        - m.fp. gue;jhkdhu;                  - 20Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ftpghlyhk;      - fp.th. rfe;ehjd;                   - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

njhilajpfhuk; - Gytu; Foe;ij                      - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

FkhuG+gjPak; (tz;zg;gh ahg;gpyf;fzk;) - k.uh. G+gjp      - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

fiykzp G+gjPak; - k.uh. G+gjp                       - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ahg;GE}y;        - j. rutzj;jkpod;                 - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

vspjhfg; ghlyhk; - ,uhK. ,sq;Fkud;                 - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

,yF jkpo; ma;e;jpyf;fzk; - K. Ntq;fluhkd;           - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

njhd;D}y; - ,yf;fpag;glyk; - r. ghyRe;juk;            - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

rpe;Jg; ghtpay; - ,uh. jpUKUfdhu;                    - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

ghtyu; gz;iz - ,uh. jpUKUfdhu;                   - 20 Mk; E}w;whz;L