ngUntw;wpNahL ele;Njwpa Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpoh

rpwg;gpj;j midtUf;Fk; ed;wp

jkpo;g; gilg;ghspfs; fofk; kw;Wk; Kof;fk; ,ize;J elj;jpa Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpohTf;F tUif je;J rpwg;gpj;j Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd jkpo;nkhopg; gw;whsHfs;> jkpopd czHthsHfs;> gFj;jwpthsHfs;> Kw;Nghf;F rpe;jidahsHfs;> ez;gHfs; midtUf;Fk; vk; kdk; epiwe;j ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf;nfhs;fpNwhk;.

Fwpg;ghf gpd; tUNthHf;F vkJ ed;wpfs;.

fdlh fe;jrhkp Nfhapy; muq;if je;Jjtpa mwq;fhty; mitapdH.

miog;gpjio mofhf tbtikj;J mr;Rr; nra;J je;j jpU.Rg;gpukzpak; ,uh[;FkhH mtHfs;.

Nrhjplg; Gul;L> epidTg; gupR ,uz;ilAk; mofhf tbtikj;j Print Fast mr;rf cupikahsH.

Ritahd rpw;Wz;bfis md;gspg;Gr; nra;j ghG Nfl;lwpq; kw;Wk; mgpuhkp Nfl;lwpq; cupikahsHfs;.

kq;fy tpsf;if Vw;wpitj;j jpU. jpUkjp fe;ijah Fkhurhkp ,izaHfs;.

tuNtw;Giu ey;fpa gthdp jUkFyrpq;fk; mtHfs;.

NrhjplKk; mwptpaYk; vd;w xspg;glj;ij tbtikj;J toq;fpa jpUkjp jpUkfs; ghyFkhH mtHfs;.

Ehyhrpupaiu mwpKfk; nra;J itj;j jkpoH GdHtho;Tf; fofj; jiytH ,uh. Fzehjd; mtHfs;.

ntspaPl;Liu Mw;wpa Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; mtHfs;.

Ehiy eLepiyNahL Ma;Tiu nra;j Kof;fk; nghWg;ghrpupaH thdjp kw;Wk; jkpo;f; fiy njhopy; El;gf; fy;Yhupg; nghWg;ghsH jpU. rz;Kfk; Ffjhrd; mtHfs;.   

Ehyhrpupaiug; ghuhl;b ftpij gbj;j ftpQH &gd; ul;zJiu> ftpQH mdiy ,uhNre;jpuk;> ftpQH ,uhrypq;fk; kw;Wk;  ftpQH rpd;dj;jk;gp rz;Kfuhrh mtHfs;.

jkpNo tho;f;! jkpo; md;idNa tho;f! <okz;Nz tho;f! vd;w vOr;rpg; ghlYf;F kpfTk; NeHj;jpahf tuNtw;G eldk; Mba jpU. thR rpd;duhrh Mrpupaupd; khztpfs; ruzpah tpNtfhee;jd; kw;Wk; rpe;Jhuh Mde;juhrh. epfo;r;rpia newpg;gLj;jpa jpUkjp tdpjh ,uhNre;jpud; mtHfs;.

rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH jpU.kh.f. <oNte;jd; mtHfSf;F Nkilapy; khiyfs; mzptpj;J ngUikg;gLj;jpa  jpU. ,uh. Fzehjd;> jiytH> jkpoH GdH tho;Tf; fofk;> jpU. tpehrpj;jk;gp Jiuuhrh> jiytH> fdlh jkpo; <or; rq;fk;>  jpU.fe;ijah fNzrypq;fk;> jiytH> fiy> njhopy;El;gf; fy;Yhup MfpNahH. nghd;dhil NghHj;jpa jpU. rpd;dj;jk;gp rpw;wk;gyk;> jiytH> cyfj; jkpoH ,af;fk;> jpU. fhHj;jpNfR rptNrfuk;> Jizj; jiytH j.G.fofk; MfpNahH. kw;Wk; epidTg; gupR toq;fpa fNdba jkpoH Nguitj; jiytH  Nguhrpupah; NahNrg; re;jpufhe;jd;.

mofhfj; jkpo;j; jha; tho;j;Jg; gh ghba nry;tp mgpuhkp jq;fNtY> nry;tp epyh jq;fNtY MfpNahH.

rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH jpU. <oNte;jDf;Fk; EhyhrpupaH ef;fPuDf;Fk; G+r;nrz;L nfhLj;J Nkd;ikg;gLj;jpa mgpuhkp> murd;> khwd;> ghup> mofd;> ntw;wp> epyh> kPuh> td;dp> itif MfpNahH.   

ahH Foe;ij? vd;w ehlfj;ij newpahs;if nra;J Nkil Vw;wpa jpU. rptk; gukehjd;. mjpy; ebj;j ebfHfs; kPuh ,uhirah> Nte;jd;> .......

Ehy; ntspaPL njhlHghd tpsk;guq;fis ey;yKiwapy; ntspapl;l Kof;fk;> cyfj;jkpoH> <oKuR> <oehL Mfpa nra;jp VLfs;. NeHfhzy; fz;L xspgug;Gr; nra;j jkpo;j; njhiyf;fhl;rp> jkpo;xd;W njhiyf;fhl;rp kw;Wk; ATN njhiyf;fhl;rp. xypug;Gr; nra;j  fNdba jkpo; thndhyp> jkpo;r;Nrhiy> CMR thndhyp kw;Wk; jkpNohir thndhypfs;.

fly; fle;J jilfs; gy jhz;b Nuhf;fpNah topahf  te;J tpohtpy; Kjd;ik tpUe;jpduhff; fye;J nfhz;L rpwg;Giu Mw;wpa jkpo;j; Njrpaf; $l;likg;gpd; aho;g;ghz ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdH jkpNoe;jy; kh.f. <oNte;jd; mtHfs;.

Nrhjplk; vd;gJ %lj;jdk; mwptpay; cq;fs; %yjdk;

 


 

kf;fs; epiwe;j muq;fpy; ele;Njwpa Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpoh 

vkJ r%fj;ijg; gPbj;Js;s Nrhjplk; vd;Dk; Nehiag; Nghf;Fk; kUe;jhf Nrhjplg; Gul;L mike;Js;sJ - <oNte;jd; 

ngUk;ghd;ik jkpoHfs; fhyk; fhykhf ek;gp tUk; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ij kWj;J mJ xU Nghyp mwptpay; vd vz;gpf;f KaYk; xU Ehiy thq;f Ehw;Wf;fzf;fpy; kf;fs; jpuz;L tUthHfsh? mjpYk; 3 ,yl;rk; kf;fSf;F %iyf;F %iy 60 f;Fk; mjpfkhd Nfhapy;fs; NjH> jPHj;jk;> rg;guj; jpUtpoh> mUr;rid> mgpNrfk;> tpsf;Fg; G+ir  vd filtpupj;jpUf;Fk; nuhwd;Nuhtpy; mJ rhj;jpakh?  

fle;j rdpf;fpoik (08-09-2007) ef;fPud; vOjp jkpo;g; gilg;ghspfs; fofk; kw;Wk; Kof;fk; nra;jp ,jo; ,uz;Lk; ,ize;J elj;jpa  Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpohTf;F jkpo;nkhopg; gw;whsHfs; jkpopd czHthsHfs;> gFj;jwpTthjpfs;> rpe;jidahsHfs> rhd;NwhHfs; ngUkstpy; fye;J nfhz;L mJ rhj;jpaNk vd vz;gpj;jhHfs;.  

ntspaPl;L tpoh kq;fy tpsf;Nfw;wNyhL njhlq;fpaJ. kq;fy tpsf;if jpU. jpUkjp fe;ijah Fkhurhkp ,izaH Vw;wp itj;jdH.  

mLj;J ghujpahH ,aw;wpa jkpo;j; jha; tho;j;ij nry;tp mgpuhkp jq;fNtY> nry;tp epyh jq;fNtY ,UtUk; ghbdhHfs;. 

jkpoPo tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jq;fs; ,isa ,dpa capiu <if nra;j khtPuHfSf;Fk;> ,e;jpa - =yq;fh muRfspd; gaq;futhjj;Jf;Fg; gypahd nghJkf;fSf;Fk; flw;Nfhs; fhTnfhz;l nghJkf;fSf;Fk; jkpo;nkhop cupikg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; capH ePj;j jkpo;r; rhd;NwhH MfpNahUf;Fk; mikjp tzf;fk; nrYj;jg;gl;lJ. 

mLj;J thR rpd;duhrh Mrpupaupd; khztpfs; ruzpah tpNtfhee;jd; kw;Wk; rpe;Jhuh Mde;juhrh jkpNo tho;f;! jkpo; md;idNa tho;f! <okz;Nz tho;f!" vd;w vOr;rpg; ghlYf;F tuNtw;G eldk; MbdhHfs;. eldk; kpf NeHj;jpahf mike;jpUe;jJ.

njhlHe;J jkpo;g; gilg;ghspfs; fofj;jpd; nrayhsH jpUkjp gthdp jHkFyrpq;fsk; rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH jkpNoe;jy; kh.f. <oNte;jd; cl;gl tpohTf;F tUif je;j midtiuAk; tuNtw;Wg; NgrpdhH.

Nkilapy; xspg;glk; xd;W (power-point presentation) fhl;lg;gl;lJ. mz;lj;jpd; Njhw;wk;> ngUntbg;G gw;wpa tpsf;fk;> QhapW kz;lyj;jpd; Njhw;wk;> mjidr; Rw;wp tyk; tUk; Nfhs;fs; gw;wpa tpsf;fk;>  QhapW kiwg;G kw;Wk; re;jpu kiwg;G Vw;gLtjw;fhd fhuzq;fs;> rdpf; Nfhs; gw;wpa tpsf;fk; vdg; gy thdpay; juTfSk; epfo;TfSk; jpiuapy; fhz;gpf;fg;gl;L tpsf;fk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j xspg;glj;ij jpUkjp jpUkfs; ghyFkhH tbtikj;jpUe;jhH.

mLj;J jpU.,uh Fzehjd; EhyhrpupaH gw;wpa mwpKfTiuia epfo;j;jpdhH. cyfj;jkpoH nra;jp ,jopy; murpay; gyif>  ,yf;fpag; gyif vd  ePz;lfhyk; EhyhrpupaH vOjpa murpay; kw;Wk; ,yf;fpaf; fl;Liufis Fwpg;gpl;lhH. EhyhrpupaH 10 Mz;Lfhyk; cyfj;jkpoH ,af;fj;jpy; Jizj; jiytuhfTk; fdba jkpoHfspd; Nguitapy; jiytuhfTk; gzpahw;wpaijAk; epidT $He;jhH.

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; gw;wpa Ma;Tiuia Kof;fk; nghWg;ghrpupaH thdjpAk;> jkpo;f; fiyEl;gf; fy;Yhup epiwNtw;W ,af;FeH jpU. rz;Kfk; FfjhrDk; toq;fpdhHfs;. ,UtUk; Nrhjplk; xU Nghyp  mwptpay; vd;gij vz;gpf;f Ehypy; ,Ue;J Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;bg; NgrpdhHfs;. thdjp NgRk; NghJ ml;ltizfs;> cUtq;fs; njspthfTk; Jy;ypakhfTk; ,y;yhj Fiwia vLj;Jf; fhl;bdhH. 

,jid mLj;J rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH jpU.kh.f. <oNte;jd; Nkilapy; itj;J ngUikg; gLj;jg;gl;lhH. jpU. Fzehjd;> jiytH> jkpoH GdH tho;Tf; fofk;>

jpU. tpehrpj;jk;gp Jiuuh[h> jiytH> jkpo; <or; rq;fk;>  jpU.fe;ijah fNzrypq;fk;> jiytH> fiy> njhopy;El;gf; fy;Yhup MfpNahH khiyfs; mzptpj;Jk; jpU. rpd;dj;jk;gp rpw;wk;gyk;> jiytH> cyfj; jkpoH ,af;fk;> jpU. fhHj;jpNfR rptNrfuk;> Jizj; jiytH j.G.fofk; MfpNahH nghd;dhil NghHj;jpAk; Nguhrpupah; NahNrg; re;jpufhe;jd;> jiytH> fNdba jkpoH Nguit epidTg; gupir toq;fpAk; jpU. <oNte;jid  Nkd;ikg;gLj;jpdH.  

ntspaPl;Liuia Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; Mw;wpdhH. ciuapd; njhlf;fj;jpNyNa ngUk; gzk; nfhLj;J fNuj;Nj gs;spf;$lq;fspy; fyhepjp gl;lq;fis thq;FgtHfisAk; jdpj;jkpopy; ghl Ehy;fs; vOJtij vjpHg;NghiuAk; gykhfr; rhbdhH.   gbf;fhky; gzk; nfhLj;J fyhepjp gl;lq;fs; thq;FtJ gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; gy Mz;Lfs; gfy; ,uT fz;tpopj;Jg; gbj;J fyhepjp gl;lk; ngWtHfis mtkhdg; gLj;JtJ Nghd;wjhFk; vd;whH. 

mLj;J rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH jpU. <oNte;jd; rpwg;Giu Mw;wpdhH. tof;fk; Nghy vd;id ,iwtd; gilj;jdd; jd;id ed;whfj; jkpo; nra;AkhNw vd;w jpU%yupd; jpUke;jpuj;NjhL jdJ ciuiaj; njhlq;fpdhH. mLj;j 45 kzpj;Jspfs; mtuJ thapy; jkpo; Fw;why mUtpNghy nfhl;b mitNahiu kfpo;r;rpf; flypy; Mo;j;jpaJ. (KO ciuia fPNo gbf;fTk;) 

,jid mLj;J Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; ntspaPl;Liu Mw;wpdhH. 

Ehyhrpupaiug; ghuhl;b ftpQH &gd; ul;zJiu> ftpQH mdiy ,uhNre;jpuk;> ftpQH ,uhrypq;fk;> ftpQH rpd;dj;jk;gp rz;Kfuhrh MfpNahH ftpij gbj;jhHfs;. 

mLj;J kpfTk; MtNyhL vjpHghHj;j ahH Foe;ij vd;w ehlfk; NkilNawpaJ. ehlfk; fz;Zf;F kl;Lky;y fUj;Jf;Fk; tpUe;jhf mike;jJ. ,e;j ehlfk; Nrhjplg; Gul;by; tUk; [hjff; Foe;ij vd;w cz;ikf; fijia mbg;gilahf itj;J jahupf;fg;gl;lJ. NrhjplH mLj;j Foe;ij Mz;Foe;ij vd;W nrhd;d gyd; gpioj;J %d;whtJk; ngz;Foe;ij gpwe;j NghJ vg;gb  jl;il khw;WfpwhH vd;gJjhd; fij. mitNahH ehlfj;ij kpfTk; Ritj;J kfpo;e;jhHfs;. ehlfj;ij jpU.rptk; gukehjd; newpahs;if nra;jpUe;jhH. 

,Wjpahf Ehyhrpupaupd; Vw;GiuAk; ed;wpAiuAk; ,lk; ngw;wJ. Nrhjpl Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpohtpy; fye;J nfhs;s jilgy jhz;b Nuhf;fpNah topahf fdlhte;j rpwg;G tpUe;jpdUf;F EhyhrpupaH jdJ neQ;rhHe;j ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. (KOg; Ngr;ir fPNo gbf;fTk;)  


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpohtpy; Kjd;ik tpUe;jpduhff; fye;J nfhz;L  jkpNoe;jy; <oNte;jd; Mw;wpa rpwg;Giu.   

jkpoHfs; kPJ elj;jg;gl;l gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghy; jkpoHfs; jq;fs; nkhopiaAk;> kwTzHitAk; ,oe;J NghdhHfs;. kiwkiy mbfs; Nghd;Nwhupd; njhz;bdhy;jhd; jkpo; ,d;W tho;fpwJ. mtuJ Kaw;rpapdhy;jhd; mf;fpuhrdH Ngha; jiytH te;jhH> fhupajuprp Ngha; nrayhsH te;jhH> nghf;fp\hjuH Gijf;fg;gl;L nghUshsH te;jhH. jkpopy; mg;gh mk;kh vd;w mofhd jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ lb> kkp vd;W Vd;jhd; jkpo;f; Foe;ijfs; NgRfpwNjh njupatpy;iy.  

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntWk; Ehy; my;y. mJ nrq;FUjpg; Gul;rp my;y. mJ  rpe;jidg; Gul;rp. EhyhrpupaH thdpay; Nkw;Nfhs;fisf; fhl;b Nrhjplj;jpd; ngha;ikia ry;ypNtH MzpNtH tiu nrd;W mk;gyg;gLj;JfpwhH. NkYk; NgRk;NghJ kfhftp ghujpahH Nrhjplj;ij rhj;jpuq;fs; xd;Wk; fhzhH ngha;r; rhj;jpug; Nga;fs; nrhy;Yk; thHj;ijfs; vdr; rhbdhH. Vohk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j ehSk; jkpopir gug;Gk; Qhdrk;ge;jH  

NtAW Njhsp gq;fd; tplKz;l fz;ld;
     kpf ey;y tPiz jltp
khrW jpq;fs; fq;if KbNky; mzpe;njd;
   csNk GFe;j mjdhy;
QhapW jpq;fs; nrt;tha; Gjd; tpahod; nts;sp
     rdpghk;G ,uz;L KlNd
MrW ey;y ey;y mitey;y ey;y
     mbah utHf;F kpfNt
 

vdg; ghb Fw;wkw;w jpq;fs; fq;if ,uz;ilAk; jiyapy; itj;jpUf;Fk; rptd; vdJ kdjpy; Fbnfhz;L ,Ug;gjhy; Nfhs;fs; vy;yhk; mbahHfis xd;Wk; nra;a KbahJ vd;fpwhH. Qhdrk;ge;jH NghyNt mUzfpupehjUk; - 

ehnsd; nrAk; tpidjhd; vd;
  nrAk; vid ehb te;j  
Nfhs; vd; nrAk; nfhLq; $w;nwd;
  nrAk; FkNurH ,U
jhSk; rpyk;Gk; rje;ifAk;
  jz;ilAk; rz;KfKk;
NjhSk;  flk;Gk; vd; Kd;Nd
  te;J Njhd;wpbNd
 

vd;fpwhH.  jd;Kd; KUfd; Njhd;wpbd; ehSk; NfhSk; nfhba $w;Wk; xd;Wk; nra;a KbahJ vdr; #Siuf;fpwhH. 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L EhYf;F Kd;Diu vOjpa jkpoPo muritf; ftpQH fhrp Mde;jd; nrhy;fpwhH  

'new;wpf; fz;izf; fhl;bdhYk; Fw;wk; Fw;wNk' - ,J ef;fPud; newp. 

flTNshL NkhjpdhH ef;fPud; vd;gJ gioa fij. 

,d;W - 

flTis my;y - fzpaj;NjhL  (Nrhjplk;) NkhJfpwhH ef;fPud;. 

ef;fPud; fzpaj;Jf;F vjpuhf itf;Fk; rhd;Wfs; vk;ik mirf;fpd;wd. 

mwptpay; nfhz;L fzpaj;ij (Nrhjplk;) mtH Xq;fp mbf;fpd;whH. 

New;Wtiu gpwH epfo;j;jpa NkNyhl;lkhd Ma;Tfs; Nghy; ,y;yhky; fzpaj;ij  neUg;gpd; ehf;Ffshy; vupj;Jr; rhk;gyhf;FfpwhH. 

thdpay; cz;ikfis thupg; nghopAk; Ehy;. 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ij vOjpatHfSf;F ,d;iwa thdpay; gw;wpa mwpNth - Muha;r;rpNah ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjw;fhd tha;g;Gk; etPd fUtpfSk;  mtHfsplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. 'Qhdf; fz;' xd;W kl;LNk ,Ue;jJ vd;fpwhH. 

Kbtpy; ftpQH fhrp Mde;jd; nrhy;fpwhH fzpaj;ij - fzpaHfis ef;fPud; frf;fpg; gpopfpwhH. epiwag; gbj;J ef;fPud; nra;j Ma;Tk; -epWty;fSk; epkpHe;Nj epw;fpd;wd. vjpHfhyj;jpy; fzpaj;ij (Nrhjplk;) vtNuDk; ,j;jid Mokhf Ma;T nra;thHfs; vd;gJ ma;aNk. ngUk; Kaw;rp> fLk; ciog;G> mupa gzp.

Nrhjplg; Gul;L> fzpak; kf;fSf;F ,iof;Fk; jPq;fpid cuj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. 

fzpaj;ij ef;fPud; ngha; vd;W nrhy;tjhy; ahUk; rpdk; mila Ntz;bajpy;iy  Vndd;why; ngha;ia ePq;fs; fzpak; vd;W nrhy;tjhy; mtH rpdk; mile;jpUf;fpwhH. 

ehd; ef;fPud; gf;fNk! 

mtH gilg;G -  

mwpahikf;Fj; jPapLk; mdy; gpok;G.  

rPHjpUj;jg; Gaypd; rPw;wk;. 

cz;ikapd; Fuy;. 

jkpopdj;ij vy;yhtifapYk; kPl;nlLf;fg; nghq;fpg; ghAk; mtH jkpOf;Fj; jiy tzq;Ffpd;Nwd; vdf;  czHr;rpf; ftpQH fhrp Mde;jdpd; $w;iw ehd; topnkhopfpNwd;.   

jkpoHfs; ,uz;L khiaapy; %o;fp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. xd;W ,e;jpa khia. kw;iwaJ Mupakhia. Mupa khiaapy; %o;fpajhy; ehk; vkJ jha;nkhopiaj; Gwe;js;sptpl;L nrj;jnkhop rkw;fpUjj;ij gw;wpf;nfhz;Nlhk;. mjdhy; rkw;fpUjk; topghl;L nkhopahf khwptpl;lJ. Xk; Rf;fpyhk; gujuzk; rJg;gpak; rkHg;gahkp vd;why;jhd; flTSf;F ehk; nrhy;tJ tpsq;Fk; vd epidf;fpNwhk;. nre;jkpo; cly; rptd; capH vd;fpNwhk;.  Mdhy; nrj;jnkhopF tho;T nfhLf;fpNwhk;. vd;idf; Nfl;lhy; jkpo; njupahj flTs; fdlhtpy; ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. jkpo;ehl;bYk; ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. ehk; tpLjiy ngwNtz;Lk; vd;why; ehk; %lg;gof;f tof;fq;fs; ,y;yhj xU rKjhaj;ij fl;bnaOg;g Ntz;Lk;.  

mg;gH Nfl;fpwhH rhj;jpuk; NgRk; rf;fHfhs; Nfhj;jpuKk; FyKk; nfhz;L vd; nra;tPH?  

fiyAiuj;j fw;gidia epiynadf; nfhz;lhLk; fz;%bg; gof;fk; vy;yhk; kz; %bg;Nghf Ntz;Lk; vd mbj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhH thba gapiuf; fz;lNghnjyhk; thbNdd; vd;W nrhd;d tlYhH ts;syhH. 

Kbthf vkJ r%fj;ijg; gPbj;Js;s Nrhjplk; vd;Dk; Nehiag; Nghf;f ef;fPud; gy Ehy;fisg; gbj;J vOjpAs;s ,e;j Ma;T Ehy; kUe;jhf mike;Js;sJ. ePq;fs; kl;Lky;y kw;wtHfSk; ,e;j Ehiy thq;fpg; gbj;Jg; gad; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nfl;Lf; nfhz;L vdJ ciuia epiwT nra;fpNwd;. ed;wp. tzf;fk;.

 

jkpo; r%fj;ij xU mwptpay; kdg;ghd;ik nfhz;l r%fkhf khw;w Ntz;Lk;.

 Vw;Giuapy; ef;fPud; 

jpU. <oNte;jd; vdJ CHf;fhuH. ,UtUk; xNu jkpo;g; gs;spapy; gbj;Njhk;. xNu Mq;fpyg; gs;spapy; (Jha Nahthd; fy;Yhup - aho;g;ghzk;) gbj;Njhk;. mtH xU KONeu murpay;thjp. ehd; xU KONeu vOj;jhsd;. mtH Md;kPfk; fye;j gFj;jwpTthjp. ehd; fyg;gw;w gFj;jwpTthjp. ,UtUk; xNu murpay; ghijapy; ele;Njhk;. ele;J tUfpNwhk;. <oNte;jd; jkpo;j; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;ltH. ehDk; jkpo;j; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;ltd;. mtuJ jpUkzj;Jf;F je;ij nry;tehafk; jiyik jhq;fp elj;jp itj;jhH. vdJ jpUkzk; md;iwa tl;Lf; Nfhl;ilj; njhFjp ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdH jpU. m. mkpHjypq;fk; mtHfs;  elj;jp itj;jhH. ehq;fs; ,UtUk; jdpj; jkpopy; ek;gpf;if nfhz;ltHfs;. vdNt mtuJk; vdJk;  Nguf;Foe;ijfs; vy;NyhUf;Fk; jdpj; jkpo;g;ngaH #l;bAs;Nshk;.

Jha Nahthd; fy;Yhupapy; gbf;Fk; nghONj ngupahH> NguwpQH mz;zh> fiyQH> ehtyH MfpNahuJ jpuhtpl - gFj;jwpTf; nfhs;ifahy; <Hf;fg; gl;Nld;. md;W ntspte;j jpuhtplehL> kd;wk;> Kunrhyp> jpuhtpld;> fhQ;rp> Homeland, njd;wy; Kjypa VLfisAk; ngupahH> mz;zh> fiyQH> ehtyH> fz;zjhrd; KjypNahH vOjpa Ehy;fs;> fl;Liufs; midj;ijAk; jtwhJ gbj;Njd;. ,tw;wpy; mz;zh vOjpa fk;gurk;> jP gutl;Lk;> V jho;e;j jkpofNk! nrhHf;fthry;> Ntiyf;fhup>  jk;gpf;F fbjk; Nghd;w Ehy;fs; vdJ kdjpy; gFj;jwpTf; fUj;Jf;fis tpijj;J gyj;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpd. ,d;iwa vdJ jkpo;nkhopg; gw;Wf;Fk; jkpo; ,dg; gw;Wf;Fk; mitNa  mbNfhypaJ vd;gjpy; ve;j ma;aKkpy;iy.  

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; nrd;w Mz;L jkpo;ehl;by; ngupahH jpuhtplH fofj;jpdhy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. ftpQH mwpTkjp> tpLjiy ,uhNre;jpud;> nfhsj;JhH kzp MfpNahH mjid ntspapl;L itj;jdH. mjpy; 500 gb jhafj;Jf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  

Nrhjplj;jpy; vdf;F  vg;NghJk; ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ fpilahJ. rhjfk; ghHf;fhky; jpUkzk; elf;fNtz;Lk; ,y;iyNa jpUkzk; ,y;iy vd;Nwd;. vdJ khkpAk; khkhTk; ngUkdj;NjhL xj;Jf;nfhz;lhHfs;.  

Nrhjplk; vd;gJ file;njLj;j %lek;gpf;if. ,e;j %lek;gpf;ifia ez;gH <oNte;jd; nrhd;dJNghy ghujpahH fLikahfr; rhLfpwhH. rhj;jpuq;fs; xd;Wk; fhzhH ngha;r; rhj;jpug; Nga;fs; nrhy;Yk; thHj;ij ek;gpNa vd;fpwhH. mtH vOjpa Gjpa Mj;jp#bapy; Nrhjplk;jid ,fo; thdEhy; gapw;rpnfhs; vd mbj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhH. 

,e;j Ehypy; Nrhjplj;ij jf;f rhd;Wfs; fhl;b - thdpay; rhd;Wfs; fhl;b - kWj;Js;Nsd;. Nrhjplg; Gul;L fl;Liu tbtpy; Kof;fk; ,jopy; te;jNghJ mij kWj;J ve;jr; NrhjplUk; VOjtpy;iy.  

,e;j Ehiy vOjpajd; jiyaha Nehf;fk; jkpo; kf;fis Kilehw;wk; tPRk; %l ek;gpf;ifr; Nrw;wpy; ,Ue;J kPl;L mtHfisg; gFj;jwpT kzk; fkOk; khspifapy; FbapUj;JtNj MFk;! ,iw tzf;fj;ijtpl Nrhjplj;Jf;F vkJ r%fk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fpwJ. ,iw ek;gpf;ifiatpl Nrhjpl ek;gpf;if fdlhtpy; mjpfupj;J tUfpwJ.; jkpo;ehl;Lr; Nrhjplu;fs; te;J fdba jkpoHfsJ jiyapy; kpsfha; miuj;j fhyk; Ngha; ,g;NghJ njYq;fHfSk; ,e;jpf;fhuHfSk; jq;fis Nrhjpl Mrhd;fs;> rhj;jpupfs;> gz;bjHfs;> rf;futHj;jpfs; vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L fdba jkpoHfsJ jiyapy; kpsfha; miuf;fpwhHfs;.

,e;jf; fzk; nuhwd;Nuhtpy; 17 NrhjplHfs; ,q;Fs;s mq;fhbfspy; Kfhk; ,l;Ls;sdH. ,tHfis %l;il Kbr;Rld; ,e;jpahTf;F Xl itf;fNtz;Lk;. gupfhuk;> rhe;jp> G+ir vd;W Mapuf;fzf;fpy; ,tHfs; kd cWjpaw;w> kd mikjpia ,oe;j jkpoHfsplk; ,Ue;J fwe;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs;.

ve;jnthU r%fKk; jdJ cupikfisAk; tpLjiyiaAk; cWjp nra;J nfhs;tjw;F> me;jr; r%fk; mwptpay; topapy; eilNghl Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa gz;ghl;ilg; Ngzp tsu;j;njLf;f Ntz;Lk;.  jpUkz fhyj;jpy; rhjfk; ghHf;Fk; gof;fj;ijj; jkpo;kf;fs; Kw;whff; iftpl Ntz;Lk;. 

mbj;jsk; gpioahf cs;s xU Nghypr; rhj;jpuj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; fzpf;fg;gLk; rhjfj;ij itj;Jj; jpUkzg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;Jj; jpUkzk; nra;tJ gFj;jwpTf;F xt;thj nrayhFk;. cyfpy; 13 ,yf;f tif tpyq;Ffs; cz;nld;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; khe;jDf;Nf MwhtJ mwpthd gFj;jwpT ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; gyH mjidg; gad;gLj;j kWf;fpd;wdH.

fy;tp> moF> nry;tk;> Fzk;> eil> Fb Mfpa nghUj;jq;fs; Mz; -ngz; ,UghyhUf;Fk; ,ilapy; mike;jpUe;Jk; fpufg; nghUj;jk; el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W $wp me;jj; jpUkz ,izg;G Gwe;js;sg;gLfpwJ. ,J ngupa nfhLikahFk;.

mNj Ntis gpioahd Nrhjplj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; kdg; nghUj;jk; ,y;yhj Mz; - ngz; ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

jpUkzg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;Fk; NghJ el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jk;> fpufg; nghUj;jk;> Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; vd 10 Kjy; 14 nghUj;jq;fis Mz; - ngz; rhjfj;ij itj;Jr; NrhjplHfs; ghHf;fpwhHfs;. Nahdpg; nghUj;jj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;( Nahdp vd;why; ngz;zpd; kiwtplk; my;yJ Mzpd; Fwp) Mzpd; Nahdp ngz;zpd; NahdpNahL nghUe;Jfpwjh vd;W rhj;jpup ghHf;fpwhH. nkhj;jk; cs;s 27 el;rj;jpuq;fSf;F 14 kpUfq;fis xJf;fpAs;shHfs;. ,g;gb xJf;fp tpl;L ve;j el;rj;jpuj;Jf;Fupa kpUfk; ve;j el;rj;jpuj;Jf;Fupa kpUfj;NjhL  nghUj;jk; vd;W ghHf;fpwhHfs;. ngz;zpd; el;rj;jpuj;Jf;Fupa kpUfk; vypahf ,Ue;J Mzpd; el;rj;jpuj;Jf;Fupa kpUfk; G+idahf ,Ue;jhy; Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W NrhjplH js;sptpLfpwhH. mJkl;Lky;y MZf;Fg; ngz;NahdpAk; ngz;Zf;F Mz;NahdpahapDk; nghUe;jhJ vd NrhjplHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;.  

,e;jg; nghUj;jk; ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;yhky; thdpay;gw;wpf; nfhQ;rNkDk; mwptpy;yhj Kl;lhs;fs;> fhl;Lkpuhz;bfs; jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; vOjp itj;jit MFk;.

Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; kzk; nra;a tpUk;Gk; MizAk; ngz;izAk; kfg;NgW kfspH kUj;Jtuplk; mDg;GtNj mwpthHe;j nrayhFk;!

vkJ Kd;NdhHfs;> njhy;fhg;gpa fhyj;J Kd;NdhHfs;> jpUkzj;jpd; NghJ  nghUj;jk; ghHj;jhHfs;. Mdhy; mtHfs; ghHj;j nghUj;jq;fs; NtW. ,g;NghJ ngw;NwhHfs; rhjfj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; ghHf;Fk; nghUj;jq;fs; NtW.

njhy;fhg;gpaH nka;g;ghl;baypy; kzkfd; kzkfs; ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba me;jg; gj;Jg; nghUj;jq;fs; gw;wpf; $wpapUf;fpd;whH. mit gFj;jwpTf;F Vw;w nghUj;jq;fs;.

Fbg; gpwg;G> xOf;fk;> Ms;tpid> mfit> tbT> fhk xOf;fj;Jf;Fupa cs;sf; fpsHr;rp> Fzk;> mUSlik> cs;sf; Fwpg;ig mwpe;njhOFk; Ez;zwpT> nry;tk; xj;jjhf ,Uj;jy; ey;yJ vd;fpwhH njhy;fhg;gpaH. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;j gFj;jwpT ,g;NghJ ,y;iy vd;gJ ftiy jUfpwJ.

gd;dpuz;L nghUj;jj;jpy; 11 nghUj;jk; rup te;J nra;j jpUkzk; Kwpe;J Ngha;tpl;ljhf xU NrhjplH vOjpAs;shH. ,J $lf; Fw;wkpy;iy. NrhjplHfspd; gps;isfNs jpUkzk; Kbj;j rpy Mz;Lfspy; ifk;ngz;zhfp cs;sdH. ,J rhjfk; ghHg;gjpy; ve;jg; nghUSk; ,y;iy vd;gjw;F ey;y rhd;whFk;.

jpUkzk; ntw;wp ngWtJ jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk; kzkfd; - kzkfs; ,UtuJ iffspNyNa NgusT jq;fp cs;sJ. mtHfsJ jha; je;ij cw;whH cwtpdH gq;F rpw;wsNt ,Uf;Fk;.

NkiyehLfspy; Nrhjplk; ghHg;NghH ,Uf;fpd;wdH. Mdhy;> mJ nghOJ Nghf;Ff;fhfg; ghHf;fg;gLgit MFk;. mtHfs; jq;fs;  QhapW ,uhrpSun sign - gpwg;gpd; nghOJ #upad; epd;w ,uhrp) mwpe;J nfhs;tNjhL Nrhjplk; gw;wpa mtHfsJ MHtk; epd;W tpLfpwJ. jpUkzk; nra;aKd;dH Nrhjpluplk; rhjfq;fisf; nfhLj;Jg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; Nkiy ehLfspy; ,y;iy.

,e;j Ehiy vOjpajd; jiyaha Nehf;fk; jkpo; kf;fis Kilehw;wk; tPRk;  %l ek;gpf;ifr; Nrw;wpy; ,Ue;J kPl;L mtHfisg; gFj;jwpT kzk; fkOk;  khspifapy; FbapUj;JtNj MFk;!

Fwpg;ghfj; jpUkz fhyj;jpy; rhjfk; ghHf;Fk; gof;fj;ijj; jkpo;kf;fs; Kw;whff; iftpl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ vdJ ngU tpUg;ghFk;.

vg;gb cly; Neha; jPu kUe;J cz;z  Ntz;LNkh mNj Nghy; %lek;gpf;if  Nghd;w FKfha Neha;fs; jPug; gFj;jwpT vd;w kUe;ij cl; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Vida ,dq;fNshL xg;gpLk; NghJ mwptpay; jsj;jpy; jkpoH kpfTk; gpd;jq;fpAs;sdH. 

,J fhuzkhfNt mwptpaypd; ,d;wpaikahj; Njitia ,e;j Ehy; neLfpYk; tw;GWj;jp vOjpAs;Nsd;.

xt;nthU ehSk; tPl;ilf; $l;bf; Fg;igfis mfw;wpj; Jg;guT nra;fpNwhk;.  jz;zPupy; Fspj;J cly; mOf;ifg; Nghf;fpg; Gwj; Jha;ikg; Ngzpf;  nfhs;fpNwhk;. kdjpy; cs;s rhj;jpuf; Fg;igfisAk; rka mOf;ifAk;  mfw;wp mfj; Jha;ik Ngz ehk;  Vd; gpd; epw;f Ntz;Lk;?

jpUts;StH Mf;fpa jpUf;Fws; xU KOikahd tho;T Ehy; MFk;.  jkpoHfs; mjidj;  jq;fs; tho;f;iff; ifNalhfTk; tho;f;if topfhl;bahfTk; nfhs;jy; Ntz;Lk;.  gFj;jwpNthL thoj; jpUf;Fws; cWjpahf cjTk;.

jpUf;Fws; top tho KbAk; thoyhk; vd;gjw;F ehDk; vdJ kidtp gps;isfSk; NgusT rhd;whf ,Uf;fpNwhk;! ey;y FLk;gk; xU gy;fiyf; fofk; vd;w Gul;rpf; ftpQH ghujpjhrdpd; nghd;nkhopf;F mikaTk; tho;fpNwhk;.

tho;f;ifapy; Vw;gLk; gy rpf;fy;fis mtpo;g;gjw;F Ntz;ba topKiwfisAk; EZf;fq;fisAk; ts;StH RUq;fr; nrhy;yp tpsq;f itj;Js;shH.

ey;y vz;zk;> ey;y rpe;jid> ey;ywpT> ey;tpid> ew;fhl;rp>  eak;gl ciuj;jy;> gFj;Jz;L tho;jy;> ,irgl ,Uj;jy; cq;fs; tho;tpd; Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Uf;fl;Lk;! md;G> mUs;> mwd; cq;fs; topghlhf ,Uf;fl;Lk;!

,e;j Ehiyg; gbj;J tpl;L mjw;F mzpe;Jiu vOjpa ez;gH jpU. ,yq;ifaDf;F vdJ ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;. vd;idg; NghyNt mtUk; xU mg;gOf;fw;w gFj;jwpthsH MthH.

Kof;fk; NghyNt jkpo;ehjk; ,izajsj;jpy; Nrhjplg; Gul;ilj; njhlHe;J ey;y Kiwapy; ntspapl;l jk;gp fuDf;Fk; vdJ ed;wp cupj;jhFf.

,e;j ,lj;jpy; Nrhjplg; Gul;Lj;  njhliu Kof;fj;jpy; xd;wiu Mz;L fhykhf vdJ md;Gf;Fupa Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; (jpU) kw;Wk;  Kof;fk; nghWg;ghrpupaH thdjp (md;gurp) ,UtUf;Fk; vdJ csk; fdpe;j ed;wp. vdJ vz;zj;Jf;Fk; vOj;Jf;Fk; Kof;fk; tbfhyhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. vdf;Fg; gpd;dH vdJ gzpnjhlu mtHfisNa vdJ gpd;Ndhbfshf tpl;Ls;Nsd.

vdJ jfg;gdhH xU fkf;fhuH. taypy; ey;y tpisr;riy tpUk;Gk; fkf;fhud; kz;iz Mo cOJ> cau tuk;G fl;b> vUtpl;L> ey;y tpij ney; Njb tpijj;J> fis gpLq;fp> cupa fhyj;jpy; mWtil nra;a Ntz;Lk;. FKfhaKk; mg;gbNa MFk;. ey;y gFj;jwpTf; fUj;Jf;fis tpijj;J> %lek;gpf;if vd;w fis gpLq;fp> mwpitg; ngUf;fpdhy; kl;LNk jdp khe;j tho;T rpwf;Fk;. jdp khe;j tho;T rpwe;jhy; FKfhak; Kd;NdWk;.  ,e;jg; gzpapy; jq;fis KOikahf <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;LtUk; gFj;jwpT ,izaH jpU - md;gurp ,UtUf;Fk; vdJ  tho;j;Jf;fs;. 

kPz;Lk; nrhy;fpNwd; vq;fs; kz;Zk; kf;fSk; tpiue;J tpLjiy mila Ntz;Lk; vd;why; jkpo; r%fj;ij xU mwptpay; kdg;ghd;ik nfhz;l r%fkhf khw;w Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; MjuTld; mjidr; nra;J Kbg;Nghk;.  

Kbthf vq;fs; fhyj;jpy; jkpoPok; kyUk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifiaj; njuptpj;J kPz;Lk; ,e;j tpoh rPNuhLk; rpwg;NghLk; eilngw ifnfhLj;j cq;fs; midtUf;Fk;  vd; ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;.  


  

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpohtpy; Nkilapy; itf;fg;g;gl;bUe;j Rtnuhl;b

 

 

xUtd; gpwf;Fk; fzj;jpy; tpz;Zyf clypfspd; ,Ug;G mtdpd; jiytpjpia  mtdJ tho;ehs; KOJk; jplltl;lkhd Kiwapy; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wJ vd;gJ klj;jhd  ek;gpf;if

 

my;Ngl; mad;];uPd;

 

It is an absurd belief that the fortunes of an individual throughout his life are related in a definable manner to the position of celestial bodies at the moment of birth.

 

Albert Einstein

 


nrg;njk;gH 06> 2007

                nrd;id 

jkpo;ehL

Ngud;Gf;Fupa ef;fPud; mtu;fSf;F>

tzf;fk;

fdlh tho; jkpo; cwTfis Neupy; re;jpf;Fk; ey;tha;g;G fpilf;ftpy;iy vd;gjw;F kpfTk; tUe;JfpNwd;. 

'Nrhjplg; Gul;L" E}y; ntspaPl;L epfo;r;rpf;F jdpj;Jtkhd rpwg;G cz;L. 

ehd; mwpe;jtiu> Gyk;ngau;e;j jkpou;fspilNa %lek;gpf;iff;F vjpuhd mwptpay; E}y; ntspaPl;L tpoh elg;gJ ,JNt Kjy; KiwahFk;. 

,j;jifa gFj;jwpT- mwptpay; fUj;Jf;fis jkpou;fsplk; gug;g Ntz;baJ> kpf Kf;fpa rKjhaf; flik vd;Nw ehd; fUJfpNwd;. 

ve;j xU r%fKk; jdJ cupikfisAk; tpLjiyiaAk; cWjp nra;J nfhs;tjw;F> me;jr; r%fk; mwptpay; topapy; eilNghl Ntz;Lk;. 

mj;jifa gz;ghl;ilg; Ngzp tsu;j;njLf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

,iw ek;gpf;iffistpl Nrhjpl ek;gpf;if mjpfupj;J tUtjhy; jkpo;ehl;bd; Nrhjplu;fs;> jkpoPoj;ij Nehf;fp rhiu rhiuahfg; Gwg;gLfpwhu;fs;. may;ehLfspy; thOk; jkpou;fsplKk; ,e;j ek;gpf;if mjpfkhf ,Ug;gjhfNt njupfpwJ. 

,e;j epiyapy; jq;fspd; mupa gilg;ghd ,e;j E}y; cupa fhyj;jpy; te;jpUf;fpwJ. 

Nrhjplk; njhlu;ghd mj;jid ngha;ikfisAk; mwptpay; Mjhuq;fNshL kWj;Js;s ,e;j E}y;> Nrhjplj;jpd; mbg;giliaNa jfu;f;Fk;> KOikahd mwpT E}yhFk;. jkpo;ehl;by; $l- ,Jtiu ,g;gb xU KOikahd E}y; te;jJ ,y;iy. mjdhy;jhd;> ,iza jsj;jpy; ,e;jf; fl;Liufisg; gbj;j clNd E}yhf ntspf; nfhz;Ltu vq;fsJ ngupahu; jpuhtplu; fofk; KbT nra;J> mjw;Fg; gpwNf jq;fsJ xg;GjNyhL> ,e;j mupa mwptpay; ngl;lfj;ij jkpo;ehl;bd; thrfu;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;Jk; tha;g;G fpilf;fg;ngw;wijf; fUjp kfpo;fpNwhk;. 

jq;fSf;F ed;wp njuptpf;fpNwhk;. 

jkpou;fspilNa gFj;jwpT- mwptpay; rpe;jidfisg; gug;Gk; gzpiaj; jhq;fs; njhlu;e;J Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W ngupahu; jpuhtplu; fofk; fUJfpwJ. 

,ijr; nra;af;$ba KOikahd jFjp jq;fSf;F cz;L. ,J gad;fUjhj njhz;L; Mdhy; vd;nwd;Wk; epiyj;jpUf;ff; $ba rpwg;Gf;Fupa njhz;L. 

E}y; ntspaPl;L tpoh rpwg;Gld; eilngw ngupahu; jpuhtplu; fofk; rhu;gpy; vq;fs; tho;j;JfisAk; kfpo;r;rpfisAk; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwhk;. 

fdlh tho; jkpou;fis Neupy; re;jpf;f ,aytpy;iyNa vd;w ftiyNahL vkJ kfpo;r;rpiaAk; md;igAk; gfpu;e;J nfhs;fpNwhk;.

 

vd;Wk; Njhoikf;Fupa

tpLjiy ,uhNre;jpud;>

nghJr;nrayhsu;

ngupahu; jpuhtplu; fofk;


tho;j;Jiu 

epyitj; nja;tkhf tzq;fpa fhyKz;L. ,d;W nrt;tha;> Gjd;> epyh  vd;W xt;nthd;iwAk; kdpjd; myrp Muha;e;J epytpNy fhy; gjpj;J fy;iyj; Njhz;b vLj;J te;jhfptpl;lJ. ,Ue;jhYk; ek;kpy; gyH nra;tha; Njhrk;> rdp Njhrk; Nghd;wtw;iw ek;GtHfshfTk; FUg; ngaHr;rp vg;NghJ vd;W fzf;fpLgtHfshTk; tho;fpd;whHfs;. tho;e;jhy;$lg; gUthapy;iyNa! jq;fs; tho;itAk; cw;whH cwtpdHfs; tho;itAk; ghobj;Jk;  nry;tk;> kfpo;r;rpia tPzbj;Jk; Jd;gg;gLfpd;wdH! 

thdpay; vd;gJ mwpT rhHe;jJ mz;lk; vg;gb vg;NghJ Njhd;wpaJ mJ vg;gb ,aq;FfpwJ vd;gijj; jpUj;jkhf Muha;fpwJ. Nrhjplk; vd;gJ KOf;f KOf;f Vkhw;Wtpj;ij! Vkhspfsplk; gzk; gwpf;fr; rpwe;j njhopy; Nrhjpl rhj;jpukhFk;.  ,ijj; je;ij ngupahH mtHfs; 1938 NyNa Nrhjpl Muha;r;rp vd;W Ehiy vOjp Fiwe;j tpiyf;Ff; nfhLj;J mjd; ngha;ikiag; gug;gpdhH. je;ij ngupahH vd;whNy KfQ; Ropf;Fk; itjPfHfNs Nrhjplj;ij ek;ghky; mjidf; fz;bj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.  ghujpahH> ,uhrhrp> fhkuhrH ,e;jg; gl;baypy; ,lk; gpbj;jtHfs;.  

ma;ah ef;fPud; mtHfs; ,e;jr; Nrhjp;lj;ij mf;FNtW MzpNthwhfg; gpupj;J Mo;e;J myrpAs;shH.

xt;nthd;Wk; ed;F Muhag;gl;L tpsf;fkhf vOjg;gl;Ls;sd. vOgj;jpuz;L mj;jpahaq;fspy; ,t;thW myrp Muha;e;J vOjg;gl;l Ehy;fs; NtW VjhtJ ,Uf;fpwjh vd;gJ vdf;Fj; njupahJ. jkpopy; fl;lhak; ,y;iy. 

Nkk;Nghf;fhff; $whky; midj;ijAk; fhuz fhupaq;fSld; vLj;Jf; fhl;bf; gy ,lq;fspy; mupa Nkw;Nfhs;fs; fhl;b midtUf;Fk; GupAk;gb vOjpAs;shH. ,jpNy xd;Wk; khaNkh ke;jpuNkh ,y;iy vy;yhk; je;jpuk;jhd; vd;gij jpwe;j kdj;NjhL gbg;gtHfs; ed;F tpsq;fpf; nfhs;thHfs;. vy;yhk; rupq;f> Mdhy; kdjpw;Fs;Ns xU gak; ,Uf;fpwNj vd;gtHfs; ,ijg; gbj;jhy; me;jg; gak; xU klik vd;gij czHthHfs;. Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L> mjw;Fr; nryT nra;Ak; nghUs; tPz; vd;gij ,ijtpl Mjhuj;Jld; nrhy;y KbahJ! Nrhjplj;Jf;F  tPzhFk; nryit vt;tsNth ey;y nray;fSf;Fg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. 

cynfq;Fk; thOk; jkpo; kf;fs; Nrhjplj;jpy; nfhz;Ls;s Nkhfj;ijAk; mjw;fhfr; nrytopf;Fk; tPz; nryitAk; xopf;f ,e;j Ehy; fl;lhak; cjTk;. mtutHfs; ,jid thq;fpg; gbg;gJld; epd;Wtplhky; cwtpdHfSf;Fk;  ez;gHfSf;Fk; md;gspg;gha;f; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba Ehy; ,J MFk;.  

,jpy; cs;s nra;jpfs; Nghd;W ,dp xUtuhy; ,t;tsT Mokhfj; njhFf;f KbahJ vd;W ehd; ek;GfpNwd;. MfNt ,e;j Ehy; Mq;fpyj;jpYk; kw;w Kf;fpa nkhopfspYk; nkhopngaHf;f MHtyHfs; Kd;tu Ntz;Lk; vd;W Ntz;b ma;ah ef;fPud; mtHfl;F ed;wpAk; tho;j;Jk; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;. Nrhjplk; xope;j tho;Nt ey;tho;thFk;! 

 

md;gd;

 

kUj;JtH Nrhk. ,yf;Ftd;

rpfhNfh

mnkupf;fh

khrp 26> 2006

 


 

jpU. ef;fPud; mtu;fs;

fdlh

md;Gs;s ez;gUf;F

tzf;fk;. eyk; eyNk ehLfpNwd;.

jhq;fs; vOjpa Nrhjplg; Gul;L E}y; ntspaPl;L tpoh miog;ig kpd;dQ;ry; %yk; ngw;Nwd;. kpf;f ed;wp.

ghku kf;fisAk; Vd; gbj;j kf;fisf; $l Nrhjplk; vd;w ngaupy; Vkhw;Wk; Ntiy cynfq;Fk; elf;fpwJ. ve;j ehLk; my;yJ ,dKk; ,jw;F tpjptpyf;fy;y. cyfpd; gy ehLfspy; epfOk; murpay; khw;wq;fs;> ,aw;if rPw;wq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw $l jq;fshy; fzpj;J $w KbAk; vd $Wk; Nrhjplg; Gul;lu;fspd; nkhopapidf; Nfl;L VkhWgtu;fs; ,d;dKk; cyfpy; cz;L.

,e;j #o;epiyapy; 'Nrhjplg; Gul;L" vd;w jiyg;gpy; jhq;fs; vOjpAs;s E}y; ,e;j Ntz;lhj khiaia mfw;w cjTnkd ek;GfpNwd;.

jq;fspd; vOj;jhw;wy; midtUk; mwpe;jNj. me;j Mw;wypid r%f NfLfSf;F vjpuhf KOikahfg; gad;gL;j;jp tUtijf; fz;L ehd; kfpo;fpNwd;. jq;fSf;F vdJ ghuhl;Lf;fs; cupadthFf.

'Nrhjplg; Gul;L" E}iy jkpo; $Wk; ey;Yyfk; tuNtw;Fk; vd ek;GfpNwd;.

ed;wp

md;Gs;s

go. neLkhwd; 


 

 


 

 

Nrhjplk; vd;gJ %lj;jdk;

mwptpay; cq;fs; %yjdk;

jkpo;g; gilg;ghspfs; fofk; kw;Wk;

Kof;fk; nra;jp ,jo;

,ize;J elj;Jk;

Nrhjplg; Gul;L  

Ehy; ntspaPl;L tpoh 

                      ,lk;   - fdlh fe;jrhkp Nfhapy; muq;F
                  
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                  fhyk;   - nrg;njk;gH 08 Mk; ehs;> rdpf;fpoik 2007

                  Neuk;   - khiy 5.30 kzp  

                  rpwg;G tpUe;jpdH - tpLjiy f. ,uhNre;jpud;> nghJr;nrayhsH>

                                    ngupahH jpuhtplH fofk;              

ehd; ef;fPud; gf;fNk!

mtH gilg;G

mwpahikf;Fj; jPapLk; mdy; gpok;G

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thdpay; cz;ikfis thupg; nghopAk; Ehy; 

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                      njhiyg;gb - (416) 281 1165


 EhyhrpupaH 

jpU. ef;fPud; aho;g;ghzk>; nfhOk;Gj;Jiwapy; gpwe;jtH. mtuJ ,aw; ngaH jq;fNtY. je;ijahH ngaH NtYg;gps;is.  

ef;fPud; jdJ njhlf;ff; fy;tpia nfhOk;Gj;Jiw kfh tpj;jpahyaj;jpYk; caH fy;tpia Rz;bf;Fsp gup.Nahthd; fy;YhupapYk; gbj;J Kbj;jhH. 

1951 Mk; Mz;L mur Nritapy; vOj;juhfr; NrHe;jhH. 1956 ,y; jdpr; rpq;fsr; rl;lk; ,yq;if ehlhSkd;wj;jpy; epiwNtwpaijj; njhlHe;J jkpo; mur CopaHfsJ ,Uf;if neUf;fbf;F MshdhJ. rpq;fstiug; ngUk;ghd;ikahff; nfhz;l murhq;f nghJ vOJtpidQH rq;fk; (GCSU) jkpo; CopaHfisf; if fOtp tpl;l epiyapy; mtHfsJ cupikfSf;Fg; Nghuhl jpU. f. rpthde;jRe;juk; mtHfs; jiyikapy; 1959 Mk; Mz;L murhq;f vOJtpidQH rq;fk; (AES) njhlf;fg;gl;lJ. jpU. ef;fPud; mjd; njhlf;f cWg;gpduhfTk;> nray;FO cWg;gpduhfTk; rq;fj;jpd; ntspaPlhd vOr;rp jpq;fs; Vl;bd; MrpupauhfTk; gpd;dH nghJr; nrayhsuhfTk; (1964 - 66) gzpahw;wpdhH. 

1962 ,y; jkpo;Kiwj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;l ,tH jPtpu jkpo;g;gw;whsUk; gFj;jwpthsUk; MthH.  

1966 Mk; Mz;L aho;g;ghz khefurigapy; fzf;fhsuhf epakdk; ngw;whH. ,uz;L Mz;L fhyk; gjpy; MizahsuhfTk; flik Mw;wpdhH. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpNyNa 13 ,yf;fk; cUgha; nrytpy; aho;g;ghz re;ij (Model Market)  fl;Lk; gzp njhlq;fg;gl;lJ. 1968 ,y; Gyikg; gupR ngw;W gHkpq;fk; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; 2 Mz;Lfs; gbj;J  ACCA   (UK) ,Wjpf; fzf;fpay; NjHT vOjpg; gl;lk; ngw;whH. 

ef;fPudpd; Mf;fq;fs; ma;k;gJfspy; ,Ue;J Rje;jpud; fpoik Vl;by; njhlHe;J ntspte;jd. mjpy;  'vkJ tuyhW' vd;w ePz;l njhlH fl;Liu (1964 - 1965) ,d;ndhUtH ngaupy; ntspte;jJ. Rje;jpud; gjpg;gfj;jpd; ,d;ndhU jpq;fs; ntspaPlhd RlH Vl;bd; MrpupauhfTk; (1978 - 1980) gzpahw;wpdhH.  

jkpo;j; Njrpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lj;NjhLk; murpay; jiytHfNshLk; kpf neUf;fkhd <LghL itj;jpUe;j ,tH 1980 ,y; ierPupah> gTr;rp khepy fzf;fha;Tj; jpizf;fsj;jpy; Kjd;ikf; fzf;fha;thshuhfr; NrHe;jhH. gpd;dH 1987 ,y; fdlhTf;Fg; Gyk; ngaHe;j ,tH A.A. Jamal Associates (Chartered Accountants)  epWtdj;jpy; gzp Gupe;jhH. mNj Neuk; CGA (Canada) NjHTf;Fg; gbj;J 1991 Mk; Mz;L fzf;fpaypy; gl;lk; ngw;whH.

cyfj; jkpoH ,af;fj;jpd; Jizj; jiytuhf 10 Mz;Lfs; njhlHe;J gzpahw;wpdhH. fdba jkpoh; rq;fq;fspd; Nguitapd;  (FACT) jiytuhfTk; gy Mz;L gzp Mw;wpdhH.  

cyfj;jkpoh; Vl;by;  jkpo;j; Njrpaj;Jf;F cuk; NrHf;Fk; tifapy; fpoik NjhWk; mtH vOjp te;j murpay; gyif> rq;fg; gyif ,uz;Lk; mtiu xU rpwe;j murpay; Ma;thsuhfTk;> ,yf;fpathjpahfTk; ,dk; fhl;baJ.  

fle;j 10 Mz;L fhyhkhf KONeu vOj;jhsuhfg; gzpahw;Wk; ,tH ,q;F ntspahFk; Kof;fk;> ek;ehL> <oehL> <oKuR> Kunrhyp Nghd;w ,jo;fspy; gy EhW murpay;> tuyhW> ,yf;fpak;> gFj;jwpT kw;Wk; jpwdha;Tf; fl;Liufs; Mfpatw;iw ef;fPud;> fPud;> jpUkfs;> ,e;jpu[pj;; Nghd;w GidngaHfspy; vOjpAs;shH. ,jpy; xy;fhg; Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;> fpa+gh gazf;fl;Liu> Nrhjplg; Gul;L> rhjp kjg; Ngia tpul;ba rpj;jh;fs;> RdhkpAk; RthkpAk;;> khkpahh; tPl;by; %d;W rhkpahh;fs;> jkpopir (Kof;fk;) rq;fk; toHj;j jkpo;> fz;b ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; filrp kd;dd; =tpf;fpuk ,uhrrpq;fd; (<oehL) jpUf;Nfhapy;fspy; jkpopy; topghL (<oKuR) Mfpa njhlh; fl;Liufs; gbg;NghH gyuJ ghuhl;ilg; ngw;wd. ek;ehL Vl;by; ntspte;j ehd;jhz;lh Mj;jhS vd;w FW ehty; cz;ikr; rk;gtq;fis mbg;gilahf itj;J vOjg;gl;l gilg;ghFk;.   

Mq;fpy nkhopapy; jdJ ,aw; ngaupy; vOjpa #lhd murpay; fl;Liufs; TamilCanadian, Tamil Nation, Tamil Sangam, TIS,Tamil Mirror  Nghd;w ,iza jsq;fspy; ntspte;Js;sd.  

,jw;FKd;dH ,tH vOjpa jkpoH jpUkzk; vd;w Ehy; ntspte;jpUe;jhYk; Nrhjplg; Gul;L kl;LNk xU KOikahd Ma;T Ehyhf ntsptUfpwJ.  

ef;fPudJ Mf;fq;fis http:/www.nakkeran.com  vd;w ,iza jsj;jpy;                gbf;fyhk;. 

 


 

vd;Diu  

Nrhjplg; Gul;L vd;w jiyg;gpy; vOjpa Kjy; fl;Liuia Kof;fk; fpoik Vl;by; ntspte;j nghOJ mjid mLj;j ehd;F my;yJ ma;e;J fpoikfspy; Kbj;J tplyhk; vd;Nw ehd; Kjypy; epidj;Njd;. mJ 70 fpoikfs; tsUk; vd;gij ehd; rw;Wk; vjpH ghHf;ftpy;iy.

rpW gUtjpy; VidNahHfisg; NghyNt ehd;  kpfTk; rka ek;gpf;if cilatdhfNt ,Ue;Njd;. NfhapYf;Fj; jtwhJ NghNtd;. Nfhapy; kzp mbg;gJ> jz;NlRtuH Jhf;FtJ>  Nfhapy; G+e;Njhl;lj;Jf;Fj; jz;zPH ,iwg;gJ Nghd;w njhz;Lfs; nra;tjpy; Kd;Df;F epw;Ngd;. ey;YhH nfhb Vwpdhy; gy ehs;fs; ele;Nj nrd;W KUfidf; Fk;gpl;Lj; jpUk;GNtd;. fr;rhd; fliy thq;f tPl;by; jUk; 25 rjj;jpy; tbthd flTs; glq;fis thq;fp tUNtd;.

CHf; Nfhapy; mUr;ruhf ,Ue;j (1948 - 50) itutehjf; FUf;fsplk; rkw;fpUjKk; gbj;Njd;. Mdhy; mJ ePbf;ftpy;iy.

f.ngh.j. (rhjhuz)  NjHT (1950) vOJtjw;Fg; NghF Kd;dH fhiy NfhapYf;Fr; nrd;W> fpzw;wpy; ms;spf; Fspj;J  Kl;Lf;fha;j; Njq;fha; mbj;Jg; gps;isahiuf;  Fk;gpl;Nld;. Njq;fha; rup ghjpahf cile;jhy; mJ NjHtpy; ntw;wpf;F mwpFwp! Nfhzy; khzyhf cile;jhy; Njhy;tpf;Ff; fl;bak;! mg;gbnahU ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. 

ehd; fy;ypy; cilj;j Njq;fha; Nfhzy; khzyhfNt cile;jJ. mJ nfl;l 'rFdk; vd;W epidj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;. vd;Dld; mNj NjHit mNj ehspy; vOj ,Ue;j cwtpdH xUtH mbj;j Njq;fha; ey;y tz;zkhfr; rupghjpahf cile;jJ. mjd; nghUs; mtUf;Fj; NjHtpy; ntw;wp vd;gjhFk;!

NjHT KbTfs; te;j nghOJ gup. Nahthd; fy;Yhup mwptpj;jy; gyifapy; mbNad; ngaH cl;gl 3 khztuJ ngaNu ntw;wp vd;wpUe;jJ. vQ;rpa 117 khztUk;  Njhy;tp!  mjpy; Njq;fha; rup ghjpahf cilj;jtUk; xUtH MthH! fy;Yhup Kjy;tH J.T. mUshde;jk; mtHfSf;F me;jg; ngWNgWg; gl;baiy ek;g Kbatpy;iy. vq;Nfh jtW ele;Jtpl;ljhf epidj;jhH.

flTSf;F ehd; ifA+l;Lf; nfhLj;j filrpj; Njq;fha; mJNt MFk;.  mjd; gpd; ,d;Wtiu xU gFj;jwpthsdhfNt ,Ue;J tUfpNwd;.

jpUkzj;jpd; nghOJ 'rhjfk; ghHf;ff; $lhJ vd;W fl;Lg;ghL tpjpj;Njd;. jkpo;Kiwj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;Nld;. ,uz;L khiy> ehY Ngr;rhsH> gj;Jj; jpUf;FwSld; jpUkz tpoh  ,dpJ epiwNtwpaJ. kiwe;j ehlhSkd;w cWg;gpdH jpU. m. mkpHjypq;fk; mtHfs; jpUkz tpohTf;Fj; jiyik jhq;fp elj;jp itj;jhH.  

rpW tajpy; vdJ %isapy; Nga; gprhR> gpy;yp #dpak;> nfhs;spthy; gprhR> $Ltpl;Lf; $L ghAk; tpf;fpukhjpj;jd; fij> Ntjhsk; KUf;f kuj;jpy; Vwpa fij KjypaitNa jpzpf;fg;gl;ld. fhy; epyj;jpy; glhJ miyAk; Nga;fs;> Gspakuj;jpy; thrk; nra;Ak; Kdp> Ntg;g kuj;J itutH> Rliyapy; muprpg; nghup nghWf;Fk; Fwsp>  ,uj;jpdk; ff;Fk; MWjiy ehfghk;G Nghd;w fijfs; vdf;Fr; nrhy;yg;gl;ld. CHf; Nfhapy; Gwj;jpy; Xq;fp tsHe;J epd;w ghiy kuj;jbapy; ngupa Gijay; ,Ug;jhfTk; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ!

gs;spapy; gbf;Fk; NghNj MW ghfk; nfhz;l ghujf; fijia ,uty; thq;fpg; gbj;J Kbj;Njd;. ,uhkhazk;  (ciueil) tPl;by; ,Ue;jJ. mjpy; ,uhk - ,uhtz Nghiu tUzpf;Fk; fhz;lj;ij kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; gbg;Ngd;. me;j mfitapy; ,uhkd; vdJ kdf; fl;bypy;  flTs; mtjhu khfTk; ,uhtzd; 'muf;f' dhfTk; mkHe;J nfhz;ldH.

gpw;fhyj;jpy; kuj;jpd; gpd;dhy; xspe;jpUe;J thypiaf; nfhd;w ,uhkd; vdf;F xU Nfhioahfj; njd;gl;lhd;.  mt;thNw #Hg;gdifapd; KiyiaAk; %f;ifAk; ,uhkd; jk;gp ,yf;Ftd; mupe;J mtis %sp Mf;fpaJ vdf;F mehfupfkhfg; gl;lJ.  

fy;Yhupapy; gbf;Fk; nghONj ngupahH> NguwpQH mz;zh> fiyQH> ehtyH ,tHfsJ jpuhtpl-gFj;jwpTf; nfhs;ifahy; <Hf;fg; gl;Nld;. md;W ntspte;j jpuhtplehL> kd;wk;> Kunrhyp> jpuhtpld;> fhQ;rp> Homeland, njd;wy; Kjypa VLfisAk; ngupahH> mz;zh> fiyQH> ehtyH> fz;zjhrd; KjypNahH  vOjpa Ehy;fs;> fl;Liufs; midj;ijAk; jtwhJ gbj;Njd;. ,tw;wpy;  mz;zh vOjpa fk;gurk;> jP gutl;Lk;> V jho;e;j jkpofNk! nrhHf;fthry;> jk;gpf;F Nghd;w Ehy;fs; vdJ kdjpy; gFj;jwpTf; fUj;Jf;fis tpijj;J gyj;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpd.

mz;zh fij trdk; vOjp ntspte;j Ntiyf;fhup> (1948) fiyQupd; guhrf;jp (1952) ebfNts; vk;.MH. ,uhjh ebj;j ,uj;jf;fz;zPH (1954) Mfpa jpiug; glq;fs; xt;nthd;iwAk; 12 Kiwf;F Nkyhfg; ghHj;jpUg;Ngd;.

jpUf;Fws;> rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs;> ghujpahH> ghujpjhrd; ghly;fs; vd; kdijf; ftHe;jd. xOf;fj;ij  typAWj;Jk; jpUf;Fws; vd; tho;f;ifiar; nrk;ikg;gLj;j ngupJk; cjtpaJ. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; Nghw;wpa fhjYk; tPuKk; fy;tpAk; nghUSk; ngUkpjKk; vd;idj; jkpoH ehfupfk;gw;wpg; ngUikg;gl itj;jd.

fhyg; Nghf;fpy; flTs;> Nfhapy;> Fsk;> Nrhjplk;> ifNuif> ml;lkp etkp> ,uhF fhyk;> Nga; G+jk;> gpy;yp #dpak; Nghd;wtw;wpy; vdf;F ,Ue;j ek;gpf;if mw;Wg; Nghapw;W! Guhzq;fs;> ,jpfhrq;fs; ,d;iwa fy;fp> rhz;by;ad; vOjpa tuyhw;Wg; Gjpdq;fs; Nghd;wit vd;W fz;L nfhz;Nld;. 

Nrhjplg; Gul;il vOjj; njhlq;fpa gpd;dNu xU tpy;yq;fkhd  ghlj;ij ifapy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lij  czHe;Njd;. vdNt Kjy; Ntiyahf Nrhjplk;> thdpay; gw;wpa gy jkpo; Mq;fpy Ehy;fis  tpiyf;F thq;fpg; gbj;Njd;. ,iza jsj;jpy; Nrhjplk;> thdpay; njhlHghd Vuhskhd fl;Liufis mr;nrLj;J xU khztd; NjHTf;Fg; gbg;gJ Nghy; gbj;Njd;. nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; Ehy;fspYk; ghHf;f ,iza jsNk vdf;Fg; NgusT ifnfhLj;jJ. thdpay; gw;wpa ,iza jsq;fspd; vz;zpf;ifiag; (565>000) ghHj;J kiyj;Jg; NghNdd;.

gs;spapy; gbf;Fk;  khztUf;fhfg;  Gifg;glq;fNshLk; tiuglq;fNshLk;  vOjg;gl;l thdpay; ghlq;fisg; gbj;J tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tJ vspjhf ,Ue;jd.

Nrhjplj;jpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; ,yf;fpdk;> njir> ,uhrp> tPL> ghtk;> Nfhrhuk;> cr;r ePr;rk;> ghHitfs;> re;jpu gyd;> #upa - re;jpu Xiufs;>  gQ;rtpj epiyfs; Kjypatw;iwj; jpUj;jkhf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sg; gy ehs;fs; vLj;;jd.

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; njhlHghd ma;aq;fis kpd;dQ;ry; %yk; gy NrhjplHfsplk; Nfl;Lj; njupe;J nfhz;Nld;. 

,jdhy;> njhlf;fj;jpy; Fog;gkhf ,Ue;j Nrhjplk; - thdpay; ,uz;ilAk; gpd;dH ed;F tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Kbe;jJ. 

,iza jsj;jpy; gpwe;j Mz;L> ehs;> Neuk;> ,lk; (FWf;Ff; NfhL> NeHf;NfhL ) ,tw;iwf; nfhLj;jhy; ma;e;J tpdhbapy; Nrhjpl nkd;nghUs; rhjfk; (ethk;rk; cl;gl) fzpj;Jf; nfhLj;JtpLk;.

gpwe;j Mz;il khw;wpdhy; rpy Nfhs;fspd;  epiy khWtijg; ghHj;Njd;. gpwe;j  Neuj;ij $l;bf; Fiwj;jhy; tupirahfj; Njhd;wp kiwAk; gpwg;G ,yf;fpdk;> gpwg;G ,uhrp> gpwg;G el;rj;jpuk; khWtijf; ftdpj;Njd;. Vd; mt;thW khWfpd;wd vd;gij ,e;j Ehiyg; gbf;Fk; nghOJ njupe;J nfhs;tPHfs;.

jpwe;j kdj;NjhLjhd; Nrhjplj;ijg; gbj;Njd;. gbj;J Kbj;j gpd;dH mjpy; ,Ue;j nfhQ;reQ;r ek;gpf;ifAk; Kw;whfg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. 

Nrhjplk; rup> NrhjplHfs;jhd; gpioahff; fzpj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;? ,J gyH vd;dplk; Nfl;Fk; Nfs;tp MFk;.

vdJ tpil  'Nrhjplk; fl;b vOg;gg;gl;Ls;s mbj;jsNk jtwhdJ vd;gjhFk;.  gy Nfhb fy; njhiytpy; cs;s Nfhs;fs;> gj;J> EhW> Mapuk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; cs;s ,uhrpfs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs; Gtpapy; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijiag; ghjpf;f topNa ,y;iy! mg;gbapUf;f mjd; mbg;gilapy; ve;jg; ngupa nfl;bf;fhur; NrhjplDk;  vt;tsT El;gkhff; fzpj;Jg; gyd; nrhd;dhYk; mJ gpioahfNt ,Uf;Fk;! Nrhjplk;> ,y;yhj CUf;Fg; Nghfpw top nrhd;dtd; fijahFk;.

ehk; thOk; Gtp QhapW FLk;gj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ> mirahky; ,Uf;Fk;  Gtpia QhapW cl;gl Vida Nfhs;fs; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;w mbg;gilapNyNa Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; mbg;gilapNyNa rhjfk; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; cz;ik mJtd;W..  GtpAk; Vida Nfhs;fSNk Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd. NkYk; ehk; thOk; Gtpf; Nfhs;  Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpy; Kw;whf tpLgl;Lg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.

Nrhjplg; Gul;L Kofj;jpYk; jkpo;ehjk; ,izajsj;jpYk; ntspte;J nfhz;bUe;j Ntis mjw;Fg; ngupa MjuT gbg;Nghuplk; ,Ue;J fpilj;jJ. mJ> ,j; njhliu vOjp Kbf;fj; Jhz;LNfhyhf mike;jJ. 

fl;Liufs; xt;nthd;iwAk; vOjg; gy ehs;fisr; nrytopj;Js;Nsd;.

Nrhjplg; Gul;il Ehy; tbtpy; nfhz;Ltu KbT nra;j nghOJ ehd; Kd;G vOjpatw;iwg; gl;lwptpd; mbg;gilapy; gy Kiw kPs; ghHit nra;J nrg;gdpl;Nld;. mt;thW nra;aTk; gy jpq;fs;fs; vLj;jd.

,e;j Ehypy;  rpy tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis  tpyf;f Kbahj fhuzj;jhy; NrHj;Js;Nsd;.  Nrhjplk; jkpouJ rhj;jpuk; my;y. ,J tlnkhopf;Fk; Ntj fhy MupaUf;Fk; cupaJ. vdNt mjid Kw;wpYk; jdpj; jkpopy; vOj Kbatpy;iy. Kbe;j kl;Lk; vOj Kaw;rpj;Js;Nsd;.

Nrhjplk; gw;wp vOJk; nghOJ Fog;gk; Vw;glhJ ,Uf;f tpz;kPid el;rj;jpuk; vd;Wk;> Xiuia ,uhrp vd;Wk;> Nfhs;fisf; fpufq;fs; vd;Wk;  Qhapiwr; #upad; vd;Wk;> epyhitr; re;jpud; vd;Wk;> KOepyh  my;yJ ctTkjpiag;  gTHzkp vd;Wk;> Fw;wj;ijj; Njhrk; vd;Wk; vOjpAs;Nsd;.

Mdhy;> thdpay; gw;wp vOJk; nghOJ Kbe;jsT Jha jkpopy; vOjpAs;Nsd;.  tUlk;> jpdk; Nghd;w nrhw;fis ePf;fp Mz;L> ehs; vdf; Fwpj;Js;Nsd;. NkYk; N[hjplk;> uhrp> e\;\j;jpuk;> Nk\k;> up\gk;  Nghd;w tlnkhopr; nrhw;fisj; jkpo; xypg;gLj;jp cs;Nsd;. 

fpNuf;f Mq;fpyg; ngaHr; nrhw;fspd; cr;rupg;Gr; rupahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,uz;nlhU fpue;j vOj;Jf;fisg; gad;gLj;jpAs;Nsd;. NkYk; gpwH $w;iw Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;Lk; nghOJ mtHfsJ nfhLe;jkpio khw;whJ mg;gbNa ifahz;Ls;Nsd;.

vdJ ez;gH jpU. rz;Kfk; Ffjhrd; ifnaOj;Jg; gbiag; xg;G  Nehf;fpg; ghHj;Jg; gy tlnrhw;fis ePf;fpj; jdpj; jkpopy; vOj cjtpdhH.  ,yf;fzg; gpiofs; fistjw;Fk; if nfhLj;jhH. mtUf;F vdJ ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;.

EhYf;F xU Kd;Diu Njitg;gl;l NghJ vd; fz; Kd; epd;wtH jkpoPo muritg; ghtyH fhrp Mde;jd; MthH. mtH md;id jkpio capUf;F capuhff; fhjypf;Fk; ghtyH! mtUf;F vdJ neQ;rhHe;j ed;wp.

,e;j Ehiy vOjpajd; jiyaha Nehf;fk; jkpo; kf;fis Kilehw;wk; tPRk;  %l ek;gpf;ifr; Nrw;wpy; ,Ue;J kPl;L mtHfisg; gFj;jwpT kzk; fkOk;  khspifapy; FbapUj;JtNj MFk;!

Fwpg;ghfj; jpUkz fhyj;jpy; rhjfk; ghHf;Fk; gof;fj;ijj; jkpo;kf;fs; Kw;whff; iftpl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ vdJ ngU tpUg;ghFk;.

mbj;jsk; gpioahf cs;s xU Nghypr; rhj;jpuj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; fzpf;fg;gLk; rhjfj;ij itj;Jj; jpUkzg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;J jpUkzk; nra;tJ gFj;jwpTf;F xt;thj nrayhFk;. cyfpy; 13 ,yf;f tif tpyq;Ffs; cz;nld;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; khe;jDf;Nf MwhtJ mwpthd gFj;jwpT ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; gyH mjidg; gad;gLj;j kWf;fpd;wdH.

fy;tp> moF> nry;tk;> Fzk;> eil> Fb Mfpa nghUj;jq;fs; Mz; -ngz; ,UghyhUf;Fk; ,ilapy; mike;jpUe;Jk; fpufg; nghUj;jk; el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W $wp me;jj; jpUkz ,izg;G Gwe;js;sg;gLfpwJ. ,J ngupa nfhLikahFk;.

mNj Ntis gpioahd Nrhjplj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; kdg; nghUj;jk; ,y;yhj Mz; - ngz; ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

gd;dpuz;L nghUj;jj;jpy; 11 nghUj;jk; rup te;J nra;j jpUkzk; Kwpe;J Ngha;tpl;ljhf xU NrhjplH vOjpAs;shH. ,J $lf; Fw;wkpy;iy. NrhjplHfspd; gps;isfNs jpUkzk; Kbj;j rpy Mz;Lfspy; ifk;ngz;zhfp cs;sdH. ,J rhjfk; ghHg;gjpy; ve;jg; nghUSk; ,y;iy vd;gjw;F ey;y rhd;whFk;.

vdf;Fj; njupar; rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;gij kPwpj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;NlhH Foe;ij Fl;bfNshL kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;fpd;wdH.  mNj rkak; nghUj;jk; ghHj;Jr; nra;J itj;j jpUkzq;fs; rpy kzg;gpuptpy; my;yJ kzKwptpy; Kbe;Js;sd!

jpUkzk; ntw;wp ngWtJ jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk; kzkfd; - kzkfs; ,UtuJ iffspNyNa NgusT jq;fp cs;sJ. mtHfsJ jha; je;ij cw;whH cwtpdH gq;F rpw;wsNt ,Uf;Fk;.

NkiyehLfspy; Nrhjplk; ghHg;NghH ,Uf;fpd;wdH. Mdhy;> mJ nghOJ Nghf;Ff;fhfg; ghHf;fg;gLgit MFk;. mtHfs; jq;fs; Sun sign  ia  (gpwg;gpd; nghOJ #upad; epd;w ,uhrp) mwpe;J nfhs;tNjhL Nrhjplk; gw;wpa mtHfsJ MHtk; epd;W tpLfpwJ. jpUkzk; nra;aKd;dH Nrhjpluplk; rhjfq;fisf;  nfhLj;Jg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; Nkiy ehLfspy; ,y;iy.

Vd; jkpo;f; fpwpj;jtuplKk; rhjfk; fzpf;Fk; tof;fNkh rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;Fk; gof;fNkh ,y;iy.

rhjfk; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; ,e;Jj; jkpoHfsplk; kl;LNk fhzg;gLfpwJ. vd;d fhuzk;?

Nrhjplk; ,e;J rkaj;jpd; xU $whf cUthd rhj;jpukhfTk;.  ,Uf;F> aRH> rhkk;> mjHtzk; vd;w ehy;Ntjj;ijg; nghUs; mbg;gilapy; MW mq;fq;fshf (Ntjhq;fk;) tFj;J mjpy; fHkfhz;lj;jpy;  nrhy;yg;gLk; fUkq;fspd; mEl;lhdj;Jf;Fupa fhyj;ijj; epUzak; nra;Ak; Kiwf;F  N[hjp\k; (NrhjplKk; fzpjKk;) vdg; ngaupl;Ls;sdH. vQ;rpa mq;fq;fs; rpi\ (cr;rupg;G) tpahfuzk; ( ,yf;fzk;) re;j]; (rPH ) epUj;jk; (nghUs;) fy;gk; (fpupif) vd;gdthFk;. 

Nrhjplj;ijr; #upad; Kjyhd 18 ,Ubfs; ,aw;wpajhf ma;jPfk;. mjid vy;NyhUk; vspjpy; GupAkhW RUf;fp vOjpatH tuhfkpUfH MthH.

,t;thW Nrhjplk; Ntjj;NjhL Kbr;Rg; Nghlg;gl;L>  ,e;J kjj;jpd; gpupf;f Kbahj xU $whf ,Ug;gjhNyNa ,e;jr; Nrhjpl ek;gpf;if ,e;Jf;fsplk; kl;Lk; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

vdNt>  Nrhjplk; Nghd;w %l ek;gpf;ifia xopf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,e;Jf;fsJ Nfhapy;> Fsk;> NjH> jPHj;jk;> nrhHf;fk;> eufk;> rpWnja;t topghLfs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; cs;s kpF ek;gpf;ifia xopf;f Ntz;Lk;. vJ Nghnyd;why; Esk;ig Kw;whf xopf;f mJ cw;gj;jpahFk; ,lq;fis xopg;gJ Nghd;W! 

vdNt> rkak; gw;wpa vdJ fUj;Jf;fisg; gbj;J tpl;Lr; rPwhky; rpdf;fhky; ehd; nrhy;tjpy; nka;g;nghUs; ,Uf;fpwjh ,y;iyah vd;gij Mw mkur; rpe;Jj;Jg; ghHf;FkhW Ntz;bf; nfhs;fpNwd;.

rpq;fs - gTj;jHfs; Nrhjplk;> ehb ghHg;gjpy;iyah? vdf; Nfl;fyhk;. rpq;fstH gTj;jHfshf kjk; khW Kd;dH itjPf kjj;jtuhf  ,Ue;jikNa mjw;F VJthFk;. Gj;jH Nrhjplj;ij kpUf rhj;jpuk; (animal science) vd vs;sp eifahbAs;shH vd;gJ kdq;nfhs;sj;jf;fJ.

mupJ mupJ khdplg; gpwtp mupJ vd;W jkpo;kfs; mt;itahH nrhd;dJ Kw;wpYk; cz;ik MFk;.  ,e;jg; gpwtpiaj; Jd;gk; vd;W vz;zhJ> clk;ig ,opntd;W js;shJ> tho;f;ifia KOikahfTk;> gaDs;sjhfTk; thof; fw;Wf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. Jd;gj;ijf; Fiwj;J ,d;gj;ijg; ngUf;f ey;topapy; ,iltplhJ Kaw;rp nra;Aq;fs;. Kaw;rp jpUtpidahf;Fk; vdg; GyNthH nrhd;dJ ngha;nkhop ,y;iy!

jkpoUf;F ,iwahz;ik gilj;j muR xd;W ,y;yhjjhy;  khztHfsJ fw;if newp FKfha mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; tFf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,g;nghOJs;s fw;if newp njhopiy ,yf;fhff; nfhz;L tFf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. itaj;jpy; tho;thq;F thOk; top vd;d vd;gijg;  gs;spf;$lj;jpy; ahUk; ghlkhfr; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;gjpy;iy. ,jdhy; ePHtopg; g^ck; Giz Nghyg; gyuJ tho;f;if mike;J tpLfpwJ.

vg;gb cly; Neha; jPu kUe;J cz;z  Ntz;LNkh mNj Nghy; %lek;gpf;if  Nghd;w FKfha Neha;fs; jPug; gFj;jwpT vd;w kUe;ij cl; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Vida ,dq;fNshL xg;gpLk; NghJ mwptpay; jsj;jpy; jkpoH kpfTk; gpd;jq;fpAs;sdH. 

,J fhuzkhfNt mwptpaypd; ,d;wpaikahj; Njitia ,e;j Ehy; neLfpYk; tw;GWj;jp vOjpAs;Nsd;.

xt;nthU ehSk; tPl;ilf; $l;bf; Fg;igfis mfw;wpj; Jg;guT nra;fpNwhk;.  jz;zPupy; Fspj;J cly; mOf;ifg; Nghf;fpg; Gwj; Jha;ikg; Ngzpf;  nfhs;fpNwhk;. kdjpy; cs;s rhj;jpuf; Fg;igfisAk; rka mOf;ifAk;  mfw;wp mfj; Jha;ik Ngz ehk;  Vd; gpd; epw;f Ntz;Lk;?

jpUts;StH Mf;fpa jpUf;Fws; xU KOikahd tho;T Ehy; MFk;.  jkpoHfs; mjidj;  jq;fs; tho;f;iff; ifNalhfTk; tho;f;if topfhl;bahfTk; nfhs;jy; Ntz;Lk;.  gFj;jwpNthL thoj; jpUf;Fws; cWjpahf cjTk;.

jpUf;Fws; top tho KbAk; thoyhk; vd;gjw;F ehDk; vdJ kidtp gps;isfSk; NgusT rhd;whf ,Uf;fpNwhk;! ey;y FLk;gk; xU gy;fiyf; fofk; vd;w Gul;rpf; ftpQH ghujpjhrdpd; nghd;nkhopf;F mikaTk; tho;fpNwhk;.

tho;f;ifapy; Vw;gLk; gy rpf;fy;fis mtpo;g;gjw;F Ntz;ba topKiwfisAk; EZf;fq;fisAk; ts;StH RUq;fr; nrhy;yp tpsq;f itj;Js;shH.

ey;y vz;zk;> ey;y rpe;jid> ey;ywpT> ey;tpid> ew;fhl;rp>  eak;gl ciuj;jy;> gFj;Jz;L tho;jy;> ,irgl ,Uj;jy; cq;fs; tho;tpd; Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Uf;fl;Lk;! md;G> mUs;> mwd; cq;fs; topghlhf ,Uf;fl;Lk;!

,e;j Ehiyg; gbj;J tpl;L mjw;F mzpe;Jiu vOjpa ez;gH jpU. ,yq;ifaDf;F vdJ ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;. vd;idg; NghyNt mtUk; xU mg;gOf;fw;w gFj;jwpthsH MthH.

,e;j ,lj;jpy; Nrhjplg; Gul;Lj;  njhliu Kof;fj;jpy; xd;wiu Mz;L fhykhf vdJ md;Gf;Fupa Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; (jpU) kw;Wk;  Kof;fk; nghWg;ghrpupaH thdjp (md;gurp) ,UtUf;Fk; vdJ csk; fdpe;j ed;wp. vdJ vz;zj;Jf;Fk; vOj;Jf;Fk; Kof;fk; tbfhyhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ.

Nrhjplg; Gul;il ntspapl;ljhy;  Kof;fk; ,uz;nlhU tpsk;guq;fis ,oe;jJk; cz;L.  

taypy; ey;y tpisr;riy tpUk;Gk; fkf;fhud; kz;iz Mo cOJ> cau tuk;G fl;b> vUtpl;L> ey;y tpij ney; Njb tpijj;J> fis gpLq;fp> cupa fhyj;jpy; mWtil nra;a Ntz;Lk;. FKfhaKk; mg;gbNa MFk;. ey;y gFj;jwpTf; fUj;Jf;fis tpijj;J> %lek;gpf;if vd;w fis gpLq;fp> mwpitg; ngUf;fpdhy; kl;LNk jdp khe;j tho;T rpwf;Fk;. jdp khe;j tho;T rpwe;jhy; FKfhak; Kd;NdWk;.  ,e;jg; gzpapy; jq;fis KOikahf <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;LtUk; gFj;jwpT ,izaH jpU - md;gurp ,UtUf;Fk; vdJ  tho;j;Jf;fs;. 

Kof;fk; NghyNt jkpo;ehjk; ,izajsj;jpy; Nrhjplg; Gul;ilj; njhlHe;J ey;y Kiwapy; ntspapl;l jk;gp fuDf;Fk; vdJ ed;wp cupj;jhFf.

 


 

Kd;Diu 

'new;wpf; fz;izf; fhl;bdhYk; Fw;wk; Fw;wNk' - ,J ef;fPud; newp.
flTNshL NkhjpdhH ef;fPud; vd;gJ gioa fij. 

,d;W - 

flTis my;y - fzpaj;NjhL  (Nrhjplk;) NkhJfpwhH ef;fPud;. 

ef;fPud; fzpaj;Jf;F vjpuhf itf;Fk; rhd;Wfs; vk;ik mirf;fpd;wd. 

mwptpay; nfhz;L fzpaj;ij (Nrhjplk;) mtH Xq;fp mbf;fpd;whH. 

New;Wtiu gpwH epfo;j;jpa NkNyhl;lkhd Ma;Tfs; Nghy; ,y;yhky; fzpaj;ij  neUg;gpd; ehf;Ffshy; vupj;Jr; rhk;gyhf;FfpwhH. 

thdpay; cz;ikfis thupg; nghopAk; Ehy;. 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ij vOjpatHfSf;F ,d;iwa thdpay; gw;wpa mwpNth - Muha;r;rpNah ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjw;fhd tha;g;Gk; etPd fUtpfSk;  mtHfsplk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. 'Qhdf; fz;' xd;W kl;LNk ,Ue;jJ'  

vd;W $Wk; ef;fPud;> 

'ntg;g kz;ly ehs;fhl;b> gQ;rhq;fk; Nghd;wit fzpg;gjw;Fg; gad;gLfpwJ. mjd; mbg;gilapy; NrhjplHfs; gad;gLj;Jk; ntg;gkz;ly ,uhrpr; rf;fuk; (Tropical Zodidac ) Kw;wpYk; gpioahdJ. mJ 2>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH thdpy; fhzg;gl;l el;rj;jpuq;fs; - kw;Wk; Nfhs;fsJ ,Uf;ifiaNa fhl;LfpwJ. ,Jgw;wp EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G tho;e;j kfhftp ghujpahH rhkpehja;aiu Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b vOjpapUg;gij mg;gbNa fPNo jUfpNwd.;' 

vdr; nrhy;ytpl;L> ghujpahH fUj;ij vLj;J itf;fpwhH.  

'madtp\{f;fspd; rydj;ij (,af;fj;ij) mwpahkNyh mwpe;jpUe;Jk; ftdpahkNyh ]k;tj;ruj;jpd; gupkhzj;ij 20  epkp\k; [h];jpahf (mjpfkhf) fzpj;J tpl;lgbahy;> mad tp\{ fhyq;fs; tU\k; xd;Wf;F 20 epkp\k; gpe;jp tUfpd;wd. 80 tU\j;jpy; xU KOehs; gpe;jptpLk;.  

Nkw;Fwpj;j epakq;fs; Vw;gl;L ,g;NghJ mNef E}w;whz;Lfsha; tpl;lgbahy; Gz;a fhyq;fs; 20> 22 ehs; gpe;jpg;Ngha; epakq;fs; gpuj;jpa\j;Jf;F tpNuhjkhfpapUf;fpd;wd.' (ghujpahH fl;Liufs; - gf;fk; 210-211) 

Nkw; $wg;gl;Ls;s fzpak; gw;wpa Ma;tpy; xU rpW jpUj;jk; nra;fpwhH ef;fPud;. 

'rhkpehja;aH Fwpg;gpl;l fhy tpj;jpahrk; rup> Mdhy; 80 Mz;Lfs; vd;W vOjpapUg;gJ jtW. mJ 72 Mz;Lfs; vd;W ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.   

'Gtpapd; ikag; gFjpapy; QhapW kw;Wk; epyh ,uz;bdhYk; Vw;gLk; vjpH  vjpH <Hg;Gf; fhuzkhf  Gtp mr;rpd; Row;rpia js;shlr; nra;J Nkw;F Nehf;fp (QhapW ghijapy;) gpd; js;SfpwJ (precession of equinox) vd;gijf; fz;L gpbj;Jr; nrhy;ypatH. ,JNt madhk;rk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Mz;nlhd;Wf;F 50.291 MHf; nehbfs; (50.291 arc seconds per year) tPjk; 72 Mz;Lfspy; 1 ghif NtWghL Vw;gLfpwJ.  

gpioahd thdpay; fzpg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; rupahd fzpak; (Nrhjplk;) vg;gbg; gpwf;Fk;? vd;gJjhd; ef;fPudpd; Nfs;tp. 

fzpaj;ij mtH gy KidfspypUe;J fLikahfr; rhLfpwhH. 

',uhrpfis Mz;-ngz; vdg; ghFgLj;jp trpag; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ mwptPdk;. ,uhrpfis Mz; ngz; vd;W vg;gbg; gpupj;jhHfs;? Nklk; njhlq;fp  kPdk; <whf tUk; gd;dpuz;L ,uhrpfspy; xw;iwg;gl tUk; ,uhrpfs; Mz; ,uhrpfs; vd;Wk; ,ul;ilg;gl tUk; ,uhrpfs; ngz; ,uhrpfs; vd;Wk; NrhjplHfs; gpupj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,g;gb xw;iw ,ul;il ghHj;Jg; gpupg;gJ  ve;jtpj tpjpf;fl;Lg;ghLk; (arbitrary) ,d;wpr; nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. vy;yhk; fz;  ghHit njupahjtd; kidtpia mbj;j my;yJ ,Ul;liwapy; fWg;Gg; G+idiaj; Njba fijjhd;!  

fzpaj;ij-fzpaHfis ef;fPud; frf;fpg; gpopfpwhH. 

epiwag; gbj;J ef;fPud; nra;j Ma;Tk; -epWty;fSk; epkpHe;Nj epw;fpd;wd. 

vjpHfhyj;jpy; fzpaj;ij (Nrhjplk;) vtNuDk; ,j;jid Mokhf Ma;T nra;thHfs; vd;gJ ma;aNk. 

ngUk; Kaw;rp> fLk; ciog;G> mupa gzp. 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L> fzpak; kf;fSf;F ,iof;Fk; jPq;fpid cuj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. 

fzpaj;ij ef;fPud; ngha; vd;W nrhy;tjhy; ahUk; rpdk; mila Ntz;bajpy;iy - Vndd;why; ngha;ia ePq;fs; fzpak; vd;W nrhy;tjhy; mtH rpdk; mile;jpUf;fpwhH. 

ehd; ef;fPud; gf;fNk! 

mtH gilg;G -  

mwpahikf;Fj; jPapLk; mdy; gpok;G.  

rPHjpUj;jg; Gaypd; rPw;wk;. 

cz;ikapd; Fuy;. 

jkpopdj;ij vy;yhtifapYk; kPl;nlLf;fg; nghq;fpg; ghAk; mtH jkpOf;Fj; jiy tzq;Ffpd;Nwd;.

 

fhrp Mde;jd;

nrd;id>

jkpo;ehL

ij 29> 2006

 

 


   

mzpe;Jiu 

nuhwd;Nuh efupy; ntsptUk; 'Kof;fk;' thu Vl;by; Vwf;Fiwa xd;wiu Mz;Lfshfr; Nrhjplg; Gul;L vDk; jiyg;gpy; njhlHr;rpahf ef;fPud; vOjpa 71 fl;Liufspd; njhFg;Ng ,e;Ehy;.

ehk; ,d;W 21 Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; njhlf;fj;jpy; tho;fpd;Nwhk;. ehk; thOk; vy;iyaw;w mz;lk; mjd; Njhw;wj;jpypUe;J vt;tsNth khw;wk; mile;Jtpl;lJ. ,d;Wk; khw;wk; mile;J nfhz;NlapUf;fpd;wJ. ,d;iwa GJikfs; ehisa goikfshfyhk;. 'gioad fopjYk; Gjpad GFjYk;' fhyj;jpd; Njit. mwptpaYk; njhopy;El;gKk; md;whlk; tpaj;jFtz;zk; tsHfpd;wd. mwptpayhsHfspd; ,ilawhj Kaw;rpahy;> Gjpa Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;GfSk;> gjpa Gjpa Nfhl;ghLfSk; kdpjidAk;> ,t;Tyfj;ijAk; khw;wk; milar; nra;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpd;wd. me;jtifapy; cyfk; vt;tsNth RUq;fptpl;lJ. cyfk;> ,aw;if gw;wpa fw;gidfs;> ek;gpf;iffs;> khiafs; nky;y nky;y tpilngWfpd;wd.

G+kp rhHghd mjw;Ff; fpl;;ba #upad;> re;jpud;> kw;Wk; Nfhs;fs; Nghd;w thDlypfs; (heavenly bodies) tfpf;Fk; epiyfs;> vt;thW G+kpapd; fhyepiyfs; Nghd;w khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd vd;gij mtjhdpj;j Nrhjpld;> xUgb NkNy Ngha;> thdpy; thDlypfs; tfpf;Fk; epiyfs;> kdpjdpd; tho;tpaiy epHzapf;fpd;wd vd;W ek;gp Nrhjplj;ij cUthf;fpdhd;. me;jtifapy; md;W jdf;Fj; njupe;j #upad;> re;jpud;> Rf;fpud;> Gjd;> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp Mfpa nka;thDlypfSk; mtd; fw;gid nra;j ,uhF> NfJ Mfpa epoy; clypfSk; nja;tPfj;jd;ik nfhz;L mUs; ghypf;Fk; ty;yik tha;e;jd vd;W $wp kf;fis ek;gr; nra;J Vkhw;wp te;jhd;> Vkhw;wp tUfpd;whd;. 

NrhjplHfspd; ,t; Vkhw;W tpj;ijfisj;jhd; Nrhjplg; Gul;L vdf; $wp ef;fPud; ,e;EhYf;F Nrhjplg; Gul;L  vd;w ngaiu itj;Js;shH. mJ kpfg; nghUj;jkhd ngaH vd;Nw ehd; fUJfpNwd;. 

Nrhjplk; ,uz;L gFjpfisf; nfhz;lJ. xd;W gps;is gpwf;Fk; Neuj;jpy thdpYs;s fpufq;fspd; epiyfisf; fzpj;jy;. kw;iwaJ fpufq;fspd; iyfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L gyd;fisf; $Wjy;.

,e;Ehypy; Mq;fhq;Nf NfhjplHfspd; fzpg;gpd; mbg;gilNa gpionad;W MrpupaH vLj;Jf; $Wfpd;whH. NrhjplHfs; 2>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH thdpay; tpQ;Qhdk; mjd; njhlf;fj;jpypUe;j nghOJ> thdpayhsHfs; ,t; mz;lj;jpd; ikak; G+kp vd;Wk;> mJ mirahg; nghUs; vd;Wk;> mijr; Rw;wp thdpYs;s fpufq;fSk; el;rj;jpuq;fSk; tyk; tUfpd;wd vd;Wk; fUjpj;jhd; md;W fpuf epiyfisf; fzpj;jhHfs;. Mdhy; mf; fUJNfhs; gpionad;gijg; 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j epf;fy]; NfhngHdpf;f]; vDk; Nghye;J ehl;ilr; NrHe;j  thdpayhsH (fj;Njhypf;f FUthfTk; ,Ue;jtH)  Kjd;Kiwahf #upaikaf; nfhs;ifia Kd;nkhope;jhH vd ,e;EhyhrpupaH vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;whH. ,ijr; NrhjplHfs; ,d;Dk; tpsq;fpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs; ,y;iy. tpsq;f Kaw;rpf;fpwhHfSkpy;iy. tpsq;fpj; jq;fs; fzpg;G Kiwapy; khw;wq;fisr; nra;aTk; KidfpwhHfspy;iy. ,tHfSila fzpg;gpd; gb fpuf kw;Wk; ,uhrp epiyfs; Nrhjplf; Fwpg;Ngl;bw;whNday;yhky; thdpy; my;y vd;w cz;ikia MrpupaH ,e;Ehypy; epWtpAs;shH.  

Nrhjplg; gyd;fisg; nghWj;jtiuapy;> mtw;iw vd;d mbg;gilapy;> gpwe;j Neuj;Jf; fpuf epiyfSld; njhlHG gLj;jyhk; vd;Wk;> xUtUf;fhd Nrhjpl gyd;fs;> NrhjplHfisg; nghWj;J Vd; khWfpd;wd vd;Wk;> $wpa gyd;fs; xUtUf;F tho;ehspy; mg;gbNa Vw;gLfpd;wdth vd;Wk; EhyhrpupaH tpdhTfpd;whH. 

NrhjplHfs; $Wk; gyd;fs; FUl;L thf;fpy; my;yhJ kw;wg;gb gpioj;Jg; Nghfpd;wd vd;gij gy;NtW cz;ikr; rk;gtq;fisf; nfhz;L MrpupaH epWTfpwhH. njhlf;f fhyq;fspy; ,e;Jf; Nfhapy; FUkhNu NrhjplKk; nrhd;dhHfs;. me;jtifapy; FUkhHfs; nrhd;dtw;iw Njtthf;nfd kf;fs; gagf;jpNahL ek;gpdhHfs;. vdNt ,e;Jf;fspd; rkahrhukhfTk; fyhrhu mk;rq;fspy; xd;whfTk; Nrhjplk; ,lk; ngw;Wtpl;lnjd;W MrpupaH  $Wfpd;whH. NkYk; gak; fhuzkhfNt kf;fs; Nrhjplj;ijAk; NrhjplHfisAk; ehLfpwhHfs; vd;Wk; $Wfpd;whH. 

Nfhs;fSf;Fk; mjhtJ fpufq;fSf;Fk;> gpwf;Fk; gps;isf;Fk; cs;s Kbr;R vd;d vd;W Nfl;L Nrhjplk; gFj;jwptw;w %lj;jdk; vd;W gupfrpf;fpd;whH. ,e;Ehiy vOe;j khdj;jpy; MrpupaH vOjtpy;iy. mtH gy thdpay; tpQ;Qhd Ehy;fisAk; Vd; gy Nrhjpl Ehy;fisAk; gbj;J crhtp Ma;T nra;Jjhd; ,e;Ehiy vOjpAs;shH. mjw;fhd rhd;Wfs; Ehy; vq;fpDk; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wd.  

gFj;jwpitg; gug;gpa jpuhtpl ,af;f Kd;Ndhbfshd je;ij ngupahH> mwpQH mz;zh> rpq;fhuNtyH Nghd;wtHfsJ Mf;fq;fis ,sk; gpuhaj;jpy; gbj;jjd; fhuzkhfj;jhd; mwptpay; fz;Nzhl;lk; (scientific temper ) ,tUf;F  Vw;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lnkdf; fUJfpNwd;.  

,e;Ehypy; Nrhjplj;ij kl;Lky;y> %lek;gpf;ifapd; fhuzkhfTk;  gagf;jp fhuzkhfTk; vk; kf;fspilNa gutyhf ,lk;  gpbj;Js;s  kdpjf; flTsH> mtjhu GUlHfs;> mw;Gjq;fs;> vz; rhj;jpuk;> th];J rhj;jpuk;> khe;jpuPfk;> gpy;yp #dpak;> Nga; gprhR Mfpatw;iw kiwe;j gFj;jwpthsH Vgpufhk; NfhT+H Clhf kWj;Js;shH.  

,e;Ehy; Gyk;ngaH vkJ ,se;jiyKiwapdupd; eyd;fUjp Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopahf;fk; ngw;Wg; gjpf;fg;gLtJ ed;W. ,e;Ehy; %lek;gpf;iffs; mw;w> mwptpay; rhHe;j> gFj;jwpT gilj;j jkpo;;r; RKjhaj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;g epidf;Fk; xt;nthUtUk; fl;lhak; thq;fpg; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

,.Nt. nry;tuj;jpdk;

Kd;dhs; fy;tp mjpfhup (,yq;if)

nuhwd;Nuh

ij 21> 2006

 


 

                                               

kzg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ Kl;lhs;j;jdk;

(ef;fPud;)

vjpHfhyk; gw;wpa kf;fspd; ghJfhg;gpd;ikiar; NrhjplHfs; jq;fsJ Ruz;lYf;Fg; gad;gLj;jp tUfpwhHfs;. ,jdhy; jiyKiw jiyKiwahfr; Nrhjplg; Gul;Lf;Fj; jkpo;r;  r%fk;  ,iuahfp tUf;fpwJ. Nrhjplk; vd;w %lek;gpf;ifahy; jkpo;r; r%fj;jpd; mwptpay; Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk; nghUshjhu tsHr;rp ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. 

Nrhjplk; Fwpg;gpl;l Njhr el;rj;jpuq;fspy; gpwe;j ngz; rhjffhuHfSf;Ff; fPo;f;fz;l Njhrq;fspy; VjhtJ xd;W fhl;Lk; vd;gJ tpjp MFk; vd;fpwJ.

1) kfg; NgW ,y;yhik.

2) fztH Kjypy; ,wg;ghH.

3) fHg;gkha; cs;s Ntisapy; fztUf;F khufk; (,wg;G) fhl;Lk;.

4) fztd; - kidtp gpupT cz;lhFk;.

(N[hjpl mKjk; - gf;fk; 52)  

Nrhjplk; tpLf;Fk; ,e;jg; gaKWj;jy; nfhbatHfs; tpLf;Fk; nfhiyg; gaKWj;jiytpl mr;rk; juf; $baJ.

EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tho;e;j kfhftp ghujpahH ehl;L tpLjiyf;fhfg; ghl;Lf;  fl;ba xU Njrpaf; ftp kl;Lky;y jdJ ghl;Lj; jpwj;jhNy ,e;j itaj;ij ghypj;jpl NtZk; vd;W KuR nfhl;b Kof;fpa kf;fs; ftpQd; Mthd;.  

 ngz;Zf;F Qhdj;ij itj;jhd; - Gtp
    Ngzp tsHj;jpLk; <rd;
  kz;Zf;Fs;Ns rpy %lH - ey;y
    khjuwpitf; nfLj;jhH

vd;W ngz; tpLjiyf;F Xq;fpf; Fuy; nfhLj;j ngz;zpathjp>   

jdpnahUtDf;F cztpy;iy vd;why;
 n[fj;jpid mopj;jpLNthk;

vd Koq;fpa nghJTlikthjp>  

rhjpfs; ,y;iyab ghg;gh! - Fyj;
 jho;r;rp caHr;rp nrhy;yy; ghtk;  

vd;W jkpopdj;jpd; jPuhj Nehahd rhjpiar; rhba r%f rkd;ikthjp>   

#j;jpuDf;F xU ePjp - jz;lr;
  NrhWz;Zk; ghHg;Gf;F NtnwhU ePjp
rhj;jpuk; nrhy;ypLkhapd; - mJ
 rhj;jpuk; md;W rjpnad;W fz;Nlhk;
! 

vd xU rhjpf;F xU ePjp nrhy;Yk; kD ];kpUjpia> fPijiaf; fLikahff; fz;bj;j Gul;rpthjp. NkYk;-    

Nrhjplk; jid ,fo;

thdEhy; gapw;rp nfhs;

nksl;bae;jidf; nfhy;  

vdg; Gjpa Mj;jp#b ,aw;wpg; nghWf;fp vLj;j RL nrhw;fshy; %lek;gpf;iffisr; rhbdhH. thdEhy; gbf;fr; nrhd;dhH.     

Nrhjplk; jid ,fo; vd;w nrhy;yhl;rpapy;> ,fo; vd;w nrhy;Yf;Ff; nfhLj;Js;s  mOj;jKk; nfhy; vd;Dk; nrhy;Yf;Ff;Ff; nfhLj;Js;s fLikAk; Cd;wpf; ftdpf;fj;jf;fd.

nksl;bak; vd;why; mwpahik vd;W nghUs;. 'neQ;rpw; ftiy epjKk; gapuhf;fp mQ;rp capH tho;jy; mwpahik vdg; ghujpahH mwpahikf;F tiutpyf;fzk; $WthH.  mwpahikapy; %o;fp ,Ug;NghH tho;f;ifapy; Kd;Ndw KbahJ. nka;awpT ,y;yhjtHfSf;F  tho;f;ifapy; Fog;gq;fs;> ma;aq;fs; Vuhsk; Njhd;Wk;. mwpahikNahL tho;tJ gs;sKk; NkLk;> fy;Yk; Ks;Sk;> J}Rk; Jk;Gk;> fuLk; KuLk; epiwe;j ghijapy; fz;izf;fl;bf; nfhz;L elg;gijg; Nghd;wJ.  

vijr; nrhy;yp vd;d? ghujp vd;w cyf kfh ftpQd; nrhd;d mwpTiuia ahH Nfl;fpd;whHfs;? ghujpahUf;F tpoh vLg;gtHfNs Nfl;gjpy;iy vd;why; kw;wtHfs; vg;gbf; Nfl;ghHfs;?  

,l;lKld; vd; jiyapy;
,d;dgb nad;nwOjp
tpl;l rptDk; nrj;J
tpl;lhNdh
.

vd mt;it ghbapUf;fpwhuhk;.

,d;ndhU GytH mOjhw; gandd;d.. gq;faj;Njhs; vOjhg;gb tUNkh. vd;fpd;whH. Ml;Ltpj;jhy; ahnuhUtH MlhjhNu> J}q;ifapNy thq;Ffpw %r;R mJ Rop khwpg; Nghdhy; Nghr;R> mtdd;wp XH mZTk; mirahJ>   md;nwOjpia mopj;njOj ty;yhH ahH>  vy;yhk; ,iwtd; tpl;l top> vy;yhk; tpjpg; gad;> vy;yhk; fpuf gyd;> el;rj;jpu Njhrk; vd kjq;fs; kdpjHfspd; %isiar; ryit nra;J tho;f;ifapy; cioj;J Kd;Ndw Ntz;Lk; vd;w cWjpg;ghl;ilf; Fiyj;J tpLfpd;wd.

mUr;rid> mgpNrfk;> NjNuhl;lk;>  jpUtpoh> fhtb> ,UKb> nrgk;> Njhj;jpuk;> jhaf;fl;L> Ehw;fl;L> fhg;Gf;fl;L> Jsrpkhiy> Njhrgupfhuk;> vs;nsz;nza;r; rl;b vupj;jy; Nghd;w FWf;F topfis kjq;fs; ghku kf;fSf;Ff; fhl;Lfpd;wd. gf;jp khHf;fk; vd;gNj ghku kf;fSf;fhf tFf;fg;gl;l topghlhFk;. 

mwpahikia xopf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; kf;fs; Vd;? vjw;F? vg;gb? vd;w Nfs;tpfis vOg;gp mtw;Wf;F  nka;g;nghUs; fhz Ntz;Lk;.

gbj;jy;> ghHj;jy;> Nfl;ly;> rpe;jpj;jy;> ciuj;Jg; ghHj;jy;> Muha;jy; %yk; mwpahik vd;Dk; ngU Nehiag; Nghf;fyhk;. fy;tp mwpahikia mfw;Wk;. Mdhy; mJ  'KjYjtp (First-aid ) Nghd;wJ. mjw;Fk; mg;ghNy kf;fs; jq;fs; gFj;jwpit> jq;fs;  jd; Gj;jpiag; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.    

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; %yk;  khkdhUf;F MfhJ>  Mapypak;  khkpahUf;F MfhJ>  Nfl;il  %j;j ikj;JdUf;F MfhJ>  tprhfk;  ,isa ikj;JdUf;F  MfhJ vd;W nrhy;YNkahdhy; gFj;jwpitg; gad;gLj;jp mjd; cz;ik ngha;ikia kf;fs; Ma;e;J ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

xt;nthUtUila ed;ik jpd;ik> Rfk; Jf;fk;>  rhjfg;gbNa jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gJ cz;ikahdhy;  gpd; ,d;ndhUtuJ rhjfj;jpy; cs;s el;rj;jpuq;fs; vg;gb khkdhUf;F> khkpahUf;F> %j;j ikj;JdUf;F kw;Wk; ,isa ikj;JdUf;F MfhJ NghFk;?  el;rj;jpuq;fSf;F %j;j ikj;JdH> ,isa ikj;JdH vd NtWgLj;jpg; ghHf;fj; njupAkh? mit vd;d capUs;s nghUsh? ,y;iy capuw;w gUg;nghUsh?  

vkJ QhapW FLk;gk;>  vkJ ghy; top kz;lyj;jpd; (Milky Way Galaxy) xU Nfhbapy; (edge) cs;sJ vd;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;.

,e;jg; ghy; top kz;lyj;jpd; eLg; gFjp  XH ,yl;rk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F (100>000 light years) mg;ghy; cs;sJ. XH Mz;L vd;gJ xsp xU tpdhbf;F 300>000 fpkP njhiy Ntfj;jpy; Xuhz;L nry;y vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; njhiyT MFk;.  mjhtJ XH xsp Mz;L vd;gJ 9.46 jpupy;ypad; (1000 gpy;ypad; xU jpupy;ypad;) fpkP njhiythFk;!

ghy; tPjp kz;lyj;jpd; ,UGwj;jpd; (side to side) njhiy 100>000 xsp Mz;Lfs; MFk;.  ,jd; eLg; gFjp tpl;lj;jpd; msT 30>000 xsp Mz;Lfs; MFk;. ,e;jg; ghy; tPjp kz;lyj; jl;bd; gUkd; (Gtp ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpy;) 700 xsp Mz;Lfs; MFk;.

ghy; kz;lyj;jpd; mfit 1>300 - 1>500 Nfhb Mz;Lfs;> QhapW kz;lyj;jpd; mfit 449 Nfhb  Mz;Lfs; vd kjpg;gplg; gl;Ls;sJ.  

vkJ Qhapiwg; Nghy vkJ ghy; ntspapy; 10>000 - 20>000 Nfhb tpz;kPd;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  

vkJ ghy; tPjpiag; Nghy; vkf;Fj; njupe;j ,aYyfpy; (Known Universe)  36>000 Nfhb ghy; tPjpfs; cz;L!  vkJ QhapWf;F mUfpYs;s mLj;j tpz;kPd; Alpha Centauri MFk;. ,J 43 xsp Mz;L njhiytpy; cs;sJ. mjhtJ 9.46 jpupy;ypad; fpkP njhiytpy; cs;sJ. 

,d;iwa etPd tpz;fyk; xd;wpy; ,e;j tpz;kPDf;Fr; nryT Nkw;nfhz;lhy; mjidr; nrd;wila 30>000 Mz;Lfs; vLf;Fk;. xspapd; Ntfj;jpy; gj;jpy; xU klq;F Ntfj;jpy; Nghtnjd;whYk; 430 Mz;Lfs;; vLf;Fk;! 

vkJ ghy; tPjp kz;lyj;Jf;F mz;kpj;J cs;s  Andromeda Galaxy 2.2 kpy;ypad; xsp Mz;L njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ!  Mff; $ba njhiytpy; cs;s ghy; tPjp 10 gpy;ypad; xsp Mz;L; njhiyTf;F mg;ghy; cs;sJ. mJ fgps; njhiyNehf;fp vLj;j Gifg;glq;fspy; xU kq;fyhd ePs; cUz;ilahfj; (Kl;il tbT) njupfpwJ! 

,t;thW ,e;j ,aYyfpy; (mz;lk;) Nfhb Nfhb tpz;kPd;fs; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ Foe;ijfs; flw;fiuapy;  my;yJ Mw;wq;fiuapy; kzy; tPL fl;b tpisahLtJ Nghyr; NrhjplHfs; xd;gJ Nfhs;fisAk; gd;dpuz;L tPLfisAk; gd;dpuz;L ,uhrp kz;lyq;fisAk; 27 el;rj;jpuq;fisAk; kl;LNk itj;Jf; nfhz;L rhjfk; fzpj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;! kf;fsJ tho;f;ifNahL tpisahLfpd;whHfs;!

gd;dpuz;L ,uhrpfis vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. ,e;j cyfpy; Vwj;jho 600 Nfhb kf;fs; tho;fpd;whHfs;. vdNt mjpy; gd;dpuz;by;  xUgq;fpdH (50 Nfhb) xNu n[d;k ,uhrpapy; gpwe;jpUg;ghHfs;. mtHfsJ rhjf gyd; NgusT xNu khjpupahfNt ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;! el;rj;jpuq;fis vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; 27 ,y; xU gq;fpdH (22.22 Nfhb) xNu n[d;k el;rj;jpue;jpy;  gpwe;jpUg;ghhHfs;! mtHfsJ rhjf gyDk; NgusT xNu khjpupahfNt ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;! mg;gb ,Uf;fpwjh?

Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L> NrhjplHfs; Gul;lHfs; vd;W vz;gpg;gjw;F ,ijtpl NtW rhd;Wfs; VjhtJ Ntz;Lkh?  

,dp ,e;jj; jpUkzg; nghUj;jq;fs; gw;wpr; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuKk; NrhjplHfSk; nrhy;tijg; gbAq;fs;.  tof;fk; Nghy nghUj;jj;jpd; mbg;gil> mtw;wpd; vz;zpf;if> mtw;wpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; gw;wp ahid ghHj;j FUlHfs; Nghy; MSf;F Ms; khWglf; $Wfpd;whHfs;.

nghUj;jq;fs; ngUk;ghYk; el;rj;jpuq;fis mbg;gilahf itj;Nj ghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fk; fpufg; nghUj;jj;ijAk; NrHj;Js;sJ.

,g;NghJ jpUkzg; nghUj;jkhfg; ghHf;fg;gLk; nghUj;jq;fs; vitnait vd Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; $Wtijg; ghHf;fyhk;.

fpufg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ fpufq;fs; rhjfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wdth vd;gijf; fz;lwptJ.

jpdg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ fztd;-kidtp ,UtUk; Neha;fs; vJTk; ,y;yhky;  cly;eyj;NjhL kfpo;r;rpAld; tho;tijf; Fwpg;gJ. 

fzg;nghUj;jk; vd;gJ kzkf;fs; ,ilapyhd clYwT Rfj;ijf; (mjhtJ rad RfNghfj;ij mDgtpj;jy;) Fwpf;Fk;.

kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk; FLk;g re;jjpiaf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

ngz; jPHf;fg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ nry;t tsj;ijj; jPHkhdpf;ff;$baJ.

Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ  fztd;-kdtpapilapyhd neUf;fkhd cwit> cs;shHe;j cwitf; $WtJ.

,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ FLk;gj;jpd; kfpo;r;rpfisAk;  KOikiaAk; Fwpg;gpLtJ.

,uhrp mjpgjpg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ FLk;gj;jpw;Fs; rz;il rr;ruTfs; vJTkpy;yhky; cwtpdHfSld; kfpo;r;rpahf tho;tijr; nrhy;tJ.

trpag; nghUj;jk;> fztd;-kidtp xUtUf;nfhUtH trpag;gl;l epiyapy; ey;y ,izaHfshf tho;tijf; fhl;LtJ.

,ur;Rg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ khq;fy;aj;jpd; gyj;ij cWjpahf;fp ePz;lfhy kztho;f;ifiaj; jUtJ.

ehbg; nghUj;jk; Neha;fs; vTkpd;wpAk; jq;fs; thupRfs; Fiwapy;yhky; gpwg;gjijAk; Fwpg;gpLtJ.

Ntijg; nghUj;jk; RfNghfq;fspy; fztDk;> kidtpAk; jq;fSf;Fs; Fiwfs; ,Ue;jhYk;> mtw;iw mDrupj;J tho;f;ifia elj;jj; jPHkhdpg;gJ. 

,yf;fpdg; nghUj;jk; kw;Wk; ,yf;fp;d mjpgjpg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ ,izaHfSf;Fs; Vw;gLk; rpf;fyhd tplaq;fspy; xUtUf;nfhUtH Gupe;Jnfhz;L tho cjTtJ.
 
el;rj;jpuj;ij mbg;glahff; nfhz;l gjpd;%d;W nghUj;jq;fspy;> vl;Lg; nghUj;jq;fs; jpdg; nghUj;jk;> fzg; nghUj;jk;> kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk;> Nahdpg; nghUj;jk;> ,ur;Rg; nghUj;jk;> ehbg; nghUj;jk;> ,yf;fpdg; nghUj;jk; ,yf;fpd mjpgjpg; nghUj;jk; Mfpad Kf;fpakhdit MFk;.

jpUkz tho;f;ifiaj; njhlq;Ftjw;F Kd;ghf ghHf;fpd;w nghUj;jq;fspd; %yk; xt;nthUtUk; jq;fSla tho;f;ifapd; Kf;fpa fl;lj;ij jPHkhdpf;f KbfpwJ. nghJthf jpUkz tho;f;ifia gjpndhU gpupTfshf gpupj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

ePz;l kztho;f;if> MAs; gyk;> cly;eyk;>  Foe;ijg; NgW> nghUshjhu trjp> r%f gbkhdk;> fztd; kdtpf;Fs; cs;s gof;f tof;fq;fs;> cwtpdHfSld; cs;s gof;f tof;fq;fs;> xUtUf;nfhUtH Gupe;nfhz;L tpl;Lf;nfhLj;J tho;jy;> nrhj;J kw;Wk; epk;kjpahd Xa;Tfhy tho;f;if.  ,e;j xt;nthU tplaj;jpw;Fk; rhjfuPjpahd mk;rq;fs; cs;sd.  ,tw;iw kpFe;j ftdj;Jld; rupghHj;Jg; nghUj;jk; Vw;gLj;Jtjhy; xU ey;y jpUkz tho;f;ifia Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s KbAk;.

jpUkz tho;f;if kpf ,dpjhf mikaf; fpufg; nghUj;jk;jhd; kpf mtrpak;. ,Ue;jhYk;> el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jk; gw;wpa tptuq;fisAk; njupe;J itj;Jf; nfhs;tJk; ey;yJ.

nghJthf nghpNahHfshy; epr;rapf;fg;gLfpw midj;J ,e;J jpUkzq;fSk; kzkfd;-kzkfs; rhjfg; nghUj;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ. jpUkzg;Ngr;R thHj;ijapd; Kjy; mk;rNk rhjfg; ghpkhw;wKk; mJ njhlHghd rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJe;jhd;.

,f;fhy fl;lj;jpy; gl;lwpT tha;e;j tPl;Lg; nghpatHfs; Mz; - ngz; rhjfj;ij NkNyhl;lkhfg; ghHj;J ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; ,Uf;fpwjh vd;W ghHj;J tpLfpd;wdH.

MdhYk; $l mtHfSk; fy;ahzk; vd;gJ Mapuq;fhyj;Jg; gapH vd;fpw epidg;gpy; ey;ynjhU Nrhjplhplk; njspthfj; njhpahtpl;lhYk; gl;lwpT thapyhf nghUj;jk; ,Uf;fpwjh vd;W  ghHf;fpd;whHfs;.

vy;yhg; nghUj;jKk; ,ire;J tuhtpl;lhYk;$l ngUk;ghyhd nghUj;jq;fs; ,ire;J te;jhy;jhd; jpUg;jpAld; jpUkzj;ij cWjp nra;a Kd;tUthHfs.; ,g;gbg; ghHf;fpw nghUj;;jq;fspy; Kjy; mk;rkhf jpfo;tJ ,uhrpg; nghUj;jNk.

,e;j ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; jhd; vy;yhg; nghUj;jq;fisAk; tpl kpf kpf Kf;fpakhdJ. mNj rkak; mtrpakhd nghUj;jKk; MFk;.

Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;yg;Nghdhy; rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;fpd;w nghOJ xU NrhjplH kzkfd; - kzkfs; rhjfj;ij itj;J Kjy; mk;rkhf ,uhrpg; nghUj;jj;ijg; ghHg;gjw;Ff; fhuzNk kw;wg; nghUj;jq;fshd jpdg; nghUj;jk;> fzg; nghUj;jk;>  ,uhrp mjpgjpg; nghUj;jk;> trpag; nghUj;jk;> ,ul;rpg; nghUj;jk;> ngz; jPHf;fg; nghUj;jk;> Nahdpg; nghUj;jk;> Ntijg; nghUj;jk;> ehbg; nghUj;jk; Nghd;witfs; Njhd;wpd vd;gjdhy;jhd;. mjw;fhf ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; kl;Lk; ,Ue;jhy; NghJk; Vida nghUj;jq;fnsy;yhk; Njitapy;iy vd;W mHj;jkpy;iy.

,g;NghJ Nrhjplk; nrhy;Yk; nghUj;jq;fisg; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

(1) fpufg; nghUj;jk;

 

fpufq;fs;

#upad;> rdp> uhF> NfJ

nrt;tha;

 

,lk;

1 7 8

2 4 12

1  7   8

2   4   12

 el;G

Ml;rp

cr;rk;

gif> ePrk;

4

8

12

16

1

2

3

4

8      

16       

24        

32    

        

2       

4         

6         

8

 

,q;qdk; fzf;fpl;Lf; $l;b te;j njhifiag; gjpdhwhy; gpupj;j NgW fpufghg rq;fpiaahk;. ,UtUf;Fk; fpufghtk; ,y;iyahapDk; ,UtH ghgrq;fpiafSk; rkkhapd; cj;jkk;. xUtH ghgj;jpYk; kw;wtH ghtk; xd;W tiuapw;Fiwapd; kj;jpkk;. Xd;wpw;F Nky; Fiwapd; nghUe;jhJ. nrt;thapdhy; Vw;gLk; ghgk; kw;iwa fpufq;fspd; ghtq;fshw; rhe;jpahfhJ. ,UtH rhjfj;jpYk; nrt;tha; Njhrk; Vwf;Fiwa rkkhapUg;gpd; ed;W.

(2) jpdg; nghUj;jk; (el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jk;)

ngz; Mz; ,UtUf;Fk; xNu el;rj;jpukhapd; mJ cNuhfpzp> jpUthjpiu> kfk;> mj;jk;> tprhfk;> jpUNthzk;> cj;jul;lhjp> ,Nutjp vd;gtw;Ws; xd;whdhy; cj;jkk;.  mRtpdp> fhHj;jpif> kpUfrPuplk;> GeHG+rk;> G+rk;> G+uk;> cj;juk;> rpj;jpiu> mDl;lk;> G+uhlk;> cj;jpuhlk; vd;gtw;Ws; xd;whapDk; kj;jpkk;.

Vf ell;rj;jpuk; ,uz;L ,uhrpf;Fk; gq;Fgl;ljhapd; Kjy; ,uhrpg; ghjk; MZf;fhapd; ed;W. ngz;Zf;fhapd;  ePf;fg;gLk;.

NtW el;rj;jpukhdhy; ngz; el;rj;jpuk; Kjy; GUlel;rj;jpuk; tiu vz;zpf; fz;l njhif 2> 4> 6> 8> 9> 11> 13> 15> 17> 20> 22> 24> 26 vd;gdtw;Ws; xd;whapDk;> 27 Mk; ehs; VfuhrpahapDk; cj;jkk;.

12 Mk; ehspd; 2>3>4 Mk; fhy;fSk;
14 Mk; ehspd; 1>2>3 Mk; fhy;fSk;
16 Mk; ehspd; 1>2>4 Mk; fhy;fSk;
21> 23> 26 Mk; ehs;fSk; Mfpa ,tw;Ws; xd;whapd; kj;jpkk;.

ngz; el;rj;jpu ghjj;jpdpd;Wk; 88 Mk; ghjk; 22 Mk; ehspyhtJ 23 Mk; ehspyhtJ mikapd; mJ itehrpfk; vd;W ePf;fg;gLk;. ,jpy; nrhy;yg;glhj ehs;fshapd; nghUe;jhJ.  

 (3) fzg; nghUj;jk;

fzq;fs; nkhj;jk; %d;W. mitahtd:

(m) Njt fzk;

(M) kdpj fzk;

(,) ,uhl;rj fzk;

mRtpdp> kpUfrpuPlk;> GdHg+rk;> g+rk;> mj;jk;> Rthjp> mDl;lk;> jpUNthzk;> ,Nutjp Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; Njt fzq;fs;.

guzp> cNuhfpzp> jpUthjpiu> g+rk;> cj;jpuk;> g+uhlk;> cj;jpuhlk;> g+ul;lhjp> cj;jpul;lhjp Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; kdpj fzq;fs;.

fhHj;jpif> Mapyp;ak;> kfk;> rpj;jpiu> tprhfk;> Nfl;il> %yk;> mtpl;lk;> rjak; Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; ,uhl;rj fzq;fs;.

,tw;wpy; kzg;ngz; el;rj;jpuKk; kzkfd; el;rj;jpuKk; xNu fzj;ijr; NrHe;jjhapd; cj;jkk;. kzk; nra;ayhk;.

Njt fzk; kdpj fzkhf ,Ue;jhy; kj;jpkk;. nghUj;jk; cz;L.

kzkfd; ,uhl;rj fzkhf ,Ue;J kzg;ngz;Zk; ,uhl;rj fzkhf ,Ue;jhy; kzkfspd; el;rj;jpuj;jpypUe;J 14 MtJ el;rj;jpuj;jpw;F Nky; kzkfd; el;rj;jpuk; ,Ue;jhYk; kzk; nra;tpf;fyhk;.

kzkfs; ,uhl;rj fzkhfTk; kzkfd; Njtfzk; my;yJ kdpj fzkfhNth ,Ue;jhy; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy.

mNj Neuj;jpy; kzkfd; kdpj fzkhfTk;> kzkfs; ,uhl;rj fzkhfTk; ,Ue;jhYk; nghUj;jk; cz;L.

Mdhy; thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fk; (gf;fk; 25) NjtfzKk; - ,uhl;rj fzKk; kdpjfzKk; - ,uhl;rj fzKk; nghUe;jhJ vd;fpwJ!

(4) kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk;

kzg;ngz; el;rj;jpuj;jpypUe;J vz;zpf; nfhz;L te;J kzkfd; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; KbAk; NghJ me;j vz;zpf;if 4>7>10>13>16>19>22>24 vd;W VjhtJ xd;whf ,Ue;jhy; kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk; cz;L.

(5) Nahdpg; nghUj;jk;

el;rj;jpuq;fis kpUf mk;rkhff; nfhz;L> ve;j ve;j el;rj;jpuj;Jld; ve;j ve;j el;rj;jpuq;fs; nghUe;Jk; vd;W njupe;J nfhs;syhk;.

mRtpdp>  rjak;   -      Fjpiu
guzp> ,Nutjp     -      ahid
fhHj;jpif> g+rk;   -       ML
cNuhfpzp> kpUfrPuplk; -    ghk;G
jpUthjpiu> %yk;   :      eha;
GdHg+rk;> Mapypak;   -    g+id
kfk;> g+uk;               vyp
cj;jpuk;> cj;jpul;lhjp -     gR
mj;jk;     -             vUik
rpj;jpiu> tprhfk;  -         Gyp
mDrk;> Nfl;il   -        khd;
g+uhlk;> jpUNthzk;  -       Fuq;F
cj;jpuhlk;         -       fPup
mtpl;lk;> g+ul;lhjp  -        rpq;fk;

,tw;wpy; xd;Wf;nfhd;W gifahd Nahdpfs; gpd;tUkhW>

Fjpiu  - vUik
ahid  - rpq;fk;
Fuq;F  - ML
ghk;G   - fPup
vyp    - G+id
khd;-    eha;
khL  -  Gyp 

,e;jg; gl;baypy; ,y;yhjthW tpyq;Ffs; mike;jhy; ,y;yw tho;f;if Rfkhf mikAk;. mjhtJ ,UtUf;Fk; xU NahdpahapDk; gifapy;yhj Nahdpfspy; Mz; Nahdp MZf;Fk; ngz; Nahdp ngz;Zf;FkhapDk; my;yJ ,UtUf;Fk; ngz;NahdpahapDk; cj;jkk;.

,UtUf;Fk; gifapy;yhj Mz; Nahdpahapd; kj;jpkk;.

MZf;Fg; ngz;NahdpAk; ngz;Zf;F Mz;NahdpahapDk; nghUe;jhJ.

,e;jg; nghUj;jk; ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;yhky;  thdpay;gw;wpf;  nfhQ;rNkDk; mwptpy;yhj Kl;lhs;fs;> fhl;Lkpuhz;bfs; jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; vOjp itj;jit MFk;.

Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; kzk; nra;a tpUk;Gk; MizAk; ngz;izAk; kfg;NgW kfspH kUj;Jtuplk; mDg;GtNj mwpthHe;j nrayhFk;!

(6) ngz; jPHf;fg; nghUj;jk;

ngz; jPHf;fg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ nry;t tsj;ij jPHkhdpf;ff;$ba nghUj;jkhFk;. kzg; ngz;zpd; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; njhlq;fp kzkfdpd; el;rj;jpuk; tiu vz;zp tUk; $l;Lj; njhif 13 f;F Nkw;gbd; nghUj;jk; cz;L. 9 f;F Nky; 13 tiuapy; kj;jpkk;> 9 tiu nghUe;jhJ.

(7) ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk;

,uhrp vd;gJ re;jpu ,yf;fpdj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk;.

xU kzkfSf;F ,uhrpg;nghUj;jk; ghHf;fpd;wNghJ> nkhj;jKs;s gd;dpnuz;L ,uhrpfspy; kzkfSila n[d;k ,uhrpf;F 3 my;yJ 7 my;yJ 11 Mtjhf tUk; ,uhrpfspy; gpwe;j kzkfDila rhjfk; kpfg; nghUj;jkhf mikAk; vd;Wk; ,tHfs; ,UtUf;Fk; jpUkzk; nra;J itj;jhy; tskhd tho;f;if mikAk; vd;gJ Nrhjpl rhj;jpu ek;gpf;if MFk;.

Mdhy;> vy;yh kzkfSf;Fk; my;yJ vy;yh kzkfDf;Fk; NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;lJ khjphp ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; mike;JtpLtJ ,y;iy. ,t;thW mikahj rhjfUf;F ,uhrpg;nghUj;j mbg;gilapy; vg;gbj; jpUkzk; epr;rapf;fg;gLfpwJ?

,lgk; Kjy; kPdk; tiu gpwe;j Mzpw;F 4 MtJ> 8 MtJ> 12 Mtjhf mikag; ngw;w ngz; ,uhrp nghUe;jp tUk;.

Nklk;> kpJdk;> rpk;kk;> Jyhk;> jDR> Fk;gk; Mfpa ,uhrpapy; gpwe;j xU ngz;zpw;F 4 MtJ> 8 MtJ 12 MtJ ,uhrpfs; nghUe;jptuhJ. Mdhy;> ,e;j ,uhrpf;fhuHfSf;F 2 MtJ> 6 MtJ> 10 MtJ ,uhrpfs; kpf kpfg; nghUj;jkhf ,iae;J tUk;. ,t;tpU rhjfj;ijAk; ,izf;fyhk;;.

,lgk;> flfk;> fd;dp> tpUr;rpfk;> kfuk;> kPdk; Nghd;w ,uhrpapy; gpwe;j ngz;zpw;F 2 MtJ> 6 MtJ> 10 MtJ ,uhrp mikg;Gfs; Jsp$lg; nghUe;jp tuhJ.  ,tHfs; ,ize;jhy; Neha;> raNuhfk;> tpgj;J> nghUshjhuj; jilfs;> Gj;jpu ghf;fpakpd;ik> jha;f;F Rff;NfL> ,y;tho;f; ifapy; ,d;gkpd;ik Nghd;wit Vw;glyhk;.

vdNt ,lgk;> flfk;> fd;dp> tpUr;rpfk;> kfuk;> kPdk; Mfpa ,uhrpfspy; gpwe;jtHfSld; fz;bg;ghf 2 MtJ> 6 MtJ> 10 MtJ ,uhrpfis ,izg;gJ mt;tsT crpjky;y. mjw;F khwhf ,e;j ,uhrpfspy; gpwe;jtHfSf;F 4 MtJ> 8 MtJ> 12 MtJ ,uhrpapy; mikag; ngw;w rhjfk; kpfTk; nghUe;Jk;.

Nklk;> kpJdk;> rpk;kk;> Jyhk;> jDR> Fk;gk; Mf VNjDk; xd;W kzg;ngz;Zf;Fupa ,uhrpahf ,Ue;jhy; r\;lhq;f Njhrk; ,y;iy vd;gJ rpyH fUj;J MFk;.

mNjNghy; ,lgk;> flfk;> fd;dp> tpUr;rpfk;> kfuk;> kPdk; Mf VNjDk; xd;W kzg;ngz;Zf;Fupa ,uhrpahf ,Ue;jhy; 2 Mk; ,lk; 12 Mk; ,lk; Njhrkpy;iy  vd;gJ rpyH fUj;J MFk;.

thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fk; MZk; ngz;Zk; xNu ,uhrp vdpDk;> ngz; ,uhrpf;F Mz; ,uhrp 6 f;F Nkw;gbDk; cj;jkk; vd;fpwJ. ngz; ,uhrpf;F Mz; ,uhrp 2 Mapd; kpUj;J. 3 Mapd; Jf;fk;. 4 Mapd; jupj;jpuk;.  5 Mapd; itjt;tpak;. 6 Mapd; Gj;jpuehrk; vdg; gaKWj;JfpwJ.

,lgk; Kjyhd ,ul;il ,uhrpfspy; gpwe;j ngz;Zf;F 2 Mk; ,uhrp Mz; ,uhrpahf tupDk; Nklk; Kjyhd xw;iw ,uhrpapy; gpwe;j ngz;Zf;F 6 Mk; ,uhrp Mz; ,uhrpahf tupDk; kj;jpkk;. ngz;Zk; MZk; xU ,uhrpahFk; NghJ ngz; el;rj;jpuj;Jf;F Mz; el;rj;jpuk; gpe;jpajhfpy; nghUe;jhjhk;.  

(8) ,uhrp mjpgjpg; nghUj;jk;

xt;nthUtUf;Fk; mtutH ,uhrp mjpgjp ahH vd;gijf; nfhz;L ,uhrpg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,uhrp mjpgjp kzg;ngz;> kzkfd; ,UtUf;Fk; xUtuhfNt ,Ue;jhy; cj;jkk;. 

    ,uhrp          mjpgjpfs;

    Nklk;  -         nrt;tha;
    ,lgk;  -         Rf;fpud;
    kpJdk;  -         Gjd;
    flfk;   -         re;jpud;
    rpk;kk;   -         #upad;
    fd;dp   -         Gjd;
    Jyhk;   -         Rf;fpud;
    tpUr;rpfk; -        nrt;tha;
    jDR    -         FU
    kfuk;> Fk;gk;  -     rdp
    kPdk;    -         FU

 

fpufk;

kpj;JUf;fs;

rj;JUf;fs;

#upad;

re;jpud;> mq;fhufd;> FU

Rf;fpud;> rdp> ,uhF

re;jpud;

#upad;> FU

rdp> ,uhF> NfJ

mq;fhufd;

#upad;> FU

Gjd; 

Gjd;

Rf;fpud;

re;jpud;

FU

#upad;> re;jpud;> mq;fhufd;

Gjd;> Rf;fpud;

Rf;fpud;

rdp> Gjd;> ,uhF

#upad;> re;jpud;> mq;fhufd;

rdp

Gjd;> Rf;fpud;

#upad;> re;jpud;

,uhF

Rf;fpud;

#upad; ;

NfJ

#upad;> FU

re;jpud;

 

Mjhuk; - N[hjpl mKjk; (gf;fk; 88)

ve;jf; fpufk; ve;jf; fpufj;Jf;F el;G my;yJ gif vd;gjpy; NrhjplHfSf;F ,ilNa xj;j fUj;jpy;iy. EhYf;F Ehy; mJ NtWgLfpwJ.  

 (9) ,ur;Rg; nghUj;jk;

rpNuhur;R  -   kpUfrPuplk;> rpj;jpiu> mtpl;lk;.
fz;lur;R -    Nuhfpzp> jpUthjpiu> mj;jk;> Rthjp> jpUNtzk;> rjak;.
ehgpur;R  -    fhHj;jpif> GdHG+rk;> cj;jpuk;> tprhfk;> cj;juhlk;> G+ul;lhjp.
CUur;R  -    guzp>  g+rk;> G+uk;> mDrk;> G+uhlk;> cj;juhl;lhjp.
ghjur;R -     mRtpdp> Mapypak;>  kfk;> Nfl;il> %yk;> ,Nutjp.

,e;jg; gl;baypy; kzg;ngz;> kzkfd; ,UtuJ el;rj;jpuq;fSk; xNu ,ur;Rtpy; ,Ue;jhy; nghUe;jhJ. mit rpNuhur;rpy; ,Ue;jhy; Mz; kuzk;. fz;lur;Rtpy; ,Ue;jhy; ngz; kuzk;. ehgpur;Rtpy; ,Ue;jhy; Gj;jpu ehrk;. CUur;Rtpy; ,Ue;jhy; jd ehrk;. ghjur;Rtpy; ,Ue;jhy; J}uNjr thrk;.

NkYk; MNuhfj;jpyhtJ> mtNuhfj;jpyhtJ xNu tupirapy; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; ,ur;Rg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy!

xd;W MNuhfj;jpYk;> xd;W mtNuhfj;jpYk; ,Ue;jhYk; xNu ,ur;Rthf ,Ue;jhYk; ,ur;Rg; nghUj;jk; cz;L.  

(10) ehbg; nghUj;jk;

mRtpdp> jpUthjpiu> GdHg+rk;> cj;jpuk;> mj;jk;> Nfl;il> %yk;> rjak;> g+ul;lhjp Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; ghHft ehbiar; NrHe;jit.

guzp> kpUfrpuPlk;> g+rk;> g+uk;> rpj;jpiu> mDrk;> g+uhlk;> mtpl;lk;> cj;jpul;lhjp Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; kj;jpa ehbiar; NrHe;jit.

fhHj;jpif> cNuhfpzp> Mapypak;> kfk;> Rthjp> tprhfk;> cj;jpuhlk;> jpUNthzk;> ,Nutjp Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fs; tHk ghHft ehbiar; NrHe;jit. kzkfs;> kzkfd; ,UtUk; xNu ehbiar; NrHe;jtHfshdhy; ehbg; nghUj;jk; cz;L.

(11) Ntijg; nghUj;jk;

Ntijg; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ Vw;fdNt $wpathW RfhDghfq;fspy; fztDk; kdtptpAk; jq;fSf;Fs; Fiwfs; ,Ue;jhYk; mtw;iw mDrupj;J tho;f;if elj;Jtijj; jPHkhdpg;gJ.

mRtpdp     -    Nfl;il
guzp       -    mDlk;
fhHj;jpif    -   tprhfk;
cNuhfpzp   -    Rthjp
jpUthjpiu   -   jpUNthzk;
GdHG+rk;     -   cj;jpuhlk; 
G+rk;        -   G+uhlk;
Mapypak;    -   %yk;
kfk;        -   ,Nutjp
G+uk;        -   cj;jpul;lhjp
cj;jpuk;     -   G+ul;lhjp
mj;jk;      -   rjak;
kpUfrPuplk;   -   rpj;jpiu> mtpl;lk;

Mz;> ngz; ,UtUila el;rj;jpuq;fs; Nkw;Fwpj;jthW xd;wpDf;nfhd;W NtijahapUg;gpw; nghUe;jhJ. khwptupd; nghUj;jk;.

(12) trpag; nghUj;jk;

,uhrpfspy; vjw;F vjNdhL cld;ghL vd;gijj; njupe;J nfhs;tjd; %yk; trpag; nghUj;jj;ijf; fz;lwpayhk;.

    Nklj;Jf;F        trpak;   rpk;kk;> tpUr;rpfk;
    ,lgj;Jf;F        trpak;   flfk;> Jyhk;
    kpJdj;Jf;F       trpak;   fd;dp
    flfj;Jf;F        trpak;   tpUr;rpfk;> jD
    rpk;kj;Jf;F       trpak;   Jyhk; 
    fd;dpf;F         trpak;   kpJdk;> kPdk;
    JyhKf;F        trpak;   fd;dp> kfuk;
    tpUr;rpfj;Jf;f     trpak;   flfk;> fd;dp
    jDRf;F          trpak;   kPdk;
    kfuj;Jf;F        trpak;   Nklk;> Fk;gk;
    Fk;gj;Jf;F       trpak;   Nklk;
    kPdj;Jf;F        trpak;   kfuk;

vd;W trpag; nghUj;jk; $wg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. kzg;ngz; ,uhrpf;F> kzkfd; Nkw;$wg;gl;Ls;sgb nghUe;Jkhdhy; mJNt rupahd trpag; nghUj;jk;.

ngz; ,uhrpAk; Mz; ,uhrpAk; xd;whapDk; ngz; ,uhrpf;F Mz; ,uhrp trpakhapUg;gJld; Mzpd; ,uhrpf;Fg; ngz;zpd; ,uhrp trpakhapDk; ngz; ,uhrpf;F kzkfd; ,uhrp trpakhf MZf;Fg; ngz; ,uhrp trpakpy;yhJ ,Ug;gpDk; cj;jkk;. Mz; ,uhrpf;F ngz; ,uhrp trpakhfg; ngz; ,uhrp trpak; ,y;yhjpUg;gpd; kj;jpkk;.

,UtH ,uhrpfSk; xd;wpDf;nfhd;W trpakpy;yhjpUg;gpd; nghUe;jhJ. 

(13) MAs; nghUj;jk;

ngz; el;rj;jpuk; Kjy; Mz; el;rj;jpuk; tiuAk; vz;zpd; njhifAk; Mzpd;  el;rj;jpuk; Kjy; ngz; el;rj;jpuk; tiuAk; vz;zpd; njhifAk; jdpj; jdp 7My; ngUf;fp 27 My; gpupj;J te;j kpr;rq;fspy; ,UnjhiffSk; rkkhapDk; ngz;zpDila njhif 7 tiu FiwapDk; cj;jkk;> Mzpd; njhif 7 tiu Fiwapd; kj;jpkk;. xU njhifapYk; ghHf;f kw;wJ 7f;F Nkw; Fiwapd; nghUe;jhJ.

(14) gps;isg; nghUj;jk;

Foe;ijfs; gpwg;gjw;F xt;nthUtUila rhjfq;fspYk; ma;e;jhk; ,lk;> xd;gjhk; ,lk;> Vohk; ,lk; Mfpait Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd.

,e;j %d;W ];jhdq;fspy; VjhtJ xd;W typik ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jhYk;> FU gykpy;yhky; ,Ue;jhYk; me;jr; rhjfUf;F Foe;ijg; ghf;fpaj;jpy; jilfs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. ma;e;jhk; ,lj;Jf;F mjpgjp FU> ,J ght tHf;fkile;J ghgH NrHjy; Nehf;Fjy; ngw;wpUg;gpDk; 6> 8> 12 Mk; mjpgHfSld; $bapUg;gpDk;> 5 f;F mjpgDk; FUTk; ngytPduha; 6>8> 12 Mk; ,lq;fspypUg;gpDk; Gj;jpu Njhrk; cz;lhk;. RgH NrHjy;> Nehf;Fjy; cz;lhapd; Nkw;fz;l Njhrq;fs; rhe;jpahFk;. ngz;Zf;Fk; MZf;Fk; Gj;jpu Njhrkpd;whapd; cj;jkk;. ngz;Zf;F khj;jpuk; Gj;jpu Njhrkpd;whapd; kj;jpkk;. ngz;Zf;Fg; Gj;jpu Njhrk; mjpfkpUg;gpDk; ,UtUf;Fk; Gj;jpu NjhrkpUg;gpDk; nghUe;jhJ.

nrt;tha; Njhrk;

Njhrq;fspy; kpfTk; nfl;l Njhrkhf nrt;tha; Njhrk; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpy; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. nrt;tha;f;F vg;gbr; Njhrk; Vw;gLfpwJ?

nrt;tha; ed;F gyk; ngw;wpUe;jhy; mjhtJ Ml;rpahfNth> cr;rkhfNth ,Ue;jhy; Njhrk; ,y;iy. nrt;tha; gytPdg;gl;L ,Ue;jhy;jhd; Njhrk; Vw;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW xUtUf;Fr; nrt;tha; gytPdg;gl;L ,Uf;Fk;NghJ Vw;gLfpw Njhrk; nrt;tha; Njhrk; vdg;gLk;.

rhjfg; nghUj;jj;jpy; nrt;tha; Njhrk; ngUk; Fiwahff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. rhjfj;jpy; nrt;tha;> ,yf;fpdk;> re;jpud;> Rf;fpuDf;F 1>2>4>7>8>12 Mk; ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;jhy; nrt;tha; Njhrk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W nghUs;. ,yf;fp;dj;jpy; ,Ue;J 2> 4> 7> 8> 12 ,e;j tPLfspy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; nrt;tha;f;F Njhrk; Vw;gLfpwJ.  kzg;ngz;> kzkfd; ,UtH rhjfj;jpYk; ,e;j ,lk; mikahtpl;lhy; ey;yJ. ,UtUf;Fk; xNu khjpupahd mikg;ghf ,Ue;jhYk; ey;yJjhd;.

kpJdk;> fd;dp Mfpa tPLfspy; 7 my;yJ 8 Mk; ,lkhf ,Ue;J mjpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; fLk; Njhrk; Vw;gLk;. mg;gbg;gl;ltHfSf;F elg;G jpir nrt;thahf ,Ue;jhy; kpfTk; ghjpf;fg;gLtH.

Nklk;> flfk;> tpUr;rpfk;> kfuq;fspy; nrt;tha; FUNthL NrHe;jpUe;jhNyh my;yJ FUthy; ghHf;fg;gl;lhNyh nrt;tha; Njhrk; ,y;iy.

nrt;tha; Njhrk; xUtUf;F ,Ue;J kw;nwhUtUf;F ,y;iy vd;why; jpUkzk; nra;J itf;ff;$lhJ. ,ijg; ghHf;fhky; jpUkzk; nra;Jtpl;lhy; me;j jpir Gj;jp Neuq;fspy; fztiuNah my;yJ kidtpiaNah ,of;f Neuyhk;. my;yJ gphpa Neuyhk;. jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Ng ,UtUf;Fk; ,e;jr; nrt;tha; jpir Kbe;Jtpl;lhy; rpf;fy; ,y;iy.

Nkw;$wpa 2> 4> 7> 8> 12 Mfpa ,lq;fs; fPo;f;fz;l tPLfshf ,Ue;jhy; Njhrk; ,y;iy. mitfshtd:

    1) Nklk;> tpUr;rpfk; Mfpatw;wpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; Njhrkpy;iy. ,e;j ,U tPLfSk; nrt;tha;f;F Ml;rp tPL vd;gjhy; Njhrkpy;iy.

    2) kfuk;> flfk; Mfpatw;wpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; Njhrkpy;iy. ,jpy; kfuk; nrt;tha;f;F cr;r tPL vd;gjhYk; flfk; ePr tPL vd;gjhYk; Njhrkpy;iy.

    3) jDR> kPdk; ,jpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; Njhrkpy;iy. ,J el;G tPlhf ,Ug;gjhy; Njhrkpy;iy.

    4) Fk;gk;> rpk;kk; ,jpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; Njhrkpy;iy ,jpy; Fk;gk; rdp tPlhfTk;> rpk;kk; #hpadpd; tPlhfTk; ,Ug;gjhy; nrt;tha; Njhrk; mbgLfpwJ.

    5) re;jpuDld; nrt;tha; ,ize;jpUe;jhy; re;jpu kq;fs Nahfk; Vw;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; nrt;tha;f;Fj; Njhrk; ,y;iy.

tpthfg; nghUj;jk; gw;wpr; nrhy;Yk; thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fk; gpuhkzUf;F mjpgjpAk;> rj;jpupaUf;Ff; fzKk;> itrpaUf;F ngz; jPHf;fKk;  #j;jpuHf;F NahdpAk; gpujhdkhfg; nghUe;j Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ. 

tpthfg; nghUj;jj;jpy; $l Ntjq;fspd; XH mq;fkhd Nrhjplk; ehy;tUzj;ijg; GFj;jp ,Uf;fpwJ. Nfhs;fSf;Fk; el;rj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; xUtd; gpuhkzd;> xUtd; rj;jpupad;> xUtd; itrpfd;> xUtd; #j;jpud; vd;w tUz NtWghL njupAkh?

rhj;jpukhdhYk; rlq;fhdhYk; vq;Fk; tUzNtWghL Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; vOjpatHfshy; jpl;lkpl;Lg; GFj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. Nfhs;fis tUz mbg;gilapy; tFj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

tUzk;

fpufk;

,uhrp

vz;

gpuhkzd;

FU> Rf;fpud;

flfk;> tpUr;rpfk;> kPdk;

4> 8> 12

rj;jpupad;

#upad;> nrt;tha;

Nklk;> rpk;kk;> jDR

1> 5> 9

itrpfd;

re;jpud;> Gjd;

,lgk;> fd;dp> kfuk;

2> 6> 10

#j;jpud;

rdp

kpJdk;> Jyhk;> Fk;gk;

3> 7> 11

 

Nrhjplj;jpy; rdp nfl;l NfhshfTk; fWg;G epwk; cilajhfTk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ljhNyNa mJ #j;jpuUf;F xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJ ntspg;gilahfj; njupfpwJ. jkpoHfs; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; jq;fis #j;jpuH vd;W ,opT gLj;jpdhYk; mijg; gw;wpf; nfhQ;rk; $lf; ftiyg;glhky;> ftiyg;glhjJ kl;Lkpy;yhky; mjidg; ngUikahf vLj;Jf; nfhz;L  kw;w tUzj;jhiutpl Nrhjplj;ijf;
nfl;bahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;. 

fiythzH vd;.v];. fpU\;zd; ebj;J 1943 ,y; ntspte;j gpughtjp glj;jpy; xU fhl;rp.  mbikj;jdKk; %lj;jdKk; nfhb fl;bg; gwe;j fhyk; mJ.

gLj;jpUf;Fk; mRud; xUtd; jiyia fiythzH fhyhy; kpjpg;ghH.

"Vz;lh vd;id kpjpr;Nr?' Nfhgj;NjhL Nfl;ghd; mRud;.

",g;gbj;jhd; gfthd; thkd mtjhuj;jpNy kfhgypr; rf;utHj;jp jiykPJ fhiy tr;R kpjpr;rhH' vd;ghH fiythzH.

"gfthd; ,g;gbah kpjpr;rhH? mg;g ey;yh kpjp' vd;W $wpj; jiyiaf; fhl;Lthd; mRud;.

xU NrhjplH ,UtuJ rhjfj;jpYk; 12 nghUj;jq;fspy; 11 rup te;jhYk; jpUkzk; Kwpe;J tpLk; vd;fpwhH.

rhjfj;jpy; nghUj;jk; ghHf;Fk; nghOJ> 12 nghUj;jj;jpy; 5 f;F Nkw;gl;l nghUj;jq;fs; mike;jhNy jpUkzk; nra;JtpLfpd;wdH. Mdhy; rhjfj;jpy; KOikahfg; nghUj;jk; cs;sjh? vd;gijg; ghHf;fj; jtwp tpLfpd;wdH.

vl;lhkplk; Mz;fspd; rhjfj;jpy; MAs; ];jhdkhfTk; ngz;;fspd; rhjfj;jpy; khq;fy;a gyj;ijf; Fwpg;gjhfTk; mikfpwJ

Nkw;nrhd;d ];jhdq;fspy; mRg fpuq;fs; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; uhF> NfJ> rdp> nrt;tha;> #hpad; Nghd;w fpufq;fs; mikag;ngw;whYk; my;yJ mtHfs; ghHit Vw;gl;lhYk;> 10 f;F Nkw;gl;l nghUj;jq;fs; mikag; ngw;whYk; ,j;jifa mikg;G tud; rhjfj;jpy; mikag; ngwtpy;iyahapd;> mg;gb epr;rapf;fg;gLfpd;w jpUkzq;fs; ngUk;ghYk; Njhy;tpapy; Kbtilfpd;wd.

vdJ ez;gH xUtH nghwpapay; KJfiyg; gl;lk; ngw;W xU fy;Y}hpapy; tphpTiuahsuhfg; gzpahw;wp tUfpd;whH. mtUf;F 2-9-1997 md;W jpUkzk; eilngw;wJ. ez;ghpd; el;rj;jpuk; ,Nutjp kw;Wk; ngz;zpd; el;rj;jpuk; cj;jpuk; MFk;.

nghUj;jk; ghHj;j nghOJ nkhj;jk; 12 nghUj;jq;fspy; 11 nghUj;jk; cs;sjhy;> jpUkzk; nra;ayhk; vd;W KbT nra;ag;gl;lJ.

MapDk; jpUkzk; Kbe;j 3 khjj;jpw;Fs; ,UtUf;Fk; xj;Jg; Nghfhjjhy;> kzg;ngz; jha; tPl;bw;Fr; nrd;Wtpl Nehpl;lJ. gyKiw Nehpy; nrd;W rkhjhdg; gLj;jpAk; mtH kdk; khwhjjhy;> ez;gH kzKwpT tof;nfhd;iw khHR 98 ,y; njhlHe;jhH

ez;ghpd; Kd;dhs; kidtpapd; rhjfj;jpy; nrt;tha; rdpNahL ,ize;J fsj;jpu];jhdkhd 7 Mk; ,lj;jpy; mikag;ngw;wJ fLikahd nrt;tha; Njhrj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.

ez;gH rhjfj;jpy; nrt;tha; Njhrk; mikag;ngwtpy;iy. NkYk; mtUila rhjfj;jpy; 7 Mk; ,lj;jpy; fsj;jpufhufuhd Rf;fpud; mikag;ngw;wJ fhuNfh ght eh];jp vd;w tpjpapd;gb jpUkz tho;tpy; rpf;fiy Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

flf ,yf;;fpdj;jpw;Fr; Rf;fpud; ghjfhjpgjpahfpd;whH. mtH fsj;jpu ];jhdkhd 7 Mk; ,lj;jpy; mikag; ngw;why; ,y;tho;T rpwg;gjpy;iy.

NkYk; tpiua];jhdhjpgjpahd Gjd; 7 Mk; ,lj;jpy; mikag; ngw;wjhy; ,y;tho;tpy; rpf;fy;> gphptpid Nghd;W ghjfkhd gyd;fis Vw;gLj;jpaJ. NkYk; ,tHfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; eilngWfpd;w nghOJ> ez;gUf;F Voiur;rdpAk;> mtUila kidtpf;F ml;lkh rdpAk; eilngw;W te;jJk; jpUkzk; Njhy;tpiaj;  jOtpajw;F xU fhuzk; MFk;.  (MH.tp.NrfH> V.gp 860> vr; gpshf;>  2tJ njU> mz;zh efH> nrd;id-40> jpdfud;)

rhjfj;jpy; 12 nghUj;jj;jpy; 11 nghUj;jk; mike;Jk; jpUkzk; Kwpe;Jtpl;lJ vd;why; rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;Jj; jpUkzk; nra;tjhy; vd;d gad;?

rhjfk; ghHj;Jr; nra;j ,izaHfSf;F ,ilapy; kzKwpT kl;Lky;y mtHfSf;Ff; Foe;ijfs; $lg; gpwf;fhky; NghfpwNj? mJ Vd;?

NkNy $wpa jpUkzg; nghUj;jq;fs; ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;yhky;>  thdpay;gw;wpf; nfhQ;rNkDk; mwpT ,y;yhj mwptpypfshy; tpjpf;fl;Lg;ghbd;wpj; jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf tpjpf;fg;gl;lit MFk;.

xU Nrhjpl Ehy; jpUkzg; nghUj;jj;jpy; fpufg; nghUj;je;jhd; Kf;fpak; vd;fpwJ. ,d;ndhd;W ,uhrpg; nghUj;je;jhd; Kf;fpak; vd;fpwJ. gpwpnjhd;W jpdg; nghUj;je;jhd; Kf;fpak; vd;fpwJ. ,jpy; vJ rup? vJ gpio? vy;yhNk rupahf ,Uf;f KbahJ!

Mz;-ngz; ,U ghyhiuAk; Njt fzk; kdpj fzk; ,uhl;rj fzk; vd;W gpupg;gjw;F ve;j mbg;gilAk; fpilahJ. ,e;j 27 el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fsJ cUtikg;ig (pattern) tiue;J mtw;Wf;Fg; ngaH itj;jNj kdpjd;jhd;. gpd;dH ,e;j el;rj;jpuq;fisj; Njt fzk;> kdpj fzk;> ,uhl;rj fzk; vd;W gpupg;gJk; mit xd;Wf;F xd;W nghUe;jhJ vd;W $WtJk; Kl;lhs;j;jdj;jpd; cr;rf; fl;lkhFk;. mjw;F mwptpay; mbg;gil vJTNk  ,y;iy.

trpag; nghUj;jk; vd;gJ Mz;> ngz; Mfpa ,UtUila cs;sq;fspYk; ghrj;ijAk; cz;ikahd md;igAk; tsHg;gjw;Fk; xUthplj;jpy; kw;nwhUtH md;G nfhz;L thor; nra;tjw;Fk; kzg; nghUj;jk; ,y;yhj xUtiu kw;;nwhUtH trpak; nra;tjw;Fk; kpf mtrpakhk;.  ,uhrpg;  nghUj;jk; %yk; jk;gjpfs; xUtUf;F xUtH trpag;gl;L ve;jf; fzj;jpYk; xUtiu xUtH tpl;Lf; nfhLf;fhJ gupg+uz md;Gld; tho;f;if elj;JtH vdr; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; nrhy;fpwJ.

gpwtpapy; Nkl ,uhrpahf ,Uf;Fk; ngz; rpk;kuhrp my;yJ tpUr;rpf ,uhrp Mzplj;jpy;jhd; trpakhths;. mj;jifa ngz;iz NtW ,uhrpAila MZf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J itj;jhy; mj;jifa ngz; ,aw;ifapNyNa ,aw;ifapd; J}z;L jypNyNa rpk;kuhrpAila my;yJ tpUr;rpf ,uhrpAila Mzplj;jpy;jhd; kd ehl;lq;fs; nfhz;LtpLths;.  ,jdhy; mtsJ fw;nghOf;fj;jpw;Fk;$l fsq;fk; Vw;gl;L tplf;$Lkhk;. ,t;thW NrhjplH xUtH ngz;fisg;gw;wp kpfTk; ,opthf vOjpAs;shH.

xU ,uhrpf;F ,d;ndhU ,uhrp trpak;> trpak; ,y;iy vd;gijr; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; vOjpa KdptHfs; vg;gbf; fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;? mjw;fhd rhd;W vd;d?

kdpjHfis mtHfsJ FUjpapd; mbg;gilapy; V> gp> Vgp. x gpupT vd;W kUj;JtHfs; gpupj;J itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. mjw;F mwptpay; mbg;gil ,Uf;fpwJ.  FUjp Njitg;gLk; xU Nehahspf;F ,d;ndhUtUila FUjpia Vw;Wk; Kiw 1900 ,NyNa  eilKiwf;F te;jJ. Nehahspapd; FUjp  ve;jg; gpupitr; NrHe;jJ vd;gijr; Nrhjid nra;J mNj gpupitr; NrHe;j  FUjpiaNa clypy; Vw;WfpwhHfs;.  

Nrhjplk; rpy vz;fisg; nghUj;jk; vd;W Vw;Wf; nfhs;tJk; rpy vz;fisg; nghUj;jkpy;iy vd;W js;StJk; %lek;gpf;ifNa nahopa mjw;F mwptpay; mbg;gil vJTk; ,y;iy. kzg;ngz;  el;rj;jpuj;jpypUe;J vz;zpf; nfhz;L te;J kzkfd; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; KbAk; NghJ me;j  vz;zpf;if 4>7>10>13>16>19>22>25 vd;W VjhtJ xd;whf ,Ue;jhy; kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk; cz;L vd;W Nrhjplk; nrhy;fpwJ.

kpFjp vz;fshd 1>2>3>5>6>8>9>11>12>14>15>17>18>20>21>23> nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W mNj Nrhjplk; nrhy;fpwJ.  Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why; ,e;j vz;fs; nra;j ghtk;jhd; vd;d? Vd; mtw;iwf; nfl;l vz;fs; vd;W js;s Ntz;Lk;? mbg;gil vd;d?

,Ugj;NjO el;rj;jpuq;fis kpUf mk;rj;NjhL Nrhb NrHj;J mjd; mbg;gilapy; Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ vt;tsT Kl;lhs;j;jdk; vd;gJ nrhy;yhkNy cq;fSf;F tpsq;Fk;.

cNuhfpzp> kpUfrPuplk; Mfpa  el;rj;jpuq;fNshL ghk;igr; NrHf;fr; nrhd;dJ ahH? cj;jpuhlk; el;rj;jpuj;NjhL fPupia Kbr;Rg; NghLkhW ahH nrhd;dJ? mjw;fhd VJ my;yJ VJf;fs; vd;d?

fPupf;Fk; ghk;Gf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,aw;ifahf ,Uf;Fk; gifikia kdjpy; nfhz;L  cNuhfpzp> kpUfrPuplk; kw;Wk;  cj;jpuhlk; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; gpwe;jtHfSf;F ,ilapy; Nahdpg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W nrhy;tJ file;njLj;j Vkhw;W Ntiy MFk;. 

jkpoHfisg; nghWj;jstpy; Fwpg;Gg; ghHf;fhky; jpUkzk; eilngWtjpy;iy. mwptpay; gl;ljhupfs; $l ,jw;Fg; Gweil ,y;iy. ,J fhuzkhfNt jpUkzg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ xU Gul;L vd;gij nka;g;gpf;f mJ gw;wp tpupthf vOj Ntz;b Neupl;lJ.

Nrhjplg; Nga; gpbj;Jg; gyH miytJ Nghjhnjd;W ,g;NghJ vz; rhj;jpuf;fhuHfSk; fil tpup;f;fpd;whHfs;.

ahUf;fhtJ cq;fs; gpwe;j ehisj; jw;nrayhfr; nrhy;ypg; ghUq;fs;. clNd 'mJjhNd ghHj;Njd;. ePq;fs; xz;zhk; ,yf;ff;fhuH. mjhtJ gpwe;j ehSk; xd;W gpwe;j jpfjpapd; $l;Lj;njhifAk;  xd;W. xz;zhk; ,yf;ffhuHfs; gpbr;rpuhtpfs;> ,wq;fp tukhl;lhHfs; vd;W gyd; nrhy;yj; njhlq;fp tpLthHfs;.

Nrhjplk;Nghy; vz; rhj;jpuj;jpy; $l;ly;> gpupj;jy;> fzpj;jy; (computation) tupir xOq;F khw;wy; (permutation) Nghd;w rpf;fy;fs; ,y;iy. xd;wpy; ,Ue;J Ik;gJ tiu vz;zj; njupe;jpUe;jhy; NghJk; Rg;gDk; Fg;gDk; jq;fis vz;rhj;jpupfs; vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L gyd; nrhy;yf; fpsk;gyhk;!  

jkpoHfs; tPL thq;Fk;NghJ 8 Mk; ,yf;fj;ij tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. Nrhjplj;jpy; vl;L rdpNahL (ml;lkj;Jr; rdp) njhlHG gLj;jpg; Ngrg;gLtNj mjw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;. NtW fhuzk; ,y;iy.

,Nj Nghy; rPdHfs; 4 ia tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. mJ kuzj;NjhL njhlHGila vz; vd;gJ mtHfs; nfhz;bUf;Fk; %l ek;gpf;if MFk;. fpwpj;jtHfs; 13 ia tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. njhlHkhb tPL fl;Lk;NghJ 12 MtJ khbf;F mLj;j khbia 14 MtJ khb vd;Wjhd; ,yf;fkpLfpd;whHfs;. fhuzk;  ,NaRehjH rpYitapy; miwe;J nfhy;yg;gLtjw;F Kjy;ehs; mtuJ ,Wjp ,uT cztpy; fye;J nfhz;ltHfsJ vz;zpf;if 13 vd;gNj!  

gd;dpuz;lhk; khbf;F NkNy 13 MtJ khb ,y;yhky; 14 MtJ khb ,Ug;gJ fdbaj; jkpo; thndhyp rf;fpLj;jhUf;Fk; Fog;gj;ij cz;lhf;fpAs;sJ! (Nrhjplg; Gul;L Ehypy; ,Ue;J)