tpba tpba ,uhkH fij tpbe;j gpd;dH ,uhkDf;Fr; rPij vd;d  Kiw? 

 

nuhwd;Nuh fy;tpr; rigj; jkpo;g; ghlEhy;fs; fl;Liuf;F kWg;G

 

ef;fPud;

 

fk;g ,uhkhazj;jpy; xU fhl;rp.

 

epFk;giy ahfk; nra;fpwhd; ,e;jpurpj;!

 

ahfk; ntw;wp ngw;W tpl;lhy; mtid ahUk; nty;y KbahJ!

 

,jid mwpe;j tpgPrzd; vd;w ,dj; JNuhfp ,e;jpurpj;jpw;Fr; rpw;wg;gNd vd;whYk; fhl;bf; nfhLf;fpwhd; ,d vjpup ,uhkdplk;!

 

rz;ilapy; ,e;jpurpj; nfhy;yg;gLfpwhd;. ,wf;Fe; jUthapy; mtd;Kd; te;J ,uq;fYiu Mw;Wfpwhd;. mijf; Nfl;lJk; ,e;jpurpj;; rpdj;Jld; .",dp cdf;nfd;Nd khdk;? vq;fNshL mlq;fpw;wd;Nw!” vd tpgPrzid tpspj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhd;. 

 

jkpo;g; gz;ghl;ilf; fhl;bf; nfhLf;ff; fij vOjpa fk;gd; $l kiwf;f Kbahj nrhy; khdk;! neQ;rpy; <l;biar; nrUfpaJ Nghy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l neUg;Gr; nrhy;!

 

,e;jpurpj; tPuj;jpd; tpisepyk;! khdj;jpd; kWtbtk;! vOr;rpapd; rpd;dk;!

 

Mo;thH gl;lj;Jf;Fk;> mur fl;bYf;Fk; jdJ cw;whiuAk; Rw;wj;jhiuAk; cld;gpwg;igAk; khw;whDf;Ff; fhl;bf; nfhLj;j NfL nfl;l tpgPrzd; ,d;Dk; tho;fpwhd;! vg;gb?

 

,uz;lfj;Jf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf mtd; Ngrg; gLfpwhd;. xU rpy fk;gubg; nghbaho;thHfisj; jtpu tpgPrzd; ngaH fl;lnghk;kid ehl;ilf; nfhs;is mbf;f te;j nts;isf;fhuDf;Ff; fhl;bf; nfhLj;j vl;lg;gd;> aho;g;ghz muir Mz;l rq;fpyp kd;did NghHj;Jf;NfaUf;Ff; fhl;bf; nfhLj;j fhf;iftd;dpad; Nghd;w ,uz;lfHfSld; xUNru itj;Jg; gopf;fg;gLfpwhd;.

 

murfl;bYf;F Mirg;gl;l tpgPrzd; gopf;fg;gLk; NghJ tho;T ngupjy;y khdk; ngupJ vd;W fskhb tPo;e;j ,uhtzd; kwj; jkpod; vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhd;! 

 

njd;jpiriag; ghHf;fpd;Nwd; vd;nrhy;Ntd; - vd;wd;
rpe;ijnayhk; Njhs;fnsyhk; G+upf;Fjlh!
md;we;j yq;ifapid Mz;l kwj;jkpod;
ma;apuz;L jpirKfj;Jk; jd; Gfio itj;Njhd;

Fd;nwLf;Fk; ngUe;Njhshd; nfhil nfhLf;Fk; ifahd;!

Fs;seupr; nray; nra;Ak; $l;lj;jpd; $w;wk;

vd; jkpoH %jhij! vd; jkpoH ngUkhd;

,uhtzd;fhz;! mtd; ehkk; ,t;Tyfk; mwpAk;!

 

tQ;rf tpgPrzdpd; mz;zndd;W jd;id

itaj;jhH nrhy;YnkhU khgopf;Nf mQ;Rk;

neQ;rfid> ey;ahopd; euk;Gjidj; jltp

epiwa ,irr; nrtpaKJ jUk;Gytd; jd;id

ntQ;rkupy; rhjy;tu NeHe;jpbDk; #o;r;rp

tpUk;ghj ngUe;jifiaj; jkpo;kiwfs; ehd;Fk;

rQ;rupf;Fk; ehthid tho;j;Jfpd;w jkpoH

jkpnud;Ngd;> kwe;jtiur; rof;fnudr; nrhy;Ntd;!

 

……………………………………………………

fly;Nghyr; nre;jkpiog; ngUf;f Ntz;Lk;

fPo;r; nray;fs; tpl Ntz;Lk;! uhtzd;jd;

fPHj;jp nrhy;yp mtd; ehkk; tho;j;j Ntz;Lk;!

 

vd Koq;FfpwhH Gul;rpf;ftpQH ghujpjhrd;. GytH Foe;ij ,uhtz fhtpak; xd;iwNa mtd; Ngupy; gilj;Js;shH!

 

,t;thW khdj;ij milT itj;Jg; gl;lk; gjtpf;fhf khw;whdplk; kz;bapLk; ,uz;lfHfs; 21 Mk; Ehw;whz;bYk; tho;fpwhHfs;!

 

murpaypy;jhd; mtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;wpy;iy. ,yf;fpa cyfpYk; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;!

 

jkpo; nkhopiaj; Jha;ikg;gLj;jj; njhlf;fg;gl;l jdpj; jkpo; ,af;fj;jhy;  jkpiog; gpbj;j Nehahd rkw;fpUj Njky; ,Ue;j ,lk; njupahky; kiwe;J tUfpwJ.

 

mths; ,ths; ehj;jdhH mj;jpk;NgH “ghi\” Mof; FopNjhz;b ePsg; Gijf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ.

 

MjpNfrtd; vd;Wk; rTupuh[d; vd;Wk; ml;raypq;fk; vd;Wk; g+jypq;fk; vd;Wk; ep[ypq;fk;  vd;Wk; kfhypq;fk; vd;Wk; MTilag;gd; vd;Wk; ghyF[hk;ghs; vd;Wk; mUtUg;ghd nghUs; jUk; rkw;fpUj nkhopg; ngaHfs; ngUksT ghil Vwp tpl;ld.  mwptd; vd;Wk;> mwpTkzp vd;Wk; md;Gkzp vd;Wk; md;gurp vd;Wk;> mUsurp vd;Wk;  mwpTf;furp vd;Wk; fiykfs; vd;Wk; epykfs; vd;Wk; G+kfs; vd;Wk; G+q;nfhb vd;Wk; ahopdp vd;Wk; ,dpats; vd;Wk; kyHtpop vd;Wk; khd;tpop vd;Wk; mUe;jkpo;g; ngaHfs; mur fl;by; VwpAs;sd!

 

NkYk; rkw;fpUjj;ijf; fisnaLj;Jj; jkpOzHT jisf;f rhj;ijah jkpo;f;Fbkfd; MdhH> fpUl;;bdd; neLkhwd; MdhH> NrhkRe;juk; kjpaofd; MdhH> fdNfe;jpud; <oNte;jd; MdhH. =];fe;juhrh jpUKUfNte;jd; MdhH.

 

ngaiuf; Nfl;l khj;jpuj;jpNyNa jkpod; my;yJ jkpor;rp vd;fpw milahsk; njupAk; nghw;fhyk; G+j;Js;sJ!

 

tapw;iwj; jkpo; kz;Zf;F itj;J neQ;ir tlnkhopf;F itj;j ,uz;lfHfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfs; ,d;W Xuq;fl;lg;gl;L tUfpd;wdH.

 

jkpofj;jpd; CHg;ngaHfs; khw;wg;gl;ld.

 

te;jjpiu Ae;jpnajpH ke;jpkyH rpe;Jkap yhL JiwNa vd;W rk;ge;juhYk;

 

ePy khkap yhL Jiw vdj; jpUehTf;furuhYk;

 

ghlg; ngw;w kapyhLJiw khA+Uk; MdJ.

 

Kf;jh Kf;fzNd KJFd;dwk; mkHe;jtNd vd;W Re;juUk;

 

Kj;jhYte; jbtPo;jU KJFd; wilNthNk vd rk;ge;jUk;

 

jpUkzpiaj; jpUKJFd; wilahd; jd;id vd;W ehturUk;

 

ghba KJFd;wk; tpUj;jhryk; MdJ.

 

flTs; ngaHfs; khw;wg;gl;ld. rkw;fpUj kakhf;fg;gl;l flTsupd; ngaHfs; CHfspd; ngaHfs; kPz;Lk; jkpo;kzk; fkOk; nre;jkpopy; toq;f;fg;gLfpd;wd ..

 

  tlnkhop

    jkpo;

jHktHj;jdp  

mwk;tsHj;jehafp

kPdhl;rp 

mq;faw;fz;zp

tpUj;jfpuP];tuH 

gokiy MdhH

gpujP];tuH     

ngUTilahH

m&zhrNy];tuH

mz;zhkiy

tpUj;jhryk;

KJFd;wk;

Ntjhuz;ak; 

jpUkiuf;fhL

fgp];jyk; 

Fuq;fhLJiw

Fk;gNfhzk;

Fl%f;F

rpjk;guk;

rpw;wk;gyk

RNtjhuzpak; 

ntz;fhL

gQ;rehjk; 

ma;ahW

[k;GNf];tuk; 

Midf;fh

khA+uk;    

kapyhLJiw

eFNy];tuk ;

fPupkiy 

kjwh]; 

nrd;id

kjwh]; khepyk;

jkpo;ehL

 

,t;thW flTs; ngaHfSk; CHg; ngaHfSk;  Mz; ngz; ngaHfSk; jdpj; jkpo;j; NjNuwp jd;khd cyhtUfpd;wd!   

 

jkpo; ePr ghir rkw;fpUjk; Njt ghir vd;W giwjl;ba  elkhLk; nja;tk; fhQ;rp rq;fuhr;rhup ,d;W nfhiyf; Fw;wr;rhl;by; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L rpiwr;rhiyAk; ePjp kd;wKk; vd;W miyfpwJ!

 

ma;tUf;Fk; Njtp mopahj gj;jpdp vd;fpw Mupag; gz;ghL ghilNawptpl;lJ.

 

RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; jkpo;ehl;ilg; gPbj;j> jkpod; %isf;F tpyq;fpl;l  jPa rf;jpfs; jPa;e;J Ngha;> jkpo;> jkpod;> jkpo;g;gz;ghL> jkpo; ehL> jkpoPo ehL  midj;J eyj; NjhLk; tsj;NjhL thDau tsHe;J itafj;jpw;Nf topfhl;Lfpd;wd.

 

kiwkiy mbfs;> gupjpkhw;fiyQH> NjtNeag; ghthzH topapy; jdpj; jkpo; je;ij ngupahH topapy; gFj;jwpT vd tPW eil NghLk; jkpo; czHthsHfs; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;ij Nerpg;gtHfs; Nfhbf; fzf;fpy; ,Uf;fNt ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

fhl;bf; nfhLf;Fk; tpgPrzHfSk; vl;lg;gHfSk; fhf;iftd;dpdaHfSk; jkpo;nkhopg; giftHfs; NtW topapy;yhky; Nrhw;Wf;Fj; jFe;jhw;Nghy; vLj;Jr; nrhy;yp Jha jkpiof; nfLf;fpd;w Gy;YUtpfSk; NrhWngwj;jhd; jkpo; Ntz;Lk; kw;wg;gb ehSk; eQ;rpidf; fye;J fz;lgb gpwnkhopr; nrhy; fye;J jkpio kha;g;gtHfSk; ,Uf;fNt nra;fpwhHfs;.

 

tpsk;guk; nra;jp Vl;by; vd;.Nf. kfhypq;fk; (jiyg; ngaiuf; $l Mq;fpyj;jpy; itj;Jf; nfhs;tjpy; ngUikg;gLgtH) nuhwd;Nuh fy;tpr; rigj; jkpo;g; ghlEhy;fs; vd;w vOjpa fl;Liu ntspte;Js;sJ.

 

,e;jf; fl;Liuia tpsk;guk; MrpupaH gbj;Jg; ghHj;J tpl;Lg; Nghl;ljhfj; njupatpy;iy. gbahky; Nghl;Ltpl;ljhfNt ma;ag;gLfpNwd;.

 

,e;jf; fl;Liuapy; nuhwd;Nuh fy;tpr; rigj; jkpo;g; ghlEhy;fspy; fhzg;gLk; rpy nrhw;fis fl;LiuahsH gl;bay; ,l;Ls;shH. mg;gbg; gl;bay; ,l;Ltpl;L Fwpg;gpl;l nrhw;fs; G+Nfhsj;jpy; ve;jg; gFjpapy; vq;Nf tof;fpYs;sd? mit vOj;J nkhopah? Ngr;R nkhopah?.............. vdf; Nfs;tpfis mLf;fpAs;shH.

 

,J tpba tpba ,uhkhazk; tpbe;j gpd;dH rPijf;F ,uhkd; vd;d Kiw vd;W Nfl;ltd; fijahf ,Uf;fpwJ! 

 

xUtuJ mwpahikia kd;dpf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mijg; gyUk; gbf;FkhWk; ghHf;FkhWk; eLj;njUtpy; epd;W ntSg;gij kd;dpf;f KbahJ!

 

gl;baypy; cs;s nrhw;fspy; jpdk; vd;w tlnkhopr; nrhy;Yf;F ehs; vd;w jdpj;jkpo; nrhy; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

 

,e;jr; nrhy; “G+Nfhsj;jpy; ve;jg; gFjpapy; vq;Nf tof;fpYs;sJ” vd;W Nfl;fpwhH fl;LiuahsH.

 

ml voNt! khtPuH ehs; vd;w nrhw;gjk; 1989 Mk; Mz;L njhlf;fk; ,e;j kz;zpNyNa Gof;fj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwNj? ,d;W ve;j epfo;r;rp epuiy vLj;Jg; ghHj;jhYk; jpdj;ijf; Fwpf;f ehs; vd;w nrhy; jhuhskhfg; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpwNj? fz;zpUe;Jk; ghHf;ftpy;iyah? fhjpUe;Jk; Nfl;ftpy;iyah? rup Nghfl;Lk;.

 

jPtpid jhd;vd;

   nra;Ankid ehbte;j

Nfhnsd; nrAk;nfhLq; $w;nwd;

   nrAk; Fk NurupU..............................……………………………………………

 

vd;w mUzfpupehjupd; fe;jH myq;fhuj;jpy; ehs; vd;w nrhy; tUtijf; fl;LiuahsH gbj;jjpy;iyah? rup Nghfl;Lk;.

 

kfhypq;fk; vd;w ngaH jkpopy; xU mUtUg;ghd nghUs; jUk; ngaH vd;gjhtJ njupAkh?  (tsUk;) 

 

 


 

nuhwd;Nuh fy;tpr; rigj; jkpo;g; ghlEhy;fs; fl;Liuf;F kWg;G

 

nre;jkpOk; nfhLe;jkpOk;

 

(2)

 

kfhypq;fk; vd;w ngaH jkpopy; xU mUtUg;ghd nghUs; jUk; ngaH vd;gjhtJ fl;LiuahsUf;Fj; njupAkh? vd;W Nfl;bUe;Njd;. mjd; nghUs; mtUf;F ,g;NghJ njupe;jpUf;Fk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;.

nghUs; njupahJ ngaH itg;gjhy; jkpod; jd; khdj;ij ,og;gNjhL jkpo; tsHr;rpf;Fk; jilahf ,Uf;fpwhd;.

ngw;NwhHfs; epNuh[d; epNuh[p vd;W jk; gps;isfSf;Fg; ngaH itf;fpwhHfs;. me;jg; ngaHfspd; nghUs; njupahj fhuzj;jhy;jhd; me;jg; ngaHfis itf;fpwhHfs;. epNuh[d; vd;why; cNuhrk; ,y;yhjtd; vd;W nghUs;. epNuh[p vd;why; cNuhrk; ,y;yhjts; vd;W nghUs;. rpahksh vd;W ngaH itf;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j tlnkhopr; nrhy;ypd; nghUs; fUg;ghap vd;gjhFk;. fUg;ghap ey;y ngaH. Mdhy; rpahksh vd;why; fUg;ghap vd;W nghUs; njupe;J nfhz;L me;jg; ngaiug; ngw;NwhHfs; NjHe;njLf;ftpy;iy. nghUs; njupahj fhuzj;jhy;jhd; me;jg; ngaiug; ngw;NwhHfs; NjHe;njLf;fpwhHfs;.

nkhop vd;gJ FKjhaj;jpd; $l;Lg; gilg;ghFk;. FKjhaj;jpd; fUj;Jg; gupkhwYf;F nkhop xU fUtpahf kl;Lk; my;yhJ gz;ghl;bd; milahskhfTk;  gad;gLfpwJ. FKjhak; tsHr;rp milAk; NghJ $lNt nkhopAk; tsHr;rp milfpwJ. nkhop tsHr;rpapd; xU gbepiyahf vOj;Jj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mjd; gpd;dH ehNlhb tha;nkhop ,yf;fpaq;fs; vOj;jpy; tbf;fg; gLfpd;wd. ,e;j ,yf;fpaq;fisr; nrk;ikg; gLj;jp xOq;fikf;f ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; Njhw;wk; ngWfpd;wd.

nkhopia xU kuj;Jf;F xg;gpl;lhy; ,yf;fzk; mjd; tpOJfshFk;. Mykuk; Nghd;W tsHe;j jkpo; nkhopf;F gy Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd ,yf;fz tpOJfs; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd. ,jpy; Kjypy; Njhd;wpa ,yf;fz Ehy; mfj;jpak; vdr; nrhy;yg;gl;lhYk; mJ ,d;W fpilj;jpyJ. vdNt njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpopy; vOjg; gl;l Kjy; ,yf;fz Ehyhf ,d;W nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.

njhy;fhg;gpak; vOjg;gl;L 1>200 Mz;Lfs; fopj;Nj gtze;jp KdptH ,aw;wpa topEhyhd ed;Dhy; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ.

,e;j ePz;l ,ilntspapy; jkpo; r%f mikg;gpd; midj;Jj; JiwapYk; khw;wq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd.

njhy;fhg;gpak; njhlq;fp ed;Dhy; Njhd;Wk;tiu jkpofj;ijf; fsg;gpuH> gy;ytH> Nru> Nrho> ghz;baH Mz;ldH. ,tHfistpl rhSf;fpaH (njYq;fH)> n`ha;rhiyaH> fypq;fH> Rq;fH Nghd;w mur guk;giuapduJ njhlHG Vw;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; ngsj;jk;> rkzk;> irtk;> itztk; Nghd;w kjq;fspd; vOr;rpAk;> tPo;r;rpAk; jkpo; FKjhaj;jpy;  ngUk; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpd. ,e;jr; rkaq;fspd; topahf tlnkhop> ghyp> gpuhfpUjk; vd;gtw;wpd; CLUty;> mtw;wpd; Nkyhz;ik jkpo;nkhopapd; NtiuNa mirj;jJ. nkhopapy; kl;Lk; my;yhJ fiy> gz;ghl;bYk; khw;wq;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd.

,uhruhrd;> ,uhNre;jpud; ,tHfsJ fpof;fhrpa gilnaLg;gpd; NghJ NrhoHfsJ fg;gy;fs; <ok;> rhtfk;> flhuk;> Gl;gfk;> rPdk; kl;Lk; nrd;W jpUk;gpd.

ma;Nuhg;gpaH tUiff;Fg; gpd;dH Mq;fpyk; %yk; jkpiof; fhz Kw;gl;lJNghy> tlnkhop %yk; jkpiof; fhZk; Kaw;rp ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; epytpaJ.

,tw;wpd; tpisthfj; jkpo; nkhopapd; jdpj;Jtj;ijf; fhz Ntz;ba Njit vOe;jJ. jkpo;nkhopapd; fl;likg;Gg; gw;wpf; fw;Wj; njspa Ntz;ba fl;lhak; cz;lhapw;W.

,e;jj; Njit fhuzkhf njhy;fhg;gaj;ij kPsha;T nra;J mjid Kd;Df;Ff; nfhz;L tuNtz;ba gzp njhlq;fpw;W vdyhk;.

njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;l xU ngupa ,yf;fz Ehy;. mjd; ghf;fs; jkpopyf;fzj;jpd; gpopthf ,Ue;jJ. mjid 1>200 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J tho;e;j GytHfshy; vspjpy; gbj;J tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tJ fbdkhf ,Ue;jJ. vdNt njhy;fhg;gpa EhYf;F ciufs; Njhd;wpd. fhy ,ilntsp fhuzkhfj; njhy;fhg;gpa kuGfis Kw;Wk; rupahf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s ,e;j ciuahrpupaHfshy; Kbatpy;iy. gy R+j;jpuq;fSf;Fg; gy cj;jpfs; %yk; rpwpJk; ngupJkhd tpsf;fq;fis ciuahrpupaHfs; vOjpdhHfs;.

ciuahrpupaHfsJ njhy;fhg;gpa kPl;Gg; gzpapd; %yk; vOe;j ciufs; ,d;W fpilj;jpuh tpl;lhy;> 2>500 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu fhz;gJk;> mjd; %yk; jkpopd; Ntiuf; fz;;L gpbg;gJk; fbdkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.

KjyhtJ kPl;Gg; gzp tlnkhopahy; kiwg;Gz;bUe;j> kiwf;fg;gl;bUe;j jkpo; nkhopapd; Ntiuf; fhzy; vd;why; ,uz;lhtJ kPl;Gg; gzp njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; rpwg;ig ntspAyFf;Ff; nfhzHjy; MFk;. ,jid mz;ikf;fhy nkhopapayhsHfs; nra;Js;shHfs;.

nrf;NfhrpNyhtpf;fpa ehl;L nkhopawpQH K. Zvelebil njhy;fhg;gpak; gw;wpg; gpd;tUkhW rpwg;gpg;gpj;Jf; $wpAs;shH:

 It is not only one of the finest monuments of human intelligence and intellect presented in the Indian tradition; it is also the first literary expression  of    the indigenous, Pre-Aryan Indian civilization; it represents the essence and the summary of classical culture.

For the evaluation of Indian linguistic thought, it is probably as important and crucial as the grammar which goes under the name of Panini. To the field of general linguistics, it would add, if sufficiently known, some new important insights on a number of phonetic, etymological, morphological and syntactic problems.?

'khe;jdJ Ez;khz; Eio Gyj;Jf;Fk;> ,e;jpa mwptpay; ghuk;gupaj;jpw;Fk; ,/J (njhy;fhg;gpak;) xU epidTr; rpd;dkhfTk; kw;Wk; ,e;jpa kuGtopapy;  fhg;ghw;wg;gl;Ls;s mwptpay; fUT+yfkhfTk; ,Ug;gJ kl;Lky;yhky;> Mupa ,e;jpa ehfupfj;Jf;F Ke;jpa Kjy; G+HtPf ,yf;fpa ntspg;ghl;bd; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfTk; tpsq;FfpwJ.

,e;jpa nkhopgw;wpa kjpg;gPl;bw;F ghzpdpapd; ,yf;fzk; vt;tsT Kf;fpakhdJk;> KbthdJk; Mf ,Uf;fpwNjh mNjNghy; ,JTk; (njhy;fhg;gpak;) ,Uf;fpwJ. nkhopapay; Jiwfspd; gpupTfshd xypg;G> nrhy;yb nrhy;ypzf;fzk;> nrhw;nwhlupyf;fzk; Nghd;w tw;wpy; Mokhd Gjpa mwpitf; $l;LfpwJ.' 

,d;W cyfpy; cs;s kpfj; njhd;ikahd ma;e;J nkhopfspy; jkpOk; xd;W. jkpo;nkhopapd; ,yf;fpa tsk; kpfTk; caHthdJ.  ,e;jpa muR jkpo;nkhopf;F nrk;nkhop epiy nfhLj;J Nkd;ikg;gLj;jpAs;sJ.  

nkhopEhy;  mwpQuhd jQ;irj; jkpo;g; gy;fiyf; fofj; JizNte;jH KidtH t.ma;.  Rg;gpukzpak; mtHfs; jQ;irapy;  eilngw;w  ftpijf; fUj;juq;fpy; jiyik jhq;fpj; jkpo;nkhopiag; gw;wpf; $wpaJ  1982 nehntk;gH  14 ,y; te;j jkpo;g; gy;fiyf; fofr; nra;jp kyupy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jJ.  

“jkpo; nkhopf;F vOj;JUtpy; Vwj;jho 2>500 Mz;L tuyhW cz;L. Ngr;RUtpy;  Vwj;jho 5>000 Mz;Lg; gof;fk; cz;L…. 

Vwj;jho 2>500 Mz;lhapDk; gioa ,yf;fpaq;fshfpa rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fSk; njhy;fhg;gpa ,yf;fzKk; ,d;W gbj;jhYk; nghUs; GuptJ fbdkd;W. ,J gpw nkhopfSf;F ,y;yhj rpwg;ghFk;. ,yj;jPDk; rkw;fpUjKk; gok; ngUikAilait. Mdhy;> mit Ma;thsHfspd; %yk; mfuKjypfs; (mfuhjpfs;) %yk; nghUs; mwpAk; epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;wd. fpNuf;fKk; mtw;iwg; Nghd;wJjhd;. ,d;Ws;s fpNuf;f nkhopf;Fk; gz;ila fpNuf;fj;jpw;Fk; epiwa Ntw;Wik cz;L. ,d;iwa fpNuf;fnkhop NgRNthH gz;ilf; fpNuf;fj;ijj; njupe;Jnfhs;tJ KbahJ. Mdhy;> gz;ila jkpio xusT fy;tp mwpTs;s jkpo;r; rpWtDk; nghUs; njupe;J nfhs;tJ fbdkd;W.”  

jkpo;nkhop tlnkhopapypUe;J Njhd;wpaJ vd;w xU rpyupd; jtwhd ghHitahy; gy Mz;Lfsha; mwpahJ $wpte;jJz;L. ,e;jj; jtwhd vz;zj;Jf;Ff; fhuzk; ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; jkpopy; gy tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; GFe;jikNaahFk;. 

tlnkhop njd;nkhop ,uz;bYk; Gyik tha;e;j nkhop EhywpQH KidtH P.S. Rg;gpukzpa rhj;jpupahUk; Ptlnkhop NtW jkpo;nkhop NtW vd ed;F vLj;Jf; fhl;bAs;shH. nkhop  EhywpQuhd KidtH fhy;Lnty; jhk; vOjpa jpuhtplnkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk; vd;w Ehypy; tlnkhop NtW jkpo;nkhop NtW vd epWtpAs;shH. mt;thW epWtpaNjhL mikahJ rpy jkpo;r; nrhw;fs; tlnkhopapy; GFe;jpUg;gijAk; vLj;Jf; fhl;bdhH. 

,j;jifa ePHik tha;e;j jkpo;nkhopapd; mUik ngUikfisj; jkpo;g; GytHfSk; mwpQHfSk; jkpo; fw;w ma;Nuhg;gpa mwpQH ngUkf;fshYk; Gfog;gl;Ls;sd. 

nre;jkpo; NrHe;j gd;dpU epyj;Jk; 

vd;Wk; 

nre;jkpo; ,aw;if rptzpa epyk;

vd;Wk; njhy;fhg;gpaH jkpopd; nrk;ikiar; rpwg;gpj;Jf; $WfpwhH. nrk;ik vd;gJ  gynghUs; jUk; xU nrhy;. moF> xw;Wik> rptg;G> nrt;it> Jha;ik> NeHik> ngUik> kdf;Nfhl;lkpd;ik Kjyha nrk; nghUs;fisj; jUtJ nrk;ik. 

nrq;fjpH> nrq;fUk;G> nrq;Nfhy;> nre;jz;ik> nre;jhkiu> nre;epwk;> nre;jP> nre;ePH> nrg;gk;> nrk;ghjp> nrk;nghUs;> nrk;ky;> nrk;khg;G> nra;ahs;> nrt;Nts;> nrt;it vd;git nrk;ikahy; rPHj;jp kpf;fitahk;. vjpupiliaAk; ,iziaAk; ntd;W Vw;wq; nfhz;ikahk;. ,k; nrk;ik mil jkpOf;F Kjw;fz; tha;j;jik> mjd; nre;eiliaAk; nrt;tpjpd; tpsf;FtjhFk;.

jkpo;nkhopf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s milnkhopfs; Nghd;W NtW nkhop vjw;fhtJ nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sjh vd;gJ ma;aNk.

gjpw;Wg;gj;J (63) gupghly; (9) GwehDhW (35>51>198) jkpo; jz;ik epiwe;jJ vd;gjhy; mijj; jz;lkpo; vd miof;fpd;wd.

NkYk; tz;lkpo;> xz;lkpo;> njd;wkpo;> ,d;wkpo;> Muh mUe;jkpo;> ,irkypjkpo;>  fiykyp jkpo;> Kj;jkpo;> Qhdj;jkpo; vd vz;zpwe;j milnkhopfs; jkpo;nkhopf;F cz;L.

,e;j milnkhopfs; jkpOf;F ,ay;ghf cs;s mUik> ,irik> ,sik> ,dpik> vopd;ik> xspik> fiyik> rPHik> nrk;ik> nrwpik> jifik> jz;ik> ed;ik> newpik> Gfo;k;ik> kiwik> Kk;ik> nkd;ik> vspik> typik> tsik Nghd;wtw;iw milahsk; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

jkpo;nkhopf;F ePz;l fhy tuyhW cz;L. fpK 5 Mk; Ehw;whz;lstpNyNa tl nrhy; jkpo;r; nrhy; vdg; gpupj;Jg; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; Njhd;wptpl;lJ.

vOj;J - nrhy; - nrhw;nwhlH – vd midj;ijAk; jkpoHfs; rpijj;J toq;fj; njhlq;fpajhy;> md;iwa EhyhrpupaHfs; jkpior; nre;jkpo; nfhLe;jkpo; vd ,uz;lhfg; gpupj;jdH. rpijahkYk; jpupahkYk; ,yf;fz newpNahL toq;FtJ nre;jkpo; Vidait ‘nfhLe;jkpo;’ nre;jkpOf;Nf GytHfs; ,yf;fzk; tFj;jdH.

njhy;fhg;gpaH nre;jkpo; vd;w nrhy; tof;iff; ifahz;Ls;shH.

mtw;Ws;

,aw;nrhy; jhNk

nre;jkpo; epyj;J tof;nfhL rptzp” (njhy;: nrhy;: vr;rtpay; 1) 

nre;jkpo; NrHe;j gd;dpU epyj;Jk;   (njhy;: nrhy;: vr;rtpay; 4) 

jkpo;nkhopiag; nghWj;jstpy; KuQ;rpA+H KbehfuhaH fhyk; Kjy; fpgp Kjy; Ehw;whz;L tiuapyhd fhyj;ijNa jdpj;jkpo;f; fhyk; vd;W kiykiy mbfshH Fwpg;gpl;bUf;fpwhH. (tsUk;)

 


nuhwd;Nuh fy;tpr; rigj; jkpo;g; ghlEhy;fs; fl;Liuf;F kWg;G

rq;f fhyj;jpy; jdpj;jkpo; NfhNyhr;rpaJ

Njhl;lj;Jf;F Ntyp vt;tsT NjitNah mJNghy xU nkhopf;F Ntyp Ntz;Lk;. me;j Ntypjhd; ,yf;fzk;. jkpo;nkhopf;F njhy;fhg;gpaNk me;j NtypahFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpa ,yf;fz newp GytHfshy; Nghw;wg;gl;Lk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;Lk; te;jikNa ,d;Wk; jkpo; nkhop rPupsikNahL ,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzpahFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpaH njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; vd;w %d;Wf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;fpwJ.

.vy;yhr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; nghUs;jhd; mbg;gil. nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ij tpsf;f nrhw;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. mr;nrhw;fs; vOj;Jf;fspdhy; Mdit. vdNt nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ijr; nrhy;yj;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpaH vOj;J ,yf;fzj;ijAk;> nrhy; ,yf;fzj;ijAk; nrhd;dhH.

nghUsjpfhuk; cyfj; Njhw;wk;> capHfspd; tifg;ghL> ntt;NtW epyk;> me;j epyj;Jf;Fupa nja;tq;fs;> kf;fs;> kf;fspd; mftho;f;if Gwtho;f;if newpfs;> MltHf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> ngz;fSf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> kuq;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;> ,yf;fpa tiffs;> ,yf;fpaf; Nfhl;ghLfs;> ,yf;fpa kuGfs;> ,yf;fpaj; jpwdha;Tfs;> clypYk; cs;sj;jpYk; Njhd;Wk; nka;g;ghLfs; ,g;gb xl;L nkhj;j FKjhaj;ijg; gw;wpr; nrhy;fpwJ>

vOj;jjpfhuj;jpy; Ehy; kuG> nkhopkuG> gpwg;gpay;> Gzupay;> njhifkuG> cUgpay;> capH kaq;fy;> Gs;sp kaq;fpay;> Fw;wpaYfug; Gzupay; vd xd;gJ ,ay;fs; tpupj;Jf; $wg;gl;Ls;sd.

KjyhtJ ,ayhd Ehy; kugpy; jkpo; nkhopapYs;s vOj;Jf;fspd; vz;zpf;if> vOj;Jf;fis xypf;Fk; fhy msT> xypapd; mbg;gilapy; vOj;Jf;fspd; tifg;ghL> mtw;wpd; ngaHfs;> vOj;Jf;fs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W NrHe;J tUfpd;w NrHf;if epiy Kjyhd nra;jpfs; jug;gl;Ls;sd. ,g;gbNa Vida ,ay;fSk; kpf El;gkhf tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

nrhy;yjpfhuKk; xd;gJ ,ay;fisf; nfhz;lJ. fpstpahf;fk;> Ntw;Wikapay;> Ntw;Wik kaq;fpapay;> tpspkuG> ngaupay;> tpidapay;> ,ilapay;> cupapay;> vr;rtpay; vd;gdNt me;j xd;gJ ,ay;fshFk;.

ma;e;J njhlf;fk; vl;Ltiuapyhd ,ay;fs; KiwNa ngaHr;nrhy;> tpidr;nrhy;> ,ilr;nrhy;> cupr;nrhy; Mfpa ehy;tifr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; $Wfpd;wd.

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu vOjpNahH gyuhtH. mtw;wpy; ,d;W vkJ iff;Ff; fpilj;jpUg;gJ xU rpyuJ ciufNs MFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F KjyhtJ Njhd;wpa ciuAk; KOikahff; fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ciuAk; ,sg;G+uzH vOjpa ciu MFk;.

njhy;fhg;gpa vOj;jjpfhuk; 483 Ehw;ghf;fisAk; 991 mbfisAk; nfhz;lJ. ,jDs; xUnrhy; jhDk; tlnrhy; ,y;iy.

nrhy;yjpfhuk; 463 Ehw;ghf;fisAk; 1056 mbfisAk; nfhz;lJ. ,jDs;Sk; xU nrhy;jhDk; tlnrhy; ,y;iy.

nghUsjpfhuk; 664 Ehw;ghf;fisAk; 1967 mbfisAk; nfhz;lJ. ,g; nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpy; tlnrhw;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

fufk; (1570) fhz;bif (1603) Qhgfk; (1610) rhjp (1563) #j;jpuk; (1425) %jhde;jk; (1025) itrpfd; (1578) vd;gtdNt mjpy; fhzg;gLk; tlnrhw;fshFk;. ,jpy; %jhde;jk; ,Ugpwtpr; nrhy;. %J jkpo; Mde;jk; tlnrhy;.

,t;tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; ,lk;ngw;Ws;s ,ay; kugpayhFk;. ,jpy; ,ilr; nrUf;fy; ,Ug;gjhf mwpQHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. 

,ilf; fhyj;jpy; tlnkhop kPJ ,Ue;j gw;why; rpy ,yf;fz MrpupaHfs; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J eOtpAk; tOtpAk; ,yf;fzk; nra;jhHfs;. tPuNrhopak;> ,yf;fz  tpsf;fk;> Nekpehjk;> Kj;JtPupak; Nghd;w Ehy;fs; ,e;j tupirapy; mlq;Fk;. Mdhy; me;j Kaw;rp ePbj;J epiyf;ftpy;iy.

jkpio nre;jkpo; nfhLe;jkpo; vd tUj;J ,yf;fzk; nrhd;d njhy;fhg;gpaH nrhw;fis ,aw;nrhy;> jpupnrhy;> tlnjhy;> jpirr;nrhy;> vd ehd;fhfg; gpupjpUf;fpwhH.

(m) ,aw;nrhy;

jkpo;nkhopapy; ,ay;gha; ,Uf;Fk; nrhy; ,aw;nrhy; vd;gH. mJ vy;NyhuhYk; - fw;whuhYk; fy;yhjtuhYk; - vspjpy; mwpe;J nfhs;sf; $ba Jha jkpo;r; nrhy;yhFk;.

khL jz;zPH Fbj;jJ> gps;is ghYf;F mOjJ> mtd; Cupy; ,Ue;J te;jhd; - ,e;j thf;fpaq;fspy; ve;jr; nrhy;Yk; nghUs; tpsq;fhky; ,y;iy.

(M) jpupnrhy;

fbdkhd nrhy;iyj; jpupnrhy; vd;gH. tP> NghJ> Nra;ik> fps;is> fpstp> Ejy; Gfd;whd; Nghd;w nrhw;fs; jpupnrhy; vdg;gLk;. ,it gbj;jtHfSf;F kl;LNk nghUs; tpsq;ff; $baitfshf ,Uf;fpd;wd. tP vd;why; kyH vd;Wk; fpstp vd;why; nrhy; vd;Wk; Ejy; vd;why; new;wp vd;Wk; mjpfk; fw;wtHfSf;Nf nghUs; GupAk;.

(,) tlnrhy;

jkpopy; te;J toq;Fk; rkw;fpUjnkhopr; nrhw;fs; tlnrhy; vdg;gLk;. ,it ngUk;ghYk; rkaEhy; topahf jkpopy; GFe;jit MFk;. rpy rkw;fpUjr; nrhw;fs; jkpopy; xypNtWglhJ toq;Fk;. ,t;thW ,Unkhopf;Fk; nghJthd vOj;Jf;fshd nrhw;fs; jw;rkk; vdr; nrhy;yg;gLk;.

tlnkhopf;Nf cupa xypAs;s vOj;Jf;fshy; mike;j nrhw;fSk;> tlnkhopf;Fupa rpwg;nghyp vOj;Jf;fSk; fye;J mike;j nrhw;fs; xyp NtWghL mile;J toq;FtJ jw;gtk; vd miof;fg;gLk;.

(<) jpirr; nrhy;

gpwehl;ltHfs; gilnaLj;J te;J jkpo;ehl;ilAk; jkpoPoj;ijAk; ePz;l fhyk; Mz;lhHfs;. mtHfspd; nkhopfs; mur nkhopahf Nkyhz;ik nrYj;jpd. mjdhy; gy gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fs; jkpopy; fyf;f Neupl;lJ.

jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fs;NsNa ntt;NtW jpirapy; tho;e;j kf;fs; me;jg; gFjpf;Fupa jdpj;Jtkhd nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;jpdH. mitAk; jpirr; nrhw;fs; vd miof;fg;gl;ld.

gz;ilf; fhyj; jkpofk; ; njd;ghz;b> Fl;lk;> Flk;> fw;fh> Ntz;> G+op> gd;wp> mUth> mUth tljiy> rPjk;> kyhL> Gdy;> ehL vdg; gd;dpuz;L gpupTfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jd.  

njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F mLj;J itj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gLk; ,yf;fz Ehy; ed;DhyhFk;. ,jid ,aw;wpatH gtze;jp KdptH MthH. mtH fhyj;Jf;F Kd;dH ntspte;j tPuNrhopak; topia KOJk; gpd;gw;whky; ngupJk; njhy;fhg;gpak; jOtpAk; mupjhf top eOtpAk; ed;Dhy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,e;Ehypy; tlnkhopr; rpwg;ngOj;J> jkpo;r; rpwg;ngOj;J> ,uz;bw;Fk; nghJ vOj;J> tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; jkpopy; tUk; tif> jkpOf;F Kjyhfhj vOj;ij Kjyhf cila tlnkhopr; nrhw;fis jkpopw; GFq;fhy; ,tw;Wf;F Kjyhf ,lNtz;ba jkpo; vOj;Jfs;> Mfpatw;iw ma;e;J Ehw;ghf;fspy; (146-150) $wpapUf;fpwhH.

njhy;fhg;gpa fhyj;ij mLj;J rq;f fhyk; njhlq;fpaJ.  ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpNyNa rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd gj;Jg; ghl;L vl;Lj;njhif> jpUf;Fws; Nghd;w Ehy;fs; Njhd;wpd.

rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; jdpj;jkpo; Nghw;wg; gl;bUg;gijf; fhzKbfpwJ. ef;fPuH tlnkhopr; nrhw;fSf;F ,izahd njhliu jkpopy; ifahz;Ls;shH. vLj;Jf; fl;lhf cj;jpuk; vd;w tlnrhy;iy ‘ehnshL ngaua Nfhs;ik tpOkyk;' vd;Wk; fHg;gfpufk;  vd;w tlnrhy;iy ‘fUnthL nga;aupa gz;gpd; ey;ypy;’ vdj; jkpo;g; gLj;jpAs;shH.

rq;f fhyk; Kbe;J rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; (fpgp 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) fsg;gpuH Ml;rp jkpofj;jpy; Njhd;WfpwJ. jkpofj;jpd; ,Uz;l fhyk; vd tHzpf;fg;gLk; fsg;gpuH Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; jkpopd; Jha;ik NfLw;wJ.

gy;ytH Ml;rpapy; (fpgp 3-9 Ehw;whz;L tiu) jkpopy; tlnkhopf; fyg;G kpFjpahfpw;W. ,Ue;Jk; gpw;fhyg; gy;yt kd;dHfs; jkpOf;Fk; cupik toq;fpdH. mtHfs; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; jkpo; topghl;L nkhopahfpaJ. rk;ge;jH> jpUehTf;furH Njthug; ghly;fs; jpUf;Nfhapy; topghL jkpopy; ,Ue;jJ vd;gjw;F rhd;W gfUfpd;wd.

rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; cUthd gjpnzz;fPo;f; fzf;F Ehy;fs; mwTiu> Mrhuk;> mUq;fUj;J> tho;f;if newp Kjypaw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jd. ,uz;nlhU Ehy;fs; tolnkhopapy; ,Ue;J nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lit MFk;.

fpgp 6 Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; gf;jp ,af;fk; Njhd;wpaJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; jsHr;rpAw;Wk; jho;Tw;Wk; ,Ue;j jkpo;nkhop irt ehad;khHfshYk; itzt Mo;thHfshYk; Gjpa vOr;rp ngw;wJ.

gpw;fhy NrhoH fhyj;jpy; (fpgp 9 - 13 Mk;  Ehw;whz;L) kfhftp fk;gDk; Nrf;fpohUk; Njhd;wp jdpj;jkpOf;F cuk; NrHj;jdH. tlnkhopapd; Jizapd;wp jkpopy; fhg;gpaq;fs; Guhzq;fs; ,aw;wyhk; vd ,UtUk; epiyehl;bdH.

njYq;F ehaf;fH Ml;rpapy; ( fpgp 16 - 18 Mk; Ehw;whz;L0 jkpo; kPz;Lk; tPo;r;rpAw;wJ. GytHfs; ,aw;wpa rpw;wpyf;fpaq;fspy; tlnkhopr; nrhw;fs; GFe;J jkpopd; vopiyf; Fiwe;jJ.

Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpapy; (19 - 20 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) tlnrhw;fs; kl;Lky;y gpwnkhopr; nrhw;fSk; jkpopy; fye;jd. ,Ue;Jk; tPukhKdptH> [p.A+.Nghg;> KidtH fy;Lnty;> nj. njhg;gpsp> gHjNyhkpah> Nghd;w ntspehl;L fpwpj;jt rkaFUtH jkpiog; gbj;Jr; Ritj;J mjd; mUik ngUik ,uz;ilAk; cyFf;F vLj;Jf; $wpdH.

tz;zr;rugk; jz;lghzp> ghk;gd; FkuFUjhr mbfshH jdpj;jkpopd; rpwg;ig vLj;Jiuj;jdH. jdpj;jkpopd; fhg;gPl;L vd;w Ehiy tz;zr;rugk; jz;lghzp ,aw;wp ntspapl;lhH.