Nrhjplg; Gul;L (41)

<Hg;G tpiriaf; fz;L gpbj;j epA+l;ld;    

,e;jf; fl;Liuj; njhlH mwptpay; jsj;jpy; rpe;jpf;ff; $ba gyuJ ftdj;ij <Hj;J tUtJ  vdf;F kl;lw;w kfpo;r;rpia mspf;fpwJ. vq;Nf vUik khl;bd; Njhypy; kio nga;tJ Nghy vdJ Neuj;ijAk; ciog;igAk; tPzhf;FfpNwhkh vd;w ma;ak; mt;tg;nghOJ vd;Ds; vOtJz;L.  mg;Nghnjy;yhk; ez;gHfsplk; ,Ue;J fpilf;Fk; tha;nkhop kw;Wk;  mQ;ry;topg; ghuhl;Lf;fs; mj;jifa vz;zj;ijg; Nghf;fbj;J tpLfpwJ.

jkpoupd; jpUehshd nghq;fy; jkpo;g; Gj;jhz;ilnahl;b gyH tho;j;Jf;fis mDg;gp ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfSf;F vdJ ed;wpiaj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;. 

kNyrpahtpy; ,Ue;J ez;gH jpUkhtstd; nghq;fy; jkpo;g; Gj;jhz;L tho;j;Jf;fis kpd;dQ;ry; %yk; njuptpj;jpUe;jhH. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; 'jq;fs; fl;Liu kpfr; rpwg;ghfj; njhlu;e;J ntsptUtJ fz;L kpf;f kfpo;r;rp. kNyrpahtpy; cau;Nthk;; ,jopy; ,j; njhlu; ntsptUfpwJ. mjd; Mrpupau; cq;fNshL njhlu;G nfhs;s tpUk;Gfpwhu;. ehd; jkpoPoj;jpy; fdlh md;gu;fs; fz;zd; KjyhNdhiur; re;jpj;Njd;. jq;fisg; gw;wp crhtpNdd;. nrk;gUj;jp khj ,jopy; vJ jkpou; rkak;?  njhlH ntsptUfpwJ" vd vOjpAs;shH.  

mnkupf;fhtpy; ,Ue;J xU thrfH Nrhjplg; Gul;Lg; gw;wpj; NjhoH jhkiuf;Nfh njhFj;j Nrhjplk; gw;wpa xH mwptpay; ghHit vd;w  Ehy; xd;iw vdf;F md;G$He;J mDg;gp itj;jpUf;fpwhH. ,e;Ehiy cyfj; jkpopd Kd;Ndw;wf; fofk; (ney;ypf;Fg;gk;) 1994 Mk; Mz;L ntspapl;Ls;sJ. Nrhjplk; gw;wp je;ij ngupahH vOjpa ePz;l fl;Liu cl;gl gy fl;Liufs; ,e;j Ehypy; ,lk; ngw;Ws;sd.   

mt;tg;nghOJ vdJ fUj;Jf;fis kWj;Jr; Nrhjplj;Jf;F Mjuthf vOJNthUk; csH. mtHfspy; xUtH ey;y jkpo;g; ngaiu #bf;nfhz;Ls;s jhkiuf;fz;zd; MthH. ,tH rpq;fg;G+H ehs;Lf; Fbkfd;. njhopy;Kiwapy; nghwpahsH> Nrhjplk; xU mwptpay; vd thjpLfpwhH. vt;tsTjhd; gbj;jhYk; goikiag; Nghw;Wk; kdg;ghq;F vd;w xd;W ,Uf;fpwjy;yth? mg;gd; ntl;ba fpzW cg;Gj; jz;zPH vd;whYk; mjidf; Fbj;Nj jPUNthk; vd;W mlk; gpbg;gjw;F mJjhd; fhuzk;.

'goik goik vd;W ghtid Ngryd;wpg; goik ,Ue;j epiy! -  fpspNa
 ghkuH VjwpthH!
”

vd;W nghUNshLjhd; ghujpahH ghbapUf;fpwhH.  

nrd;w fpoik %d;W ,isQHfs; vd;id tPl;by; te;J re;jpj;jhHfs;. mtHfsplk; ,Ue;J Vfg;gl;l Nfs;tpf; fizfs;.  “cq;fSf;Ff; flTs; ek;gpf;if cz;lh? nja;tj;jpy; ek;gpf;if cz;lh? flTSf;Fk; nja;tj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s Ntw;Wik vd;d? ehb Nrhjplj;ij ek;GfpwPHfsh? rpj;jHfs; rpj;Jf;fs; nra;tJ cz;ikjhNd? mij kWf;fpwPHfsh? jpU%yH gj;jhapuk; Mz;Lfs; tho;e;J Mz;nlhd;Wf;F xU ghl;lhfg; gj;jhapuk; ghl;Lf;fs; ghb ,Uf;fpwhNu? mij kWf;f KbAkh? ”.............. ,g;gbg; gy Nfs;tpfs;> ma;aq;fs;> kWg;Gf;fs;.  

vdf;F Vw;gl;l Vkhw;wk; vd;dntd;why; fdlhtpy; tho;e;J nfhz;L Nga;> gprhR> Mtp> ml;lkh rpj;Jf;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw ek;GfpwhHfs; vd;gJjhd;. xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l ehb NrhjplHfsplk; nrd;W fhz;lk; Nfl;bUf;fpwhHfs;. ehb rhj;jpuk; cz;ikah ngha;ah vd;W ciuj;Jg; ghHg;gJjhd; Nehf;fk; vd;whYk; ehb NrhjplHfs; jq;fs; ngaH> jha; je;ijaH ngaHfisr; rupahfr; nrhy;ypaijapl;L tpag;G milfpwhHfs;. Mdhy; 'mwptpay; epyhtpy; kdpjid ,wf;fpr; rhjid gilj;jJ cq;fSf;F tpag;ghfj; Njhd;wtpy;iyah vdf; Nfl;ljpw;F  "ahUk;  epyhtpw;Fg; Nghftpy;iy> mJ Gul;L vd;W cUrpah Vw;fdNt nrhy;ypapUf;fpwJ!"  vdr; Rtupy; vwpe;j ge;J jpUk;gp tUk; Ntfj;jpy; gjpy; te;jJ!

,isQHfs; MtpAyfk;> mwpJapy; (hypnotism) gw;wpa Ehy;fisf; ifNahL nfhz;L te;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,tHfsJ Fog;gj;Jf;F Ehy;fisg; gbj;J nka;g; nghUs; vJ? ngha;g; nghUs; vJ?  fw;gid vJ? tuyhW vJ? vd;gijg; gFj;jwpitf; nfhz;L gpupj;Jg; gFj;Jg; ghHf;f Kbahky; ,Ug;gJjhd; fhuzk; MFk;. NkYk; kdpj Fyj;Jf;F xU fLfsT gad; ,y;yhj Mtp> Nga;> gprhR Nghd;wtw;iwg; gw;wpa Ma;tpy; Vd;jhd; jq;fs; nghd;dhd Neuj;ij kz;zhf;FfpwhHfs; vd;gJ vdf;F tpsq;ftpy;iy. ,e;j mofpy; jkpoHfs; ve;j Ehw;whz;by; xU Nehgy; gupirj; jl;bf; nfhz;L Nghfg; NghfpwhHfs;?  

Mdhy; xd;Wk; Fb KOfpg; Nghftpy;iy. Ehy;fs; gbf;Fk; MHtk; ,Ug;gjhy; taJk; gl;lwpTk; NkNyhq;Fk; nghOJ Fog;gq;fs; ePq;fp vg; nghUs; ahH ahH tha;f; Nfl;gpDk; mg; nghUs; nka;g;nghUs; fhZk; mwpT mtHfSf;F tUk; vd;w ek;gpf;if vdf;F ,Uf;fpwJ. mJ kl;Lky;y> rupNah gpioNah ,tHfs; rpe;jpf;fpwhHfs;. mt;thW rpe;jpf;fr; rpe;jpf;f mwpahik vd;w ,Us; tpyfp nka;awpT vd;w xsp gpwf;Fk;.

ehb Nrhjplk; vd;gJ xU jiyrpwe;j Gul;lhFk;. kw;wg;Gul;Lf;fs; vy;yhk; ,jw;F ciw Nghlf; $lf; fhzhJ.

fe;jH ehb> fhf;ifaH ehb> rptrpe;jhkzp ehb> fTrpf ehb> mfj;jpaH ehb> Rf ehb> gpuk ehb vdg; gy ehbtiffs; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

ehb vd;w nrhy;Yf;Fj; NjLjy; vd;gJ nghUshFk; .mjhtJ xUtd; jdJ ,we;j fhyk; gw;wpAk; jdJ vjpH fhyk; vt;thW mikAk; vd;gJ gw;wpAk; Nkw; nfhs;Sk;  NjlyhFk;.

,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dhy; tho;e;j KdptHfs; jq;fs; Nahf Mw;wy; %yk; tpyq;Ffspd; Njhy;fspy; vOjpitj;jhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. rpyH gukrptd; nrhy;yg; ghHtjp Nfl;ljhfTk;  gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtw;iw Xiyr; Rtbfis vOjpajhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,e;jr; Rtbfs; jkpo;r; nra;As; tbtj;jpy; tl;l vOj;jpy; vOj;jhzpahy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;jr;  Rtbfs; Kf;fpakhf jQ;ir ru];tjp kfhy;> itj;jP];tud; Nfhapy; ,uz;bYk; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

,e;j ehb Xiyr;Rtbfs; 1>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH Nrho murHfsJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; njhFf;fg;gl;ljhfj; njupfpwJ. 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;lstpy; ,e;jr; Rtbfs; rpjk;guj;Jf;F mUfpy; 24 fpkP njhiytpYs;s itj;jP];tud; Nfhapypy; fz;nlLj;jjhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;.

Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; ,e;j Xiyr; Rtbfis mtHfs; nghJkf;fSf;F tpw;wjhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. Vd; tpw;whHfs;? mtHfSf;F vq;Nf vg;gb me;jr; Rtbfs; fpilj;jd vd;w tpguk; njupatpy;iy.

xUtuJ ngUtpuy; milahsj;ij itj;Nj xUtUf;Fupa Xiy Njlg;gLfpwJ. ngUtpuy; milahsq;fs; 108 tifahf tFf;fg;gl;Ls;sdthk;. cyfpy; cs;s kf;fspy; 40 tpOf;fhl;bduJ Xiyfs; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

cyf kf;fs; njhif ,d;W 600 Nfhbf;F Nky; caHe;J tpl;lJ. ,jpy; 40 tpOf;fhl;bdUf;F Xiyfs; ,Uf;fpwnjd;why; nkhj;jk; 240 Nfhb Xiyr; Rtbfs; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;. ,NjhL ,dpNky; gpwf;fg; NghNthHfsJ njhifiaAk; $l;l Ntz;Lk;!

,e;jr; Rtbfis vOj gid Xiyf;F vq;Nf NghdhHfs;? mtw;iw vq;Nf fhg;ghw;wp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;?

fdlhTf;F fhz;lk; thrpf;f tUfpw xU ehb NrhjplH $baJ 1>000 Xiyr; RtbfSf;F Nky; Rke;J nfhz;L tuKbahJ. fdlhtpy; 3 Nfhb kf;fs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,tHfspy; 40 tpOf;fhl;bdUf;F Xiy ,Uf;fpwjhf itj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; 1.2 Nfhb Xiyr; Rtbfs; Njitg;gLk;. Fiwe;jJ nuhwd;Nuh ngUk;ghfj;jpy; cs;stHfspy; 10 tpOf;fhl;bdUf;F fhz;lk; thrpg;gjw;F 4 ,yl;rk; (nkhj;j kf;fs; njhif 40 ,yl;rk;) Xiyr; Rtbfs; Njitg;gLNk?

,uz;lhapuk; Mz;L fhyj;J Kd;dH tho;e;j  KdptHfSf;F Nahd; Nghy;> fpwr;rpad;> nghg;Nw> kf;Nf> nghy];fp> kf;fyk;> Nkhr];> n[dp> n[dpgH Nghd;w nts;isf;fhuHfs; fdlhtpy; gpwg;gJ njupAkh? mtHfs; ngaHfs; njupAkh?

jw;fhyj;jpy; toq;fg;gLk; gpNuk;> gpNukh> uQ;rd;> uQ;rdp> ep\he;j;> ep\hdp> epNuh[d;> epNuh[p> f[d;> f[dp> by;\d;> by;\p> J\p> Mrh> Nfhrh> Nfhrd;dh> ANudpah> n[fd;> n[dp Nghd;w jkpoHfsJ fuLKulhd ngaHfs; mf;fhyj;J KdptHfSf;Fj; njupAkh?

fhz;lk; thrpg;gtHfs; itj;jpUf;Fk; Xiyr; Rtbfisg; ghHj;jhy; mit xU 200 Mz;LfSf;F Ke;jpa jkpo; eilapy;jhd; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf;F ,e;jg; ghliyg; gbAq;fs;.

“GayhL Gytd; ruypy; G+kfs; kjpNfhyhf
ntapy; kfd; Nghfp ez;by;> Ntjpad; Njs; kPjhf
nrAkpf;Nfhs; epiyapy; Njhw;Wk; NrahwhHf;FapH - rpaj;Nj
gad;jU kpydpd; n[d;kk;> ghz;bad; ehs;Lf;Fs;Ns
”

,e;jg; ghlypy; nrhy;ypa tpjkha;; fpufq;fs; mikag; ngw;w xU kdpjDila gpwg;Gg; G+kpahdJ “ghz;bad; ehl;Lf;Fs;Ns” ,Uf;Fk; vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshFk;.  ghz;ba> Nrho> Nru  kd;dHfs; njd;dhl;il 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;L tiu muR Mz;ltHfs;.  Vwj;jho fpK 200 Mk; Mz;by; ghz;baH kJiuiaj; jiyefukhfTk; nfhw;ifiaj; JiwKfg; gl;lzkhfTk; nfhz;L Ml;rp nra;jhHfs;. Mdhy; Nru> Nrho> ghz;bag; NguuRfs; kiwe;J 600 Mz;LfSf;F NkyhfpwJ. mg;gbapUf;f ghl;by; Vd; ghz;bad; ehl;by; gpwe;jhd; vd vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ? Rje;jpu ,e;jpahtpy; my;yJ Mq;fpNyaH Ml;rpapy; gpwe;jtd; vd;wy;yth ghl;L ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;?

,e;jg; ghly;fisg; ghba KdptHfSf;Nfh> gukrptDf;Nfh> ghHtjpf;Nfh Nru> Nrho> ghz;ba muRfs; kiwe;J mjd; gpd; NghHj;Jf;NfaH> gpuQ;rf;fhuHfs;> Mq;fpNyaH> kuhj;jpaH> nkhfyhaH muRfs; Njhd;Wk; vd;gJ vg;gbj; njupahky; Ngha;tpl;lJ?  

ghz;bad; ehs;Lf;Fs;Ns vd;gjw;Fg; gjpy; Nkw;$wpa muRfspd; ngaHfs; my;yth ghl;by; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;?

ehd; epidf;fpNwd; ,e;j ehb NrhjplHfs; Xiyr; Rtbiag; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;yhky; thbf;iffhuHfspd; Kfj;ijg; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;fpwhHfs;! mjd; fhuzkhfNt 1>000 Rtbfis itj;Jf; nfhz;L 50>000 NgUf;F fhz;lk; thrpf;f KbfpwJ! ,e;j Xiyr; Rtbfis 2>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tho;e;j KdptHfs;> flTsH vOjpdhHfs; vd;gJ jpwkhd fw;gidahFk;.

vdf;F kpfTk; gpbj;j Fws; 'mwpTilahH vy;yhk; cilahH> mwptpyhH vd;DilaNuDk;  ,yH" vd;w FwshFk;. mwpTlik vd;w mjpfhuj;jpy; (mjpfhuk; 43> Fws; 430) ,f; Fws; tUfpwJ. mwpTlik vd;why; fy;tp Nfs;tp ,uz;lhYk; tUfpw mwpNthL cz;ik mwpitj; njupe;J nfhs;sy;. ,e;j cz;ik mwpit vy;NyhUk;> Fwpg;ghf ,isQHfs;> NjlNtz;Lk;. mwpT if$btpl;lhy; jkpoH epkpHe;J tpLthHfs;! cyfg; ge;jpy; jkpopdk; caHe;J epw;Fk;!

,dp tpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J njhlHNthk;. mwptpayhsH NrH ma;rf; epA+l;ld; ( Sir Isac Newton)  mtHfis mwpahjtHfs; ,Uf;f KbahJ. ,tH fypypNah kiwe;j mNj Mz;L ej;jhH ehsd;W ,q;fpyhe;jpYs;s Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire  ,y; gpwe;jhH.

epA+l;lidg;gw;wp  xU fij nrhy;tJz;L. mg;gps; kuj;jpd; fPo; cl;fhHe;J ,Ue;j mtuJ jiyapy; mg;gps; gok; tpOe;jjhk;. 'mg;gps; gok; Vd; NkNy Nghfhky; fPNo tpOfpwJ" vd;W epA+l;ld; rpe;jpj;j nghOJ <Hg;G tpir gw;wpa Nfhl;ghl;ilf; fz;L gpbj;jhH vd;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;jf; fijapy; cz;ik ,y;iy. ahNuh xUtH ,e;jf; fw;gidf; fijia vOjp itj;J tpl;Lg; Ngha;tpl;lhH. 

mg;gps; fijNghyNt gdk;gok; jiyapy; tpOe;j fijAk; cz;L. fhiyf; flidf; fopf;fg; gid kuj;jpd; fPo; cl;fhHe;j jk;gH mk;khd; jiyapy; gdk; gok; tpOe;j nghOJ <Hg;G tpiriaf; fz;L gpbj;jhuhk;. Mdhy;> mij kw;wtHfSf;Fr; nrhy;Y Kd;dH mtuJ capH Ngha; tpl;ljhk;! 

epA+l;ld; gw;wp ,d;ndhU fijAk; cz;L. jdJ Ma;T $lj;jpy; jhd; tsHj;j Fl;bg; G+id GFtjw;Fr; rpwpa tl;lKk; jha;g; G+id GFtjw;F ngupa tl;lKk; Nghl;L itj;jpUe;jhuhk;. ngupa tl;lj;jpw;F Clhff; Fl;bg; G+idAk; GFe;J NghFk; vd;w cz;ik mtuJ ez;gH xUtH Rl;bf; fhl;L kl;Lk; mtUf;Fj; njupahky; ,Ue;jjhk;!

NfhngHdpf;f];> nfg;yH> fypypNah tupirapy; thdpay; Jiwapy; ngupa Gul;rp nra;jtH epA+l;ld; (1643-1727) MthH.  ,tNu tpz;zpYk; kz;zpYk; cs;s fhl;rpg; nghUs;fs; mj;jidAk; xNu rPuhf mirtjw;F <Hg;g tpirNa fhuzk; vd;gijf; fzpj mbg;gilapy; #j;jpuq;fs; %yk; vz;gpj;jtH. Nfhs;fs;> Jizf; Nfhs;fs;> thy;nts;spfs; vy;yhNk <Hg;G tpjpf;F mika mirfpd;wd vd;whH.  

epA+l;ld; Nfk;gpupl;r; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; gbj;J Kjypy; ,sk; mwptpay; gl;lj;ij 1665 Yk; KJ mwptpay; gl;lj;ij mNj gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; 1668 Yk; ngw;whH. fzf;fpay; kw;Wk; ,aw;if nka;apay; (Natural  Philosophy) ,uz;bYk; Vw;gl;l Gjpa khWjy;fis Muha;e;jhH. mjd; tpisthf mwptpay;j; Jiwiaj;  njhopyhff; nfhs;tjw;fhd gy fz;L gpbg;Gf;fis fz;L gpbj;jhH. mjpy; xd;W Calculus vd;w Ez;fzpj KiwahFk;.  

xspapay; (Optics) gw;wp epA+l;ld; nfhz;bUe;j ngU tpUg;Gf; fhuzkhf epwq;fs; vg;gb cUthfpd;wd vd;gijf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. mtNu Qhapwpd; fjpHfs; ntz;ikahf ,Ug;gjw;F mjpy; vy;yh epwq;fSk; mlq;fp ,Ug;gJ fhuzk; vd Kjypy; nrhd;dtH MthH.  xspf; fjpiu xU Kg;gl;ilf; fz;zhb (prism) %yk; nrYj;jpdhy; mJ ntt;NtW epwq;fshf mjidr; rpjwilar; nra;tijf; fhzyhk;.  jdJ Nfhl;ghl;il 1704 Mk; Mz;L Opticks vd;w Ehy; %yk; tpsf;fpdhH.

1684 ,y; gpugy gpupj;jhdpa thdpayhsH kw;Wk; fzpjtpayhsH vl;kz;l; fhy;Ny (Edmund Halley) epA+l;lidr; nrd;W re;jpj;jhH. vl;kz;l; mtNuhL Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg;ghijfs; gw;wpa rpf;fy;fisapl;Lf; fye;JiuahbdhH. gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; epA+l;ld; tpirapay; (Dynamics) ghlj;ij xU ghlkhf vLj;Jg; gbj;jpUe;jhH. vl;kz;l; fhy;Ny mtHfspd; tUifapd; gpd; tpirapay; gw;wp epA+l;ld; NkYk; tpupthf Muhaj; njhlq;fpdhH. ,e;j Muha;r;rpapd; tpisthf jdJ nfhs;ifia 1687Mk; Mz;L Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica  vd;w  Ehyhf vOjp ntspapl;lhH. jw;fhy tpirapay; tuyhw;wpy; ,e;j Ehy; xU jpUg;G Kidahf mike;jpUe;jJ. tpirapay; gw;wp epA+l;ld; fPo;f;fz;l 3 tpjpfis tFj;jhH.

KjyhtJ mirT tpjp - xt;nthU gUg;nghUSk; xNu rPuhd mirtpd; nghOJ> ntsptpir nrYj;jpdhy; my;yhJ> mNj mir epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;.

Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

,uz;lhtJ mirT tpjp - xU gUg;nghUspd; nghUz;ik vk;> mjd; KLf;fk; V kw;Wk; tpir vt; vd;why; vt; = vk;V ( F = ma).

The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma.

%d;whtJ mirT tpjp - xt;nthU tpidf;Fk; mjw;F vjpuhd Mdhy; rktsthd vjpHtpid ,Uf;Fk;.

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

,tw;iwf; Nfhs;fspd; Xl;lq;fs; gw;wpa nfg;yupd; 3 tpjpfNshL ,izj;J cyfshtpa <Hg;G tpjpia (Universal gravitation ) cUthf;fpdhH.

,e;j ,lj;jpy; nfg;yupd; %d;W tpjpfis epidT $UtJ ey;yJ.

Kjy; tpjp - Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg;ghijfs; ePs;tl;l tbthdJ. QhapW mt; ePs;tl;lj;jpd; xU Ftpikaj;jpy; (focus) ,Uf;fpwJ.

The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

,uz;lhtJ tpjp - Qhapwpd; ikaaj;jpy;  ,Ue;J xU Nfhspd; ikaj;Jf;F tiuag;gLk; xU fw;gidf; NfhL rk ,ilNtis Neuj;jpy; rk gug;igf; flf;fpwJ.

An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

%d;whtJ tpjp - xU Nfhs; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyj;jpd; kpirg; ngUf;fk; me;j Rw;Wg; ghij miu mr;Rfspd; fd rJu rk tpOf;fhl;Lf;Fr; rkkhdJ.

The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semimajor axes. 

epA+l;ldpd; <Hg;G tpjp vd;gJ vd;d? mz;lj;jpy; cs;s xt;nthU JfSk; ( particle) mz;lj;jpy; cs;s kw;iwa Jfis <Hf;fpwJ. mjd; <Hg;G tpir ,uz;L Jfs;fspd; tpisnghUs; nghUz;ikia ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s njhiytpd; kpirg; ngUf;fj;jhy; gpupj;J tUk; ngWNgiwg; nghWj;jJ.

Every particle in the universe with a force that depends on the product of the two particle's masses divided by the square of the distance between them.  

vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf ,uz;L Jfs;fspy; xd;wpdJ my;yJ ,uz;bdJk; nghUz;ik mjpfupj;jhy; mtw;Wf;F ,ilapyhd <Hg;G tpir mjpfupf;Fk;. ,uz;L Jfs;fspy; xU Jfspd; nghUz;ikia ,ul;bj;jhy; mtw;Wf;F ,ilapyhd <Hg;G tpir ,ul;bg;ghFk;. mNj rkak; ,uz;L Jfs;fSf;F ,ilapyhd njhiyT  mjpfupj;jhy; <Hg;G tpir mtw;wpd; kpirg; ngUf;fj;jhy; FiwAk;. ,uz;L Jfs;fSf;F ,ilapyhd njhiyit ,ul;bj;jhy; <Hg;G tpir ehypy; xU gq;fhff; FiwAk;.

nghJthf <Hg;G tpir ,uz;L Jfs;fSf;F ,ilapyhd NeHf;NfhL Clhf ,lk;ngWk;. Mdhy; ,uz;L cUisfSf;F ,ilapyhd <Hg;G tpir mtw;wpd; ikaj;Jf;F ,ilapyhd NeHf;NfhL Clhf ,lk; ngWk;.

epA+l;ldpd; <Hg;G tpirf; Nfhl;ghNl Gtpapy; cs;s nghUs;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fspd; mirTfisj; Jy;ypakhf vLj;J tpsf;fpaJ. epA+l;ldpd; tpjpapd;gb Nfhs;fSf;F ,ilapyhd <Hg;Gk; Nfhs;fSf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilapyhd <Hg;Gk; Nfhs;fis ePs;tl;l Rw;Wg;ghijapy; xOq;fhf itj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,Nj tpjp fhuzkhfNt Gtpapd; Jizf; Nfhshd re;jpuDk; Vida Nfhs;fspd; re;jpud;fSk; mjdjd; Rw;Wg;ghijapy; rPuhf XLfpd;wd.

epA+l;ldpd; <Hg;G tpjpapy; fhyg; Nghf;fpy; rpf;fy;fs; vOe;jd. epA+l;ldpd; <Hg;G tpjpapd;gb XLk; njhlHtz;bapy; ,Uf;Fk; xU ge;ijj; jiuapy; epd;W ghHg;gtUf;F mjd; mirT njhlHtz;bapd; mirTf;Fr; rkkhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy; njhlHtz;bapy; ,Ug;gtUf;F me;j ge;jpd; mirT Ropakhf (G+r;rpak;) ,Uf;Fk;. ngUntsp> fhyk; gw;wpa kuGtop vz;zg;gb ,ay; cyfj;jpy; xNu rPuhd Ntfk; ,Uf;f KbahJ> fhuzk; vy;yh NtfKk; xg;gPLjhd;.

,e;jr; rpf;fiyj; jPHj;J itj;jtH 19 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; tho;e;j ];nfhl;ye;J ehl;L ,aw;gpayhsH James Clerk Maxwell vd;gtuhtH. mtH rPuhd Ntfk; xU tpdhbf;F 300>000 fpkP (186>000 fy;) vd;W epWtpdhH. ,JNt xsp miyfs; cl;glf; fhe;j miyfspd; NtfkhFk;. ,e;jg; Gjpa fz;L gpbg;G> Ntfk; xg;gPLjhd; vd;W nrhy;yp te;j ,aw;gpay; Jiwapy; xU neUf;fbia cUthf;fpaJ.

1905 ,y; ,e;j neUf;fbiaj; jPHj;J itj;jtH Gfo;ngw;w mwptpayhsuhd my;Ngl; mapd;;];jPd; MthH. mtNu ve;jj; JfSk; my;yJ miyAk; mbg;gil Ntfj;ij (xspapd; Ntfj;ij) kpQ;r KbahJ vd;whH.

Nk 5> 2000 Mk; Mz;L Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUk; Nfhs;fs; xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; te;jd. mjdhy; Gtpapy; ngupa mdHj;jq;fSk; mopTfSk; Vw;gLk; vd;W NrhjplHfs; G+r;rhz;b fhl;bdhHfs;. cz;ikapy; me;j epfo;r;rpahy; ve;jf; NfLk; Vw;gltpy;iy. mg;gb Vw;gl topAk; ,y;iy. epA+l;ldpd; <Hg;G tpjp gw;wpa vLNfhs; mjw;F ,lk; mspf;fhJ.

<Hg;G tpiriag; nghWj;jstpy; Qhapwpd; <Hg;igtpl mz;ikapy; ,Uf;Fk; epyhtpd; <Hg;Ng Gtpia mjpfk; ghjpf;fpwJ. Qhapwpd; <Hg;G 1 vd;W itj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Vida Nfhs;fspd; <Hg;G tpir gpd;tUkhW.

    epyh       -       2.21

    QhapW     -       1.00

    nts;sp    -      0.000113

    tpahod;    -     0.0000131

    nrt;tha;   -      0.0000007

    Gjd;      -       0.0000023

    rdp       -       0.0000005

    A+Nwd];   -       0.000000001

    neg;jpA+d;   -      0.000000002

    GSl;Nlh   -       0.0000000000001

NrhjplHfSf;F ,e;j cz;ik njupahjjhy; mtHfs; fz; njupahjtd; kidtpf;F mbj;j fijNghyf; Nfhs;fspd; gyj;ij kdk;Nghd Nghf;fpy; jhWkhwhf mDkhdpj;Jr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;.


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (42)

,e;jpa thdpay; tuyhW    

Nrhjplg; Gul;Lf;Fg; gypahd xU FLk;gj;jpd; Nrhff; fij jpdfud; (jkpo;ehL) rdtup 27> 2004 ,jopy; ntspte;Js;sJ.

Nkl;^u; mUNf> gj;Jj; jpq;fs; tapW nehe;J ngw;Wj; jhyhl;br; rPuhl;b tsHj;j 3 Foe;ijfisf; fapw;why; ,Wf;fpf; nfhiy nra;J tpl;Lj; jhAk; je;ijAk;  eQ;R Fbj;jdH. ,e;j nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzk; tWik> fld; njhy;iy> jPuhj Neha; vd;Wjhd; nghJthf ahUk; epidg;ghHfs; epidg;gPHfs;. Mdhy; nfhiyf;Ff; fhuzk; mitay;y. 

Nryk; khtl;lk; Nkl;^iu mLj;j GJr;rhk;gs;sp mUNf cs;sJ Nfhk;g+uhd;fhL vd;w CH. ,e;j  Ciur; Nru;e;jtu; <];tud; (taJ 30). vd;gtH xU $ypj; njhopyhsp. ,tuJ kidtp ngaH tp[ah (26). ,tu;fSf;F jpt;ah (6) jPgpfh (4) vd;w 2 ngz;gps;isfSk; jpNd];Fkhu; (2) vd;w xU kfDk; cs;sdu;.   

cly;eyf; Fiwthf ,Ue;j jpNd];;Fkhiug; ngw;NwhHfs; mur kUj;Jt kidf;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;W fhl;bdhHfs;. jpNd];Fkhiug; gupNrhjpj;j kUj;JtHfs; mtdJ ,jaj;jpy; Xl;il ,Ug;gjhff; $wpdhHfs;. kUj;JtHfis ek;ghj ngw;NwhHfs; Nrhjpluplk; nrd;W kfdpd; rhjfj;ijf; fhl;bg; gyd; Nfl;lhHfs;. rhjfj;ijg; gbj;j NrhjplH  ,d;Dk; 15 ehspy; jpNd];Fkhu; capUf;F Mgj;J NeupLk; vd;W nrhd;dhH.  

,jdhy; fztd; kidtp ,UtUk; kdk; cile;jdu;. jq;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk; xNu kfd; ,we;J NghthNdh vd epidj;J kd Ntjid mile;jdu;. kfid ,oe;j gp;d;dH capNuhL ,Uf;ff;$lhJ vd epidj;j ,UtUk; FLk;gj;Jld; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;s KbT nra;jdH.   

,e;epiyapy; New;W mjpfhiy <];tud; tPL g+l;bf;fple;jJ. Foe;ijfspd; rj;jKk; Nfl;ftpy;iy> ,jdhy; mf;fk;gf;fj;jpdu; ma;ak;; mile;jdu;. 

tPl;bw;Fs; ad;dy; Xukha;g; ghu;j;jNghJ <];tud;> tp[ah capUf;Fg; Nghuhbf;nfhz;L ,Ue;jJ njupe;jJ. tPl;bd; jho;thuj;jpy; 3 Foe;ijfSk; ,we;J fple;jd. Mdhy; ghu;g;gjw;F J}q;fpf;nfhz;L ,Ug;gJ Nghy; njupe;jJ.  

,J Fwpj;J fUkiyf;$ly; fhty;Jiwf;F mf;fk; gf;fj;jpdu; jfty; njuptpj;jdu;. fhty;JiwapdH rk;gt ,lj;Jf;F tpiue;J te;jdu;. mq;F capUf;Fg; Nghuhbf; nfhz;bUe;j fztd;> kidtp ,UtiuAk; Nkl;^u; muR kUj;Jtkidapy; Nru;j;jdH.  

tprhuizapy; mtu;fs; g+r;rp kUe;J Fbj;Jtpl;lJ njupe;jJ. jdJ kfd; jpNd];Fkhu; ,d;Dk; 15 ehspy; ,we;J tpLthd; vdr; Nrhjplu; $wpajhy; kdk; cile;J ,e;jj; jw;nfhiy KbTf;F te;jjhfTk; 3 Foe;ijfisAk; fapw;wpdhy; ,Wf;fpf; nfhd;Wtpl;Lg; ngw;NwhH eQ;R Fbj;jhfTk; $wg;gl;lJ.  

'N[hjplk; vd;w %lek;gpf;if 3 Foe;ijfspd; capu; gwpNghff; fhuzkhf mike;Jtpl;lJ' vd;W jpdfud; ehNsl;bd; KftH nra;jpia epiwT nra;Js;shH.  Mdhy; ,Nj VL M&lk; (Nrhjplk;)  ,uhrp gyd; gw;wpa fl;Liufisg; gf;fk; gf;fkhf ehs; NjhWk; ntspapl;L %lek;gpf;iffSf;Fj; jPdp Nghl;L tsHj;J tUfpwJ! 

ghku kf;fspd; mwpahikiaAk; gbj;jtHfsJ Kl;lhsj;;jdj;ijAk; Kjyhf itj;Jf; nfhz;Nl NrhjplHfs; njhopy; nra;fpwhHfs;. NrhjplH nrhy;ypaij cz;ik vd;W ek;gpajhy;jhd; me;jg; gbg;gwptpy;yhj ngw;NwhHfs; jhq;fs; ngw;W tsHj;j Foe;ijf;F vkdhf khwpdhHfs;.   

nrd;w rdtup 24 Mk; ehs; jpUtuq;fk; jpUkz muq;fpy; ge;jy; jPg;gw;wp vupe;J mjpy; kzkfd; FUuhrd; mtdJ ngw;NwhH cl;gl 59 NgH ,we;jhHfs;. kzkfs; n[a= gLfhak; mile;J kUj;Jtkidapy; NrHf;fg;gl;lhH. 'fhrpahj;jpiu' rlq;F Kbe;J 'eYq;F' itf;Fk;NghNj me;j vjpH ghuhj epfo;r;rp ele;jJ. rhjfk; ghHj;J> gQ;rhq;fj;jpy; ey;yehs; (K$Hj;jk;) ghHj;J Xkk; tsHj;J> NtjpaH Ntjke;jpuk; Koq;f ele;j jpUkzk;jhNd? gpd;dH Vd; ,e;j mdHj;jk; Neu Ntz;Lk;?  

fle;j Mz;L (2003) bnrk;gH 26 ,y; ,uhd; ehs;bd; 2>000 Mz;L goik tha;e;j ghk; (Bam) efupy; ,lk;ngw;w epyeLf;fj;jpy; 30>000 NgUf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Mz;> ngz;> Foe;ijfs; 10 tpehbf;Fs; epj;jpiuapy; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;.

,uhdpy; kl;Lky;y> Vida ehLfspYk; epyeLf;fk;> Gay;> #whtsp> nts;sk; fhuzkhf xNu Neuj;jpy; Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd kf;fs; ,wf;fpwhHfs;.

mt;tg;nghOJ tpkhdq;fs; tpgj;Jf;Fs;shfp tPo;e;J nehUq;Ftjpy; 100> 200> 300 NgH xNu Neuj;jpy; rhfpwhHfs;.

,e;jr; rhTfSf;Fk; mtHfsJ jiytpjpf;Fk;> fHk tpidf;Fk;> Nrhjplj;Jf;Fk; njhlHG ,Uf;fpwjh? mtHfs; vy;NyhUk; xNu ehspy; xNu Neuj;jpy; gpwe;jtHfsh? xNu Neuj;jpy; rhtjw;F? mnjg;gb ntt;NtW Neuj;jpy; ntt;NtW ehs;by; gpwe;jtHfs; xNu Neuj;jpy; rhfpwhHfs;?

,e;jf; Nfs;tpfSf;F Vuz (logic) mbg;gilapy; tpil fhz;Nghk;.

    1)      vy;yhk; gpukh vg;gbj; jiyapy; vOjpdhNuh mjd;gb (jiytpjp) elf;fpwJ. mjid khw;w KbahJ.

    2)      Kw;gpwg;gpy; nra;j ey;tpid jPtpid vd;w fHk tpidg;gbNa jiytpjp mikfpwJ. mjid khw;w KbahJ.

    3)      Nrhjpl rhj;jpug;gb xUtd; gpwe;j Neuj;jpy; thdj;jpy; Nfhs;fs;> ,uhrpfs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs; ,Ue;jgbNa jiytpjp mikfpwJ. mjid khw;w KbahJ.

    4)      Ntz;Ljy;> gilay;> rhe;jp> G+ir> mUr;rid> ke;jpuk;> je;jpuk;> ae;jpuk; %yk; Nky;fz;ltw;iw (1>2>3) eptHj;jp nra;ayhk;.   

Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why;?

    1)      vy;yhk; gpukh vOjpa jiyapy; vOjpa tpjpg;gb elf;fpwJ vd;why; fHktpid> Nrhjplk;> eptHj;jp Mfpait mbgl;Lg; Ngha;tpLk;.

    2)      vy;yhk; fHktpid vd;why; jiytpjp> Nrhjplk;> eptHj;jp Mfpait mbgl;Lg; Ngha;tpLk;.

    3)      vy;yhk; Nrhjplk; tpjpj;j tpjp vd;why; jiytpjp> fHktpid> eptHj;jp Mfpait mbgl;Lg; Ngha;tpLk;.

    4)      vy;yhk; Ntz;Ljy;> gilay;> rhe;jp> G+ir> mUr;rid> ke;jpuk;> je;jpuk;> ae;jpuk; %yk; eptHj;jp nra;ayhk; vd;why;> jiytpjp> fHktpid> Nrhjplk; Mfpait mbgl;Lg; Ngha;tpLk;.

kdpjd; nra;Ak; tpidfs; vy;yhk; rhjfg; gyd;gbAk; tpjpnay;yhk; Kw;gpwg;gpy; nra;j ,Utpidg;gbAk; elg;gjha; ,Ue;jhy; ght Gz;zpak; vd;w ghFghLk; ew;nra;if Jw;nra;if vd;w NtWghLk; vt;thW nghUe;Jk;? xUtd; nfhiy nra;tJ tpjpapd; topg;gb vd;why; mtDf;Fj; jz;lid mspg;gJ vd;d epahak;? tpjpia ek;GNthH mijAk; tpjp vd;W nrhy;ypj; jg;gpj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;!

Nkw; $wpa ehd;F ek;gpf;iffSk; mwpahik> mr;rk;> Nguhir Mfpatw;wpdhy; Vw;gLk; kdkUl;rp; my;yJ kdkaf;fk; (delusions) MFk;. cz;ikapy; flTs; ek;gpf;if cs;stHfSf;Fr; Nrhjpl ek;gpf;if ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. mJ flTSf;F nrhy;yg;gLk; vy;yhk;  ty;y vy;yhk; njupe;j vq;Fk; epiwe;j ,yf;fzj;ij mtkjpg;gjhFk;.  

,e;j ,lj;jpy; fHktpid gw;wp kfhftp ghujpahH nrhy;yp ,Uf;Fk; fUj;Jf;fisg; ghHg;Nghk;. 

‘rhjhuzkhf xUtDf;Fj; jiyNehT te;jhy; $l mjw;Ff; fhuzk; Kjy; ehs; grpapy;yhky; cz;lNjh> msT kPwpj; Jhf;fk; tpopj;jNjh> kpff; FspHe;j my;yJ kpf mRj;jkhd ePupdhy; ];ehdk; nra;jNjh vd;gij MuhA Kd;ghfNt mJ G+Ht n[k;kj;;jpd; fHk gyd; vd;W ,e;Jf;fspNy ghkuH fUjf;$ba epiyik te;Jtpl;lJ. cyfj;J tpahghu epiyikAk; nghUs; toq;fk; KiwfisAk; kdpj je;jpuj;jhy; khw;wp tplyhk; vd;gJk; mq;qdk; khw;Wkplj;Jr; nry;t kpFjpahYk; nry;tf; FiwthYk; kdpjUf;Fs;Ns Vw;gLk; f\;lq;fisAk; mtkhdq;fisAk; grpfisAk; kuzq;fisAk; ePf;fptplf;$Lk; vd;gJ jw;fhyj;J ,e;Jf;fspNy gyUf;Fj; Njhd;wNt ,lkpy;iy. gpwH nrhy;ypa nghOjpYk; mJ mtHfSf;F mHj;jkhtJ rpukk;. Vndd;why; gz tp\aj;jpy; Vw;gl;l gaq;fukhd Ngjq;fisAk; jhujk;kpaq;fisAk; ghugl;rq;fisAk; fz;L mjw;F eptr\zk; Njl top njupah ,lj;jpNy jhd; ngUk;ghYk; ,e;jg; G+Ht [d;k fHk tp\ak; tpNr\khf gpu];jhgj;jpw;F tUfpwJ. Mw;g MAs; - ePz;l MAs;> Neha; - Nehapd;ik> moF -mofpd;ik> ghlj;njupjy; - mJ njupahik> gbg;Gj; njupjy; - mJ njupahik Kjypa vy;yhg; Ngjq;fSf;Fk; G+Ht n[d;kj;jpd; Gz;zpa ghtr; nray;fisNa Kfhe;jukhf fhl;bdhHfnsdpDk; gzk; tp\akhd NtWghLfNs ,it vy;yhtw;iwf; fhl;bYk; kdpjHSf;Fs;s nfhjpg;igAk; ek;gpf;iff; Nfl;ilAk; tpistpj;J> mtHfis ,e;j n[d;kj;jpd; Jd;gq;fSf;F G+Ht n[d;kj;jpNyNa fhuzk; NjLtJk; mLj;j n[k;kj;jpy; gupfhuk; NjLtjhfpa tpNehjj; njhopypNy Jhz;bd’ vdg; ghujpahH $WtJ (ghujpahH fijfs; - gf;fk; 71) ,e;J kjj;jtH mj;jidNgUk; Cd;wp kdq;nfhs;sj;jf;fjhFk;.    

cz;ikapy; mz;lj;jpd; Njhw;wk;> capHfspd; Njhw;wk;> cUkyHr;rp> kdpjdpd; Njhw;wk;> cyf rKjha tuyhW> rKjha khw;wj;jpd; ,aq;fpay; Nfhl;ghLfs;> cstpay; Mfpatw;iw mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; Muha;e;J ghHj;jhy; kl;LNk ,e;j %lek;gpf;iffis xopf;f KbAk;. mg;gb xopf;fpw nghOJjhd; kdpjdpd; tho;T xsp ngWk; rKjhak; eyk; ngWk;.  

nrd;w mjpfhuq;fspy; Nkw;Fyf> Fwpg;ghf ggpNyhdpah> fpNuf;fk;> cNuhk; Nghd;w ehLfspy; thdpaypd; Njhw;wk; tsHr;rpgw;wp vOjpapUe;Njd;. Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L vd;gij thdpay; %ye;jhd; vz;gpf;f KbAk;. fle;j 500 Mz;Lfspy; thdpay; mRu tsHr;rp fz;Ls;sJ. mjd; cr;rfl;l tsHr;rp Kjypy; epyhtpy; kdpjid ,wf;fp mq;fpUe;J nrt;tha;f;F mDg;gp itf;Fk; mnkupf;fhtpd; jpl;lk; MFk;. ,d;Dk; 10-15 Mz;Lfspy; ,e;j tpe;ij tpz;zpy; epfOk; vd;W Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;!  

,e;jpa mwptpaiyg;gw;wp ntWk; tha; rg;GgtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Nkw;Fyff; fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs; vy;yhk; ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J nts;isf;fhud; jpUbf; nfhz;L Nghd Xiyr; Rtbfisg; gbj;Jf; fz;L gpbj;jitjhd; vd tha; XahJ $wp tUfpwhHfs;.

nts;isf;fhud; tpkhdk; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;Fg; gy;yhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,uhtzdplk; Gl;gf tpkhdk; ,Ue;jJ - mjpy; mtd; xt;nthU ehSk; ifiykiyf;Fg; gwe;J nrd;W rptid topgl;lhd;! 

,uhkdplk; VTfiz ,Ue;jJ> jpUjuhl;bud; muz;kidapy; FUNrj;jpuj;jpy; ele;j rz;iliag; ghHf;fj; njhiyf;fhl;rp ,Ue;jJ! ,g;gb Vfg;gl;l mz;lg; GSFfs;! Mfhag; GSFfs;! 

vfpg;J ehl;Lg; gpukpl;lh? ,e;jpaHjhd; mijf; fl;batHfs; vd;fpd;wdH.  mq;Nf gpukpl; fl;batHfs; ,e;jpahtpy; Vd; xU gpukpl;ilahtJ fl;ltpy;iy vd;W ahUk; mtHfsplk; jpUg;gpf; Nfl;ff; $lhJ.  

,e;Jj;Jth MjuthsHfs; ,g;nghOJ ,e;jpa tuyhw;iwj; jpupj;J vOJtjpy; Kk;kukhf <Lgl;L tUfpwhHfs;.  

Mr;rhupah guj;thrH (fpK 800) gwf;Fk; njhopy; El;gj;ij (Aviation Technology) njhlf;fp itj;jtH. mtH ae;jpu rHthr vd;w Ehiy vOjpapUf;fpwhH. mjpy; mtH %d;W tpjkhd gwf;Fk; ae;jpuq;fisg; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. mit xU Nfhspy; ,Ue;J ,d;ndhU NfhSf;Fg; gwf;ff; $ba ae;jpuq;fs;. kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk; #upa Mw;wy; Ntjfhyj;jpy; njupe;jpUe;jJ. <Hg;G tpiria epA+l;lDf;F Kd;dNu Ntj fhyj;jpy; fz;L gpbj;J tpl;lhHfs;.   

miz fl;Lk; njhopy;El;gk;> fk;gpapy;yh njhopy; El;gk;> rJuq;fk; vy;yhk; vg;NghNjh fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;Ltpl;ld.  = Mr;rhupa RU\;lH (fpK 600)  xl;LWg;G mWit itj;jpaj;jpd; je;ij> mtUf;Ff; fz;glyk; (cataract) mfw;wy; kw;Wk; xl;Ljy; nra;aj; njupe;jpUe;jJ.   

Mr;rhupahH \huf; (fpK 600) vd;gtiu kUj;Jtj;jp;d; je;ij vd;fpwhHfs;. mtH vOjpa \huf; rk;fpj 100>000 %ypifr; nrbfs; gw;wpf; $WfpwJ. fgpy; Mr;rhupahH (fpK 3000) mz;lapaypd; je;ij. fhdl; Mr;rhupahH (fpK 300) mZf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; je;ij. 'vy;yhg; nghUs;fSk; mZf;fshy; Mdit”> mit mZ %yf; $Wfshy; (molecules) xd;NwhL xd;W ,ize;Js;sJ. up\p ehfHr;Rdh  (fpK 100) Ntjpapaypy; tpw;gduhf ,Ue;jhH. 

nfhyk;gRf;F Kd;dH ,e;jpaH mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;jdH. igjhnfhwh]; #j;jpuk; fz;L gpbf;F Kd;dH rpw;g rhj;jpu Ehypy; me;j #j;jpuk; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ.  rkw;fpUj nkhopNa kw;w vy;yh nkhopfspdJ %ykhFk;. rkw;fpUj nkhopNa fzpdpf;F cfe;j nkhopahFk;.  

Nkw;fz;lthW xU mbg;gil ,e;Jj;Jthjp vOjpapUf;fpwhH. 

Kf;fhYk; czHe;j KdptHfs;> $Ltpl;Lf; $L ghAk; rpj;jHfs;> ffd Fspifia tpOq;fptpl;L thdj;jpy; gwf;Fk; Nahfpfs; ,tHfSf;Fk; me;j ehs;by; gQ;rkpy;iy. ,d;W $l Ntnwe;j ehs;ilAk; tpl ,e;jpahtpy;jhd; mjpf vz;zpf;ifahd kdpjf;flTsH (godmen)  ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. rhapghthTf;Fg; Nghl;bahff; Nfusj;jpy; khjh mkpHjhde;jkhap vd;w xU ngz;rhkpahH ,yl;rf;fzf;fhd gf;jHfs; Gil#o ,e;jpahitAk; cyfj;ijAk; tyk; tUfpwhH. rhjhuz kf;fs; my;y> ghkukf;fs; my;y> ehlhs;NthNu gf;jp rpuj;ijNahL mtH fhypy; tpOe;J vOfpwhHfs;! mtUk; gf;jHfisf; fl;bg;gpbj;J MrPHtjpf;fpwhH!   

,e;jpahit MSk; ,e;Jj;Jth mbg;gilthjpfs; ,e;jpa tuyhw;iwj; jpupj;J vOJk; gzpapy; Kk;kukhf <Lgl;Ls;shHfs;. MupaHfs; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; ,Ue;J te;jtHfs; my;y> mtHfs; ,e;jpa ehs;bd; G+HtPf Fbfs; vd;fpwhHfs;> fug;gh-nkhfQ;rjhNuh ehfupfk; my;y mJ ru];tjp-nkhfQ;rjhNuh ehfupfk; vd;fpwhHfs;. nrj;jnkhopahd rkw;fpUjk; cr;rpNky; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. mNj Neuk; jkpior; nrk;nkhopahf mwptpf;FkhW jkpo; rhd;NwhHfshYk; jkpof murhYk; tpLf;fg;gl;l Ntz;LNfhs; ePz;l fhy ,Oj;jbg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dH ,e;jpa eLtz; murhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. 

Ntjfhy MupaH ehNlhbfshf miye;J ML khLfis Nka;j;J tho;e;jtHfs;. mtHfspd; tUiff;F Kd;dNu ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;jpy; ehfupfk; tsHr;rp mile;jpUe;jJ. ,e;jpahtpd; tuyhW vd;gJ ,e;J kjj;jpd; tuyhW vd;Wk;> ,e;jpa ehfupfk; vd;gJ ,e;J ehfupfk; vd;gJk; cz;ikf;Fg; Gwk;ghdJ. ,e;J kjk; ,e;jpahtpy; Njhd;wpa gy kjq;fspy; xd;whFk;. ,e;J kjk; vd;w ngaH Ntjq;fis Vw;Wf; nfhz;l irtk;> itztk;> fhzgj;jpak;> rTuk;> fTkhuk;> rhj;jk; Nghd;w gy;NtW rkaq;fSf;Fg; gpw;fhyj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l nghJg; ngaH MFk;. irt rkaj;Jf;F ehy; Ntjk; nghJ EhyhfTk; 28 Mfkq;fs;  rpwg;G EhyhfTk; mikAk;. mit rptngUkhdhNyNa mUsg; ngw;wd vd;fJ irt rpj;jhe;jj;jpd; mbg;gil nfhs;ifahFk;. rptid Ntjj;NjhLk; topghl;il Mfkj;NjhLk; irtk; ,izj;Js;sJ.  irtj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; rhjp Ntw;Wik> jPz;lhik ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,JNt %y fhuzpahFk;.   

rkzk;> gTj;jk;> cNyhfhAjk;> itghbfk; Kjypa kjq;fs; ,e;jpa ehs;bd; ehfupf> rKjha> jj;Jt rpe;jid tsHr;rpf;F ngUk;gq;F Mw;wpAs;sd. cyfk; gilf;fg;gltpy;iy> mz;lj;jpd; ,af;fj;jpw;F Kjw; fhuzd; ,y;iy vd;W ,k; kjq;fs; Nghjpj;jd.  

mz;lk; vg;gbj; Njhd;wpw;W? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;fhd tpilia mWjpapl;Lr; nrhy;y KbahJ. mwptpayhsHfs; Cfj;jpd; %yk; ngupa ntbg;Gf; fUJNfhs; (Big Bang Theory) vd;gjhFk;.  

fw;gidf;nfl;lhj xU fhyj;jpy;> xNu xU rpwpa nghs;jhd; ,Ue;jJ. Mij ‘Cosmic Egg’ vd;fpd;wdH. gpd; VNjh xU VJthy;> mJ ntbj;Jr; rpjwpaJ. Mg;gb ntbj;Jr; rpjwpa Jfs;fs; ,d;Wk;$l ehyh gf;fq;fspYk; rPwpg; gha;e;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. Mjdhy; mz;lk; NkYk;> NkYk;  tpuptile;J nfhz;Nl nry;fpwJ.  

,t;thW ntbr; rpjwpanghOJ ntspg;gl;l Jfs;fs;> JhRfs;> Gif> thAf;fs; vy;yhk; ehisiltpy;> tpz;kPd;fshfTk; Nfhs;fshfTk; Jizf; Nfhs;fshTk; FWq;Nfhs;fshfTk;  (asteroids) cUntLj;jd. vkJ QhapW FLk;gk;> QhapW vd;w tpz;kPdpy; ,Ue;J ntbj;Jr; rpjwpa Jfs;fshy; cUthdit MFk;.  

,e;j ngU ntbg;gpd; nghOJ Njhd;wpa ntg;gk;> kpd; Mw;wy;> fhe;j Mw;wy; Mf khwp mz;lk; KOtjpYk; cs;s vy;yhg; gUg;nghUs;fSk; xd;iw xd;W ,Oj;Jg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;gb nra;J xU xOq;fpy; ,aq;f itj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.   

xU rpwpa kpd; fhe;jj;jpd; (Electro Magnet) mUfpy; xU rpwpa gpsh];jpf; Nfhg;igia (Non magnetic material) itj;J> mjpy; rpwpa gpsh];jpf; kzpiag; Nghd;wnjhU epiyahd fhe;j kzpia (Permanent Ball Magnet) itj;jhy; mJ clNd jd;idj;jhNd ntF Ntfkhfr; Rw;wj; njhlq;Fk;. jd;idj;jhNd Rw;wpf; nfhs;tJky;yhky;> Nfhg;igiaAk; Rw;wpr; Rw;wp tUk;. 

Ball Magnet Nky; fPohfTk;> ,lk; tykhfTk; ehk; jpUg;gptpl;lgb jaf;fk; VJk; ,y;yhky; Rw;wk;. mJ Nghy mJ Nfhg;igiaAk; fbfhur; Rw;Wg; NghyTk;> mjd; vjpHr; Rw;Wg; NghyTk;  (clockwise and anti-clockwise) Rw;Wk;. 

,d;ndhU Ball Magnet ia itj;jjhy; ,uz;Lk; NrHe;J ,uz;L gw;rpy;Yfs; ,ize;J Rw;WtJ Nghy; Rw;Wk;. 

Electro Magnet d; kpd; ,izg;igj; Jz;bf;Fk; tiu mjd; ,af;fk; epw;fhky; Rw;wpf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;.  

,ijg; Nghd;w kpfg; ngupanjhU kpd;fhe;j tpistpd; fhuzkhfj;jhd;> epyh GtpiaAk;> epyhTk; GtpAk; NrhHe;J QhapiwAk; Rw;wpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpd;wd vd mwptpayhsHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,jid Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.  

,e;j mz;lk; Kg;gupkhzk; cs;s xU gYhidg; Nghy tpupe;J nfhz;L nry;tjhf mwptpayhsHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;.   

fhzhj gug;gpukk; (flTs;) xd;W kl;LNk cz;ik> kw;wit vy;yhk; khia> cyfk; khia> tho;T ngha;> vy;yhk; mtd; nray;> ek;khy; MtJ xd;Wkpy;iy vd;w kj jj;Jtq;fs; kf;fisr; nrayw;W ,Uf;fr; nra;jd.  

,t;thwhd rka jj;jtq;fSf;F vjpuhfj; Njhd;wpa ,aw;gpay; thj rpe;jidNa nghUs; Kjy;thj jj;JtkhFk;.  

,e;jpa cg fz;lj;jpy; nghUs; Kjy;thj;jijr; rhHe;j> fUj;J Kjy;thjj;ijr; rhHe;j gy;NtW jj;Jtg; gpupTfs; Njhd;wpd.  

gpuhkz Mjpf;fKk;> Ntj kjKk;>  Md;kPfthjKk; tYtile;j cgeplj fhyj;jpy; jhd; Kw;gpwg;G> kWgpwg;G> fHktpid> jiynaoj;J> eufk;> nrhHf;fk; Nghd;w jj;Jtq;fs; gutj; njhlq;fpd.  

mtw;iw vjpHj;J cNyhfhaj thjk; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ. cNyhfhajthjk; vd;gJ cyifAk; kf;fisAk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l nghUs;Kjy;thj jj;Jtk;. MFk;. ,j;jj;Jtj;ijg; gug;gpatHfs; cNyhfhajthjpfs; my;yJ rhUthfHfs; vd;W miof;fg;gl;ldH. rhUthfH vd;why; mofhfg; Ngrf; $batHfs; vd;gJ nghUs; MFk;.

gpuf];gjp vd;gtHjhd; ,e;j cNyhfhajthj jj;Jtj;jpd; MrpupaH MthH. ,tH mRuupd; FU vd kjthjpfshy; ,fog;gl;lhH.  

cNyhfhajthjpfs; nghUNs vy;yhtw;Wf;Fk; Kjy; vd;Wk; tho;f;if tho;tjw;Nf vd;Wk; $wpdhHfs;. flTs;> kWgpwtp> nrhHf;fk;> eufk; Nghd;w nghUsw;w nfhs;iffSf;F rhd;W ,y;iy vd;whHfs;. “capupd; xNu cz;ikg; nghUs; cly; kl;LNk. Md;kh vd;gJ khia jtpu NtW xd;Wk; ,y;iy> vdf;Fr; nrhHf;fj;jpYk; Nkhl;rj;jpYk; ek;gpf;if ,yiy. ,d;ndhU cyfpy; Md;kh thOk; vd;gij ehd; ek;gtpy;iy” vd gpuf];gjp nrhd;dhH.  

,jdhy; cNyhfhajj;ijg; gpd;gw;WgtHfs; nghUs; Kjy;thjpfs; (Materialists)  vd miof;fg;gl;ldH.  

rkzKk; gTj;jKk; Ntjj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; tUzhr;rpuk jUkj;Jf;F vjpuhf vOe;j rkaq;fshFk;. ,e;jr; rkaq;fs; md;G> capHf;F cWfz; nra;ahik> ey;y vz;zq;fs;> ew;nray;fs; Kjypatw;iwg; Nghjpj;jd.  ke;jpuk;> rlq;F> Nts;tp Nghd;wtw;why; gyd; ,y;iy vd;wd. Ntj topghl;by; Kf;fpa ,lk;ngWk; ahfq;fspy; kpUfq;fs; gypaplg;gLtijf; fz;bj;jd. gTj;jk; gpuhkzUf;F caHT toq;Ftij Kw;whf vjpHj;jJ. gpwg;ghy; ahUk; gpuhkzH Mtjpy;iy> xUtdJ nraNy caHT jho;itj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ vd;W $wpaJ.

Ntj fzpjk; vd;gJ fpNuf;f fzpjtpaYf;F ciwNghlTk; fhzhJ. mJ fzpjk; my;y> rpy $l;ly; ngUf;fy;fis RUf;fkhfTk; tpiuthfTk; nra;a topfhl;LtNj Ntj fzpjk; MFk;.

Mupaupd; thdpay;gw;wpa mf;fiw rkaj;jpd; tpupthf;fkhfTk; mjNdhL ,ioNahbAk; ,Ue;jJ.  Ntjfhyj;jpy; rlq;FfSf;Fk; Nts;tpf;Fk; fhyf; fzpg;Gj; Njitahf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; gapHr; nra;iff;F kio fhyj;ijf; fzpf;f Ntz;ba fl;lhak; ,Ue;jJ.

Ntjfhy MupaH ,e;jpud;> tUzd;> mf;fpdp> Nrhkd; Nghd;Nwhiu jq;fisf; fhf;Fk; nja;tq;fshf vz;zp topgl;ldH. NghHf; flTshd ,e;jpud; fWg;G epwj;jtuhd jpuhtplHfisf; (Dasas or Dasyus) nfhd;W mtHfsJ Nfhl;il nfhj;jsq;fis mopj;jtd; vd ,Uf;F Ntjj;jpy; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhd;.

ehy; Ntjq;fSf;Fk; ghurPf nkhopay; vOjg;gl;Ls;s mt];jh vd;w gioa rka EhYf;Fk; ,ilapy; nghJthd ek;gpf;iffs;> nja;tq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

Ntjj;jpd; xU$whd Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; Nfhs;fSk; el;rj;jpuq;fSk; kdpjHfspd; ed;ik jPikfisj; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd vdf; $WfpwJ. tpahod;> rdp>; nrt;tha; ght fpufq;fshff; fUjg;gl;ld. rhjfk; n[d;kFz;lyp vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. mjidf; fzpf;Fk; nghOJ et Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;if fzf;fpy; vLf;fg;gl;ld.   

,e;jpa thdpay; fhNfhy rhj;jpuk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Ntj fzpjapayhsHfs; jq;fis thdpayhsHfshfNt ghHj;jdH.

mjdhy; fzpjapay; thdpaYf;Fr; NrbahfNt ,Ue;J te;jJ. ,jw;F khwhf fpNuf;f fzpjapay; Rje;jpukhf ,aq;fpaJ. vdNt mJ xU jdpf; fiyahf tsHe;jJ.  Ntj fzpjapay; ngUk;ghYk; gl;lwptpd; mbg;gilapy; ,aq;fpaJ. vz;gpj;jy; my;yJ %yj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUtpg;G (proofs or derivations) kpf mupjhfNt nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. fpNuf;f fzf;fpay; ,k;kpAk; gprfhj rhd;Nwhlhd tpsf;fj;ij typAWj;jpaJ. ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Ntw;Wik ,d;Wk; Nfj;jpu fzpjj;jpw;Fk; (Geometry) ,aw;fzpjj;Jf;Fk; (Algebra)  ,ilapyhd Ntw;Wik cUtpy; ePbf;fpwJ. fzf;fpay; Ehy;fs; mDkhd (deductive ) KiwahdJ. ,aw;fzpjk; tpjpfspd; NrHf;ifahdJ.   

thdj;jpy; ghHj;j fhl;rpg; nghUs;fSf;F kUl;rpahd nghUs; tpsf;fk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. thdpay; njhlHghd juTfs; ehy;Ntjk;> rpj;jhe;jk; kw;Wk; rkz gTj;j ,yf;fpaq;fpfspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,Uf;F kw;Wk; mjHt Ntj ghly;fspy; re;jpu Mz;ilg; gw;wpa Fwpg;Gf;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. xU re;jpu Mz;L 12 khjq;fs; 360 re;jpu ehs;fisf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.  

rlq;F topghl;Lf;F xU ehs; 3> 4> 5 my;yJ 15 rk gpupTfshfg; gFg;gl;bUe;jJ. mtw;Wf;F ntt;NtW ngaHfs; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. fhHj;jpif njhlq;fp guzp <whf 27 el;rj;jpuq;fs; Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Nfhs;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; Ntjq;fs; 5 Nfhs;fisf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. tpahod; (gpuf];gjp) nts;sp (Rf;fpud;) ,uz;LNk ngaH nrhy;ypf; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sd.  

rkz kj jj;Jtq;fs; gw;wp 45 Fk; mjpfkhd Ehy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. rlq;Ffs;> Guhzq;fs; kw;Wk; rka jj;Jtq;fs;gw;wp nrhy;git mq;fq;fs;  vd miof;fg;gLk;. ,t;thW 12 mq;fq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; ];jhdq;fh kw;Wk; gftjp #j;jpuk; vd;w ,uz;Lk; thdpay; fzpjtpay;gw;wpa Ehy;fs; MFk;. ,NjNghy; 12 cg mq;fq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. mitAk; thdpay; gw;wpatitahFk;.  gpw;fhyj;jpy; (fpgp 2 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) NkYk; rpy Ehy;fs; thdpay;gw;wp vOjg;gl;ld.  

kfhNkU kiy Gtpika mr;rhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. Gtp mirtw;w rlg; nghUshf vz;zg;gl;lJ. ,it ,uz;NlhLk; ,uhrpfs;> Nfhs;fs;> fz;lq;fs;> MWfs;> fly;fs; kw;Wk; kiyfs; mlq;fpa njhFg;G ma;k;GJtPg vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. JUt el;rj;jpuk; (Polar Star)  NkU kiyf;F NeH NkNy ,Ug;gjhff; fhl;lg;gl;lJ.  

 


Nrhjplg; Gul;L (43)

Gfo;ngw;w thdpayhsH Mupagl;lH     

ehrh mDg;gpa Opportunity (tha;g;G) vd;w ,uz;lhtJ NwhtH nrt;thapy; fle;j rdtup 25> 2004 ,y; gj;jpukhf 60 mb gs;sj;jpy; jiu ,wq;fpAs;sJ.  jiuapwq;fpa ,lk; fUQ;rptg;G epw kzy; Jfs;fs; epiwe;j ,lkhFk;. Mdhy; mjidr; Rw;wpAs;s jiu rhk;gy; epwkhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. nrt;thapd; vjpHg;Gwk; 10>620 fpkP  (6>600 fy;) Jhuj;jpy; jiuapwq;fpa vOr;rp (Spirit) Nghd;Nw ,JTk;; nrt;thapy; jz;zPH ,Uf;fpwjh? capH thA ,Uf;fpwjh? vd Ma;T elj;Jk;.                                               nrt;thapy; vOr;rp

 

Vw;fdNt mq;fpUe;J  tha;g;G  xspg;glq;fis mDg;gp tUfpwJ. rdtup 30 ,y;  Gtpapy; ,Ue;J mDg;gg;gl;l rkpf;iff;F ,zq;f mJ yhd;liu tpl;L 10 mb efHe;Js;sJ. tpahof;fpoik (ngg;utup 4) tha;g;G mq;Fs;s fw;fis Muha ,Uf;fpwJ. ehrhTf;F ,d;ndhU kfpo;r;rpahd nra;jp. rpwpJ fhyk; 'Neha;tha;g;gl;L' ,Ue;j vOr;rp  ,g;nghOJ Fzkhfpg; gioagb ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. vdNt ,g;nghOJ ,uz;L ,ae;jpukdpjHfSk; Vf fhyj;jpy; nrt;thapd; vjpnujpH jiug; gFjpia Muha;e;J jfty;fs; mDg;gg;Nghfpd;wd.

,Nj rkak; Kk;%Hj;jpfs;> Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs;> fpd;duH> fpk;GUlH thOk; Gz;zpa G+kpahd ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;J xU Nrhfkhd nra;jp te;Js;sJ. cyfstpy; nghUshjhuj;jpy; Ntfkhf tsHr;rp mile;J tUk; 10 ehLfspy; ,e;jpahTk; xd;whfj; jw;nghOJ cs;sJ. MdhYk; mq;Fs;s Vio kf;fspd; tho;f;ifj; juk; jpUg;jpfukhf ,y;iy. ViofSf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; cztpd; msT Fiwthf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; Viofspd; thq;Fk; rf;jp Fiwthf ,Uf;fpwJ. 'cyfstpy; kpfTk; Vo;ik epiyapy; cs;stHfspy; 3 ,y; xU gFjpapdH ,e;jpahtpy;jhd; tho;fpd;wdH' vd;fpwJ me;j mjpHr;rpr; nra;jp.  

Wik xopg;G ebtbf;iffspy; <Lgl;Ls;s gy;NtW mikg;Gf;fisr; NrHe;j NguhsHfSk;>ty;YdHfSk; fye;J nfhz;l jpy;;ypf; fUj;juq;fpy; Ngrpa nr%H        rpkpj;jhd; ,e;jr; nra;jpiaj; njuptpj;;jpUf;fpwhH.               

xU ehisf;F xU nlhyUf;Fk; Fiwthd tUthapy; thOk; xUtH tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPo; tho;gtH vd czT kw;Wk; Ntshz;ikf; fofk; (FAO) tiutpyf;fzk; tFj;Js;sJ. ,e;j tiutpyf;fzj;jpd;gb ,e;jpahtpy; 35 Nfhb NgH (35 tpOf;fhL) tWikf; Nfhl;bd; fPo; thLgtHfshf cs;sdH.

,e;jpahtpy; cs;s Gw;WNehahspfspd; vz;zpf;if 20 Kjy; 25 ,yf;fk; (,yl;rk;) MFk;. xt;nthU Mz;Lk; 7 Kjy; 9 ,yf;fk; NgH ,e;Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdH. CHg;Gwq;fspy; 5 tpOf;fhl;bdUk;> efHg;Gwq;fspy; 10 tpOf;fhl;bdUk; caH FUjp mOj;j Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH. gl;bf;fhl;Lg; gFjpapy; 3 Kjy; 5 tpOf;fhl;bdUk; efHg;Gwq;fspy; 8 Kjy; 9 tpOf;fhl;bdUk;; ePhpopthy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH. vYk;GUf;fp Nehiag; nghWj;jtiu xt;nthU Mz;Lk; 18 ,yf;fk; NgH ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

fhrp tpRtehjH> jpUg;gjp = ntq;fNlRtuH> rgupkiy ma;ag;gd;> godp KUfd;> fhQ;rp fhkhl;rp> fhrp tprhyhl;rp> kJiu kPdhl;rp Nghd;w gzf;fhuf; flTsH jq;fisj; NjbtUk; gf;jHfsplk; ,Ue;J ghy;> gok;> gzk;> eif el;L thq;fpf; nfhz;L jPuhj Neha;fisj; jPHj;J mUs;ghypj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; nghOJ Vd; ,e;jpaHfis ,t;thwhd nfhba Neha; nehbfs; gPbf;fpd;wd? Vd; ,e;jpaHfis tWik thl;LfpwJ? Vd; 35 Nfhb kf;fisg; gl;bdp thl;LfpwJ? xd;gJ Nfhs;fSk; ,e;j kf;fspd; rhjfj;jpy; nrhy;yp itj;jhy;Nghy; gifahf ,Uf;fpd;wdth?

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; flTs;> Nfhs;fs;> Nfhapy;> Fsk; Mfpatw;Wf;Fk; Neha; nehb>  tWik> Vo;ik Kjypatw;Wf;Fk; ve;jj; njhlHGk; ,y;iy!  

,e;jpa ehl;L kf;fspd; tWikf;F Kf;fpa fhuzp fl;Lf;flq;fhj kf;fs; ngUf;fk; MFk;. xt;nthU Mz;Lk; xU mT];jpNuypahit (2 Nfhb kf;fs;) ,e;jpaj; jpUehL $l;bf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.  

gps;isiag; ngWgtHfs; flTs; nfhLf;fpwhH thq;fpf; nfhs;fpNwhk; vdj; jiyf;F ma;e;J MW gj;J vd;W ngw;Wj; js;SfpwhHfs;. epiyik mg;gb ,Uf;Fk;nghOJ EhW Nfhbiaj; jhz;btpl;l ,e;jpa kf;fSf;Fj; Njitahd czT> cil> kUj;Jtk;> fy;tp> ,Ug;gplk; ,tw;Wf;F vq;Nf NghtJ? kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jhtpl;lhy; ,e;jpahtpd; nghUshju tsHr;rp vd;gJ Xl;ilg; ghidf;Fs; jz;zPH tpl;l fijahfj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk;!  

mwptpaYk; njhopy;El;gKk; Nky;ehs;by; tWikia xopj;Js;sJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahtpy; mwpahikAk; %lek;gpf;ifAk; tWikia tsHf;fpwJ!       

,e;jpa thdpaypd; tsHr;rpf;F gq;fspg;Gr; nra;jtHfspy; Nruehs;ilr; NrHe;j Mupag;gl;lH (fpgp 476-520) Fwpg;gplj;jf;f xUtH MthH.  ,e;jpah cUthf;fpa Kjy; tpz;fyj;Jf;F ,tH ngaH #l;lg;gl;lJ mtuJ GfOf;Fk; nry;thf;Ff;Fk;  ey;y rhd;whFk;.  ,tH Mupag;gl;bak; (Aryabhattiya ) vd;w Ehiyj; jdJ 23 tJ mfitapy; (fpgp 499) vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy; 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ,yj;jpd; nkhopapy; nkhop ngaHf;fg;gl;lJ.

                                                      Mupag;gl;lH

 

Mupag;gl;lH rpWtajpNyNa Gfo; ngw;w ehye;jh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; NrHe;J thdpay; gbj;jtH. gpd;dH mNj gy;fiyf; fofj;Jf;Fj; Jiz Nte;juhf Gj;jFg;j vd;w kd;ddhy; epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

Mupag;gl;bak; vd;w Ehypy;  Nfhs thdpay; (spherical astronomy) gw;wp Kjd; Kjypy; Mupagl;lH vOjpdhH. Gtp cUis tbthdJ vd;whH. NkYk; Nfhs;fspd; ,Uf;if gw;wpAk; mtw;wpd; njhiyT gw;wpAk; vOjpdhH. #upa - re;jpu fpufzq;fs; vg;gb Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gij tiuglk; %yk; tpsf;fpdhH. #upa – re;jpu fpufzq;fSf;Ff; fhuzk; ,uhF NfJ vd;w ghk;Gfs; my;y re;jpud; kw;Wk; Gtpapd; epoy; vd tpsf;fpdhH. ,e;j tpsf;fk; Ntjj;Jf;F khwhf ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhy;yp mtH fhyj;J itjpf  rkaj;jtH mtUf;F vjpuhfg; NghHf; nfhb Jhf;fpdH.

re;jpuDk; Nfhs;fSk; #upa xspia thq;fp vwpfpd;wd (reflect) vd Mupag;gl;lH  nrhd;dhH. Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; Roy;fpwJ vd;Wk; epyh Gtpia tyk; tUfpwJ vd;Wk; vOjpdhH. Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; RoYk; fhyk; my;yJ  el;rj;jpu ehs;  (Sidereal Day) 23 kzp 56 kzpj;Jsp 4.1 tpehb vdf; fzpj;jhH. ,d;iwa rupahd  el;rj;jpu ehs; 23 kzp> 56 kzpj;Jsp> 4.091 tpehb MFk;. Mdhy; Gtp-ikaf; Nfhl;ghNl ,tuJ Nfhl;ghlhfTk; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.

6 kzp 9 kzpj;Jsp> 1.091 tpehbahFk;. Mdhy; Gtp-ikaf; Nfhl;ghNl ,tuJ Nfhl;ghlhfTk; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupfpwJ.   

Mupag;gl;lH igapd; ngWkjpia 3.1416 vdf; fzpj;jhH. mNj rkak; mJ mz;zsthd fzpg;G vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. NkYk; Kf;Nfhz ml;ltizfs;> Kf;Nfhzq;fspd; gug;gsT> rkd;ghLfs; gw;wpAk; vOjpdhH.  

G&fj; rk;fpj kw;Wk; G&jj; ahjf vd;w Ehy;fisAk; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy;fs; tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fs; (constellations)  jhtutpay;> tpyq;fpay;> epyEhy; gw;wpait MFk;.  

tuhfkpfpuH (fpgp 505-587) Mupagl;lupd; rkfhyj;jtH MthH. njd;dhrpa mwptpay; Jiwapy; kl;Lky;y fiyj;JiwapYk; rpwe;J tpsq;fpatH. c[;[apd; (Ujjain) vd;w efupy; gpwe;jtH. c[;[apd; xU fhyj;jpy; ,uh[;Gj;jhdhtpd; jiyefuhf tpsq;fpaJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; #upaid tzq;Fk; ghurPfj;jpdH tho;e;jhHfs;. tuhf vd;why; gd;wp kpfpu vd;why; #upad; vd;W nghUs;.  

,tH %d;W Ehy;fis vOjpdhH. mjpy; mtH vOjpa gQ;r rpj;jhe;jk; vd;w Ehy; (fpgp 578) Gfo; ngw;wJ. ,e;j Ehy; Kd;dH ,Ue;j ma;e;J thdpay; Ehy;fspd; njhFg;ghFk;.  

    1) #upa rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH ,yhlh. 

    2) trpl;l rpj;jhe;jk;. ,J xU tpz;kPdpd; ngaH. vOjpatH tp\;Zre;jpuH. 

    3) cNuhkf rpj;jhe;jk;. cNuhk Nguurpd; ngaH. vOjpatH =N\fH. 

    4) NghyPrh rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH rape;jpu (mnyf;rhe;jhupah ) efupy; tho;e;j NghyPrh vd;w fpNuf;fH.  

    5) gpuk;k rpj;jhe;jk;. vOjpatH gpukFg;jH. ,tH xU jpuhtplH.   

,tw;wpy; #upa rpj;jhe;jk; mtUf;Fg; gpd;dH gyuhy; gyKiw jpUj;jp vOjg;gl;lJ. #upa rpj;jhe;jk; gQ;rhq;ff; fzpg;gpw;F Kf;fpa Mjhu Ehyhf ,d;Wk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. 

tuhfkpfpuH Nkw;Fyf thdpaiyj; Jiwawf; fw;wpUe;jhH. NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;l ma;e;jpy; ,uz;L rpj;jhj;jq;fs; Nkw;Fyf thdpay; gw;wpaJ. ,e;j rpj;jhe;jq;fspy; tuhfkpfpuH fpNuf;f thdpayhsH njhykpapd; fzf;fpay; tiuglq;fs; kw;Wk; ml;ltizfis KOjhfj; je;jpUf;fpwhH.  

tuhfkpfpuH ghurPfj;ijg; G+HtPfkhff; nfhz;bUe;jjhy; #upa rpj;jhe;jk; ghurPf thdpaiy mbg;gilahff; nfhz;bUe;jJ. #upa rpj;jhe;jj;Jf;F ,d;ndhU ngaH rTkhu rpj;jhe;jk; MFk;.  ,jd; nghUs; #upaid tzq;FgtHfsJ rpj;jhe;jk; vd;gjhFk;. ,JTk; mtH #upa topghLs;s ghurPfj;ijg; G+HtPfkhff; nfhz;ltH vd;gjw;Fr; rhd;whFk;.   

#upa rpj;jhe;jk; re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; (diameter) 480 Nahrid vdTk; mjd; Rw;Wg;ghijapd; Rw;wsT 324>000 Nahrid vdTk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. xU Nahrid 5 fy; vdf; nfhz;L fzf;fpl;lhy; re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; 2>400 fy; MFk;. mjd; Rw;Wg;ghij Rw;wsT 1>620>000 fy; vd tUfpwJ. ,J ,d;iwa fzf;NfhL (re;jpudpd; tpl;lk; 2>160 fy; Rw;Wg;ghijapd; Rw;wsT 1>495>000 fy;) XusT xj;J ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;.  

gh];fur;rhupahH (1114-1183) Mupagl;lupd; EhYf;F tpupTiu vOjpdhH. ,tH rpj;jhe;j rpNuhz;kzp> yPyhtjp kw;Wk; gP[hfzpjk; vd %d;W Ehy;fis vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy;fs; cyf nkhopfs; gytw;wpy; nkhopngaHf;fg; gl;bUf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; rpj;jhe;j rpNuhz;kzp vd;w thdpay; EhNy mtUf;Fg; Gfio <l;bf; nfhLj;jJ. Mupagl;lupd; tpjpia itj;Jf; Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg;ghijapd; njhiyitf; fzpj;jhH.  

#upa rpj;jhe;jj;jpw;Fg; gh];fur;rhupaH vOjpa tpupTiuapy; Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; ehs;fis xd;gJ gjpd;khdk; (jrkhdk;) tiu nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhH. 365.258756484 vd;gNj mtH nfhLj;j fhyf; fzpg;G. rupahd ehs;fs; 365.2596 MFk;.  

gh];fur;rhupaH <Hg;G tpiria NrH ma;rf; epA+l;lDf;F 500 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu fz;L gpbj;jhH vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. 'nghUl;fs; Gtpia Nehf;fp mjd; ftHr;rpahy; tpOfpd;wd. Md fhuzj;jhy; Nfhs;fs;> tpz;kPd;f; $l;lq;fs;> re;jpud;> #upad; Kjypait ,e;jf; ftHr;rp fhuzkhf mjdjd; Rw;Wg;ghijapy; gpbj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ("Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore the earth, the planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.?) ,tH ,d;iwa fd;dl khepyj;ijr; NrHe;jtH.   

,e;jpa thdpay; tsHr;rpf;Fr; Nru ehl;L mwptpayhsHfsJ gq;fspg;G Nghw;wj;jf;fjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. fupjj;jH vd;gtH fpufrudp ge;jdk; kw;Wk; kfhkHfdp ge;jdk; vd;w ,uz;L Ehy;fis vOjpdhH. ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; fuzk; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; gy thdpay; Ehy;fs; vOjg;gl;ld. ,jpy; NjtrhupahH (12Mk; Ehw;whz;L) vOjpa fuzeuj;d vd;w Ehy; QhapW> epyh> Nfhs;fs;> ePs;tl;lk;> Nfhs;fspd; $ly; (conjunctions) gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.    

xd;W njhlf;fk; Rop tiuahd vz;fSf;Fg; gpwF gjpd;khd (jrkhd) Kiw fpgp 4 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; Njhd;wptpl;lJ. F[uhj;jpy; (Gujarat) fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l (fpgp 585-586) rq;Nfj nrg;Ngl;by; Kjd; Kjyhf Rop gad;gLj;jg; gl;lJ njupate;Js;sJ.   

gpukGj;jH (7 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) jdJ gpukGj;j rpj;jhe;jk; vd;w Ehypy; Ropia tpsf;fp ,Uf;fpwhH. ,e;j Ehy; muG nkhopapy; fpgp 770 ,y; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ.  

,tNu Gtpapd; Rw;wsit 5>000 Nahrid Jhuk; vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. xU Nahrid 7.2 fpkP vd;;w fzf;Fg;gb Gtpapd; Rw;wsT 36>000 fpkP njhiythFk;. Mdhy; rupahd msT 40>046 fpkP (24>889 fy;) MFk;.  

Rop fz;L gpbf;fg; glhjpUe;jpUe;jhy; ,ul;il vz;Kiw (binary) Njhd;w tha;g;gpy;yhJ NghapUf;Fk;. gpuhkp vz;fis muhgpaHfs; ,e;jpaHfsplk; ,Ue;J fld; thq;fp Nkw;Fyf ehLfSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhHfs;.  gpukFg;jh vd;gtH vOjpa gpuk#j;jpu rpj;jhe;jk; kw;Wk; fhz;lfbif 9-10 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; muhgp nkhopapy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;ld. Rop kw;Wk; gjpd;khdk; fz;L gpbj;jjw;F ,e;jpa thdpayhHfis epr;rak; ghuhl;lyhk;.  

xd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;by; muG ehs;ltuhd my; Fthuprpkp ,e;jpa vz;Kiw gw;wp xU Ehy; vOjpdhH. ,e;j Ehy; 12 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ.  

 


Nrhjplg; Gul;L (44)

,e;jpa fhyf; fzpg;Gfs;

 

re;jpudpd; ghijia 27 ruprkkhd ghfq;fshfg; gpupj;J (13.33 ghif) mit xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; xU el;rj;jpuk; xJf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j el;rj;jpuq;fs; fhyq;fisf; fzf;fpl cjtpd.  

 

xU el;rj;jpu Mz;L (Sidereal year) vd;gJ xU el;rj;jpu ,uhrp tl;lj;ij QhapW Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. ,J 365.256363 QhapW ehs;fshFk;. xU ntg;gkz;ly Mz;L vd;gJ QhapW ntg;gkz;ly ,uhrp tl;lj;ij Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. ,J 365.242374 QhapW ehs;fshFk;. (Gul;L 7)                                                                                                jpirfSk; cr;rpAk;

QhapW xU ehspy; flf;Fk; njhiyT xU ghif MFk;. QhapW xU ,uhrp tPl;by; ,Ue;J ,d;ndhU ,uhrp tPl;Lf;Fg; ngau vLf;Fk; fhyk; xU QhapW khjkhFk;. ,J #upa rq;fpuhe;jp vd tlnkhopapy; miof;fg;gLk;.

 

       thd;KfL

Gtp QhapWf;F mz;ikapy; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ mjd; Ntfk; mjpfkhfTk; njhiytpy; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ mjd; Ntfk; FiwthfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. el;rj;jpu khjq;fshd jDR (khHfop) kw;Wk; kfuk; (ij) ,uz;bYk; Gtp QhapWf;F mz;ikapy; fhzg;gLk;. mg;nghOJ QhapW 30 ghif nfhz;l ,uhrpiaf; flf;f 29 ehs;fs; kl;LNk vLf;fpwJ. kpJdk; (Mdp) kw;Wk; flfk; (Mb) ,uz;bYk; Gtp> QhapWf;F njhiytpy; ,Ug;gjhy; mg;nghOJ 30 ghif nfhz;l ,uhrpiaf; flf;f QhapW vLf;Fk; Neuk; 31.477 ehs;fshFk;.                                                                                  

Qhapwpd; Mff; Fiwe;j Ntfk; 57 kzpj;Jsp 11 tpehb.  Mff; $ba Ntfk;  61 kzpj;Jsp 10 tpehbfs;. ,JNt jDR kfu Ntj khjq;fs; 29 ehs;fisAk;>  kpJdk;> flf Ntj khjq;fs; 31 ehs;fisAk; nfhz;Ls;sjw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;.  

tpaho Mz;L - tpahod; 30 ghifiaf; flf;f vLf;Fk; fhyk; 361 ehs;fshFk;. Qhapiwr; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhyk; fpl;lj;jl;l 12 Mz;LfshFk;.

 

el;rj;jpu ehs;- el;rj;jpu ehs; vd;gJ epiyj;J epw;Fk; Siderus el;rj;jpuj;ij Gtp Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. ,J 23 kzp 56 kzpj;Jsp; 4.0953 tpehbahFk;.  

fhy tha;g;ghL                                                                   

 

60 jw;giu     -    1 tpehb

60 tpehb      -    1 ehopif

1 ehopif      -  24 kzpj;Jsp

60 ehopif     -   1 ehs;

QhapW Mz;L.  -  365 ehs; 15 ehopif 31 tpehb 15 jw;giu  

 

njhiy tha;g;ghL

 

60 tpfiy (arc second) -    1 fiy (minute)

60 fiy             -    1 ghif (degree)  

1 ghjk;             -   200 fiy

1 el;rj;jpuj;Jf;F      -   800 fiy

 

epyhtpd; el;rj;jpu fhyk; (Sidereal Period of the Moon) - epyh el;rj;jpu ,uhrp tl;lj;ij Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyk; 27 ehs;fs; 7 kzp 43 kzpj;Jsp 11.5 tpehbfs;.

 

epyhtpd; el;rj;jpu Mz;L (Sidereal Year ) - xU el;rj;jpu ehs; vd;gJ re;jpud; el;rj;jpu kz;lyj;jpy; 13 ghif 20 kzpj;Jsp flf;f vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. re;jpud;  jdJ  mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;fpw  fhyk; my;yJ Gtpiar; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhyk; 27.3 ehs;fs;  my;yJ xU re;jpu khjk; MFk;. vdNt xU re;jpu el;rj;jpu Mz;L 327.6 ehs;fshFk;.

 

QhapW ehs; - xU QhapW ehs; vd;gJ Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhykhFk;. Gtp-ikaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; QhapW xU ehspy; xU ghiff;Fk; Fiwthd (59.13) njhiyitf; flf;fpwJ.

 

xU QhapW Mz;L -  365 ehs;> 15 ehopif> 31 tpehb 15 jw;giu.  mJ  13 ghif 20 fiy njhiyitf; flf;f 13> 14 ehs;fs; vLf;fpwJ.   

 

jkpoHfs; jtwhJ gzk; nfhLj;J thq;fpg; gbf;Fk; xU Ehy; ,Uf;fpwJ. NtW ve;j Ehy; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; ,e;j Ehy; xt;nthUtuJ tPl;bYk; ,Uf;Fk;. me;j Ehypd; ngaH gQ;rhq;fk;.

 

jkpoHfs; tPl;by; jdp Ehyfk; xd;W ,Ug;gijg; ghHf;f KbahJ. Gw eil ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mJ fQ;rpf;Fs; fhzg;gLk; gaW khjpup ,Uf;Fk;.   gioa fhyj;jpy; ghujk>; ,uhkhazk;> ngupa vOj;J tpf;fpukhjpj;jd; fij> epfz;L Nghd;w rpy Ehy;fs; kl;Lk; ,Uf;Fk;. ,g;nghOJ K.tujuhrd;> fy;fp> rhz;by;ad;> fz;zjhrd; KjypNahH vOjpa ehty;fs; rpy ,Uf;ff; $Lk;. Mdhy; ma;e;jhk; Ntjk;> jkpoupd; nghJ kiw vd;W Nghw;wg;gLk; jpUf;Fws; kpf mUikahfNt ,Uf;Fk;!

 

jkpoHfs;  gbg;gjw;nfd;W  jdp miwia xJf;Ftjpy;iy. nts;isf;fhuHfs; ,jw;F NeH vjpHkhwhdtHfs;. mtHfs; tPl;by; fl;lhak; xU Ehyfk; ,Uf;Fk.; jiyKiw jiyKiwahf thq;fpg; gbj;j Ehy;;fis mjpy; gj;jpug;gLj;jp itj;jpUg;ghHfs;. cl;fhHe;J gbg;gjw;F vd xU jdp miw $l (study room) ,Uf;Fk;. khjj;jpy; gzk; nfhLj;J Fiwe;jJ ehY ma;e;J EhyhtJ thq;fpg; gbg;ghHfs;. ehs; Fwpg;G vOJk; gof;fj;ijAk; itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. nts;isf;fhuidg; ghHj;J vijnaijNah fw;Wf; nfhz;l jkpoHfs; mtHfsJ gbf;Fk; gof;fj;ij kl;Lk; fw;Wf; nfhs;s kWj;J tpl;lhHfs;!

 

gQ;rhq;fk; vd;why; ma;e;J cWg;Gf;fisf; nfhz;lJ vd;W nghUs;. mitahtd:

 

1) thuk; (QhapW ehs;) #upa cjak; Kjy; kWehs; #upa cjak; tiu.

 

2) jpjp (re;jpu ehs;) re;jpud; #upadpy; ,Ue;J jpjp xd;Wf;F 12 ghif 20 fiy tPjk;  fpof;F Nehf;fp tpyfpr; nry;tjpdhy; Vw;gLk; G+Ht gf;fk; (Rf;fpy gf;fk;) gpujik Kjy; mgugf;fk; (fpU\;z gf;fk;) mkhthir tiuAs;s 30 fhyg; gFjpahFk;. mkhthiria mLj;j gpujik jpjp Kjy; gTHzkp jpjp tiuapy; cs;s 15 jpjpfis tsH gpiwj; jpjpfs; vdTk; gTHzkp jpjpf;F mLj;J mkhthirj; jpjptiu cs;s 15 jpjpfs; Nja;gpiwj; jpjpfs; vdTk; miof;fg;gLk;.  

 

re;jpud; xU Mz;by; 360 ghifiar; Rw;wptUfpwJ. xU khjj;jpy; 28 jpjpfs;> xU G+uiz xU mkhthir Mf nkhj;jk; 30 fhyg;gFg;Gfs; (jpjpfs;) ,Uf;fpd;wd. #upaDk; re;jpuDk; ,izAk; ehs; (0 ghif) mkhthirj; jpjp MFk;. re;jpuDk; #upaDk; vjpHj;jpirapy; (180 ghif) ,lk; ngWk;nghOJ mJ gTHzkp jpjpahFk;.

 

3) re;jpud; Nkl ,uhrpapd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J el;rj;jpuk; xd;Wf;F 13 ghif 20 fiy tpOf;fhL tpyfpr; nry;tjhy; Vw;gLk;  mRtpdp Kjy; ,Nutjp KbaTs;s 27 fhyg; gFg;GfshFk;. xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk;  nghOJ re;jpud; ve;j el;rj;jpuj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;W ,Uf;fpwNjh me;j el;rj;jpuNk n[dd el;rj;jpuk; vd;Wk; n[d;k el;rj;jpuk; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

 

4) Nahfk; ( Nfhs;fspd; $l;L) - re;jpud; xt;nthU el;rj;jp;uj;ijAk; flf;f vLf;Fk; 13 ghif 20 fiy nfhz;l 27 fhyg; gFg;GfshFk;.

 

5) fuzk; (ghjp re;jpu ehs;)  xU jpjpapd; rupghjp. my;yJ 360 fiy my;yJ 6 ghif nfhz;lJ. xU re;jpu khjk; 60 jpjpfs; nfhz;lJ.

 

xU (QhapW) ehs; jpt];> uhj;jpup> re;jpa> re;jpahd;\ vd ehd;F gFjpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.   

 

xU Mz;L vd;gJ QhapW Mz;lhFk;. mJ rpj;jpiu eLg;gFjpapy; njhlq;Fk;. Mz;Lfspd; vz;zpf;if 60 MFk;. ,e;j 60 Mz;Lfs; Row;rp Kiwapy; jpUk;gp tUfpd;wd. xU Mz;L ,uz;L Mazq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. QhapW njw;fpy; ,Ue;J tlf;F Nehf;fpg;  gazk; nry;Yk; nghOJ (ijapy; ,Ue;J Mdp tiu) mjid cj;juhazk; (cj;juk; - tlf;F) vd;Wk; QhapW kWgb tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J njw;F Nehf;fpg; gazk; nry;Yk; nghOJ (Mbapy; ,Ue;J khHfop tiu) jl;rzhazk;  (jf;fpzk;; - njw;F) vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLk;.

 

xU UJ ,uz;L QhapW khjq;fs;. xU QhapW Mz;by; 6 UJf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.  ,e;jpa thdpaypd;gb-

 

    60 jw;giu -  1 tpehb

    60 tpehb  -  1 ehopif

    60 ehopif -  1 ehs;            

           QhapW xt;nthU ,uhrpiaf; flf;f vLf;Fk;  ehs;fs;

 

,uhrp

 

ehs;

kzp

kzpj;Jsp

nehb

Nklk;

30

22

12

0

,lgk;

31

9

37

36

kpJdk;

31

14

34

24

flfk;

31

11

13

36

rpk;kk;

31

0

50

0

fd;dp

30

10

57

36

Jyhk;

29

21

40

48

tpUr;rpfk;

29

12

12

24

jDR

29

8

24

48

kfuk;

29

10

57

36

Fk;gk;  

29

19

24

0

kPdk;

30

8

7

42

nkhj;jk;
 

365

 6

12

30  

 

,e;jpa thdpay; kpf ePz;l fhyj;ijf; nfhz;l ehd;F Afq;fisf; (rJHAfk;) Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

fpUjhAfk;      -      1>728>000   Mz;L

jpNujhAfk;      -      1>296>000   Mz;L

JthguAfk;     -       864>000   Mz;L

fypAfk;        -       432>000   Mz;L

rJHAfk;       -      4>320>000   Mz;L

71 rJHAfk;     -      xU kDte;juk;

1000 rJHAfk;   -      1 fw;gk;

 

fypAfk; fpK 3102 ngg;utup 17-18 nts;spf;fpoik es;spuT njhlq;fpaJ vd mDkhdpf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. mg;nghOJ el;rj;jpu Mz;Lk; QhapW Mz;Lk; mRtpdpapy; 0 ghifapy; ,Ue;jd. fyp vd;w nrhy; rdpiaf; Fwpf;Fk;.

 

,e;jf; fhyf; fzpg;G xU mjPj fw;gidf; fijahFk;. fpK 3102 ,y; ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ue;jtHfs; vOj;ijf; fz;L gpbf;ftpy;iy. Ntjq;fs; jiyKiw jiyKiwahf tha;nkhopahfNt gbf;fg;gl;L te;jJ. 'vOJ' vd;w tpidr; nrhy; Ntj fhyj;jpy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Ntjq;fs; vg;NghJ vOj;JUg; ngw;wd vd;gjpy; xj;j fUj;Jf; fhzg;gltpy;iy.

 

fpK 1>000 Mz;lstpNyNa MupaHfs; rpwpJ ehfupfk; milaj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. ,JNt ,Uf;F Ntjj;jpd; fhyKk; MFk;.  

 

fTjk Gj;jH fpK 563 ,y; gpwe;jhH. jdJ 35 tJ mfitapy; G+uz Qhdk; ngw;whH. mtH jdJ 80 tJ mfitapy; (fpK 483) gup epUthzk; mile;jhH. Mdhy; mtuJ Nghjidfs; gTj;j NjuHfshy; nel;LUr; nra;ag;gl;L  tha;nkhopahf Nghjpf;fg;gl;Lk; gug;gg;gl;Lk; te;jd. fpK 29 ,y; ,yq;ifapy; $ba 4 MtJ gTj;j khehs;bNyNa Gj;jupd; Nghjidfs; ghspnkhopapy; vOjg;gl;L mjw;F jpupgPplfk; (%d;W $il) vdg; ngaH #l;lg;gl;lJ.

 

mNrhfd; (fpK 268-232) Jhz;fspYk; ghiwfspYk; nghwpj;j fy;ntl;Lf;fs; gpuhf;fpuj nkhopapy; gpuhkp vOj;jpy; vOjg;gl;ljhFk;. Nak;]; gpwpd;nrg; (James Princep (1850s) vd;gtNu Kjd;Kjyhf ,e;jf; fy;ntl;L thrfq;fspd; nghUisf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. mtH xU fl;llf; fiyQH. Mdhy; ehzaq;fs; gw;wpj; njupe;jpUe;j xU epGzH.  mJNt mtUf;F mNrhfd; fy;ntl;ilg; gbf;f top rikj;jJ.  

 

kfh mnyf;rhe;jH (fpK 356-323)  vfpg;J ghurPfk; topahf ,e;jpah kPJ gilnaLj;J te;J fhe;jhuk; (,d;iwa Mg;fdp];jhd;) kw;Wk; gQ;rhg; gFjpfisf; ifg;gw;wpdhH. mtUk; mtuJ topte;j kd;dHfSk; ,e;jg; gFjpfis fpK 200 njhlq;fp fpgp 25 tiu Mz;lhHfs;. mg;nghOJ mtHfs; ehzaq;fis ntspapl;lhHfs;. mtw;wpy; xU gf;fj;jpy; mtHfsJ ngaHfisf; fpNuf;f nkhopapYk; kW gf;fj;jpy; mjd; nkhopngaHg;ig ,e;jpa nkhopahd gpuhfpUjj;jpYk; gpuhkp vOj;jpYk; ntspapl;ldH. ,ij itj;Nj gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fspd; xyp mikg;ig Nak;]; gpwpd;nrg; fz;L gpbj;jhH.

 

gTj;j NjuHfSk; rkz KdptHfSNk gpuhkp vOj;ij fpK 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpofj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhHfs;. mNrhfdJ gpuhkp vOj;Jf;fNs Njtefup cl;gl gy ,e;jpa nkhopfspd; vOj;JUTf;F topNfhypaJ vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ghz;b ehs;L kiyf; Fiffspy; gpuhkp fy;ntl;Lf;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;wpd; nkhop jkpohfTk; vOj;J kl;Lk; gpuhkpahfTk; cs;sd. gpuhkpapd; Eiotpdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;Jj; jkpo; vOj;J kiwe;J tl;nlOj;J tsHr;rp ngw;wJ. ,jid 'jhkpop' vd;W miof;fpd;wdH.  

 

tpf;fpuk Mz;L - tpf;fpukhjpj;jd; gl;lk; #ba ehspy; ,Ue;J fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. fpgp 2000 Mk; Mz;L 2058 tpf;fpuk Mz;lhFk;. tpf;fpuk Mz;Lf; fzpg;G tl ,e;jpahtpYk; F[uhj;jpYk; Gof;fj;jpy; cs;sJ.  

 

rf Mz;L - ,J rhypthfdd; mur fl;by; Vwpa Mz;lhFk;. fpgp 2000 Mk; Mz;L 1923 rf Mz;Lf;Fr; rkkhFk;. rf Mz;Lf; fzpg;G njd;dpe;jpahtpy; gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwJ. fpgp 500 Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dH rkw;fpUjj;jpy; vOjpa thdpay; Ehy;fs; ngUk;ghYk; rf Mz;ilNa Fwpg;gpLfpwd. ,e;jpa mur ehs;fhl;bAk; rf Mz;ilNa gpd;gw;WfpwJ.

 

Nkw;F ehs;by; xU ehs; es;spuT njhlq;fp kW es;spuT kl;Lk; ePbf;Fk; fhykhFk;. Mdhy; ,e;jpa ehs; #upa cjak; njhlq;fp kW #upa cjak; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l fhyk; MFk;.  

 

,jd; mbg;gilapy;  bnrk;gH khjk; 13 Mk; ehs; gpd;dpuT 13.00 kzpf;Fg; gpwe;j xUtH Nkw;Fyf rhjfj;jpy; 13 Mk; ehs; gpwe;jtH vdf; Fwpf;fg;gLthH. Mdhy; ,e;jpa Nrhjplj;jpy; ,tH 12 Mk; ehs; gpwe;jtH vdf; fzpf;fg;gLthH. vz;rhj;jpuf;fhuHfs; Nkw;Fyff; fzpg;ig itj;Jj;jhd; gyd; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,e;jpa ehis Vd; gad;gLj;Jtjpy;iy?

 

%r;R tpLk; Neuk; 4 tpehb MFk;. ,J tlnkhopapy; mR my;yJ gpuhz fhyk; vd miof;fg;gLk;. MW mR xU tpehb. mWgJ tpehb xU ehop. mWgJ ehop xU ehs;. mjhtJ xU ehs; 86>400 tpehbfs; my;yJ 21>600 mRf;fs; nfhz;lJ.

 

,e;jpa thdpaypy; xU ehis 15 ,y; xd;whfg; gpupj;Jg; ghHg;gJ mbg;gil mk;rkhFk;. gjpide;J ehs;fs; ,Uthuq;fshFk;. ,g;gb ,uz;Ltpj ,Uthuq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,Uz;l ,Uthuk; fpU\;z gl;rk;. xsp epiwe;j ,Uthuk; Rf;fpy gl;rk;. ,e;j ,uz;L ,Uthuq;fSk; nfhz;lJ xU khjk;.

 

Neuhd ,uz;L QhapW khjq;fs; xU UJ (gUtk;) MFk;. mg;gb 6 UJf;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. Nklk; ,lgk; tre;j fhyk;. kpJdk; flfk; fpuP\;kk;. rpk;kk; fd;dp tH\k;. Jyhk; tpUr;rpfk; rhuj;> jDR kfuk; Nfke;jk;> Fk;gk; kPdk; rprpuh.  

 

,e;j MW UJf;fs; my;yJ 2 madhk;rk; nfhz;lJ xU Mz;L. Gtp gpd;Ndhf;fp 72 Mz;by; xU ghif Nghtjhy; xU madhk;r tl;lk; 2>160 Mz;LfshFk;. ,uz;L ,yl;rk; madhk;r tl;lk; xU mz;l tl;lkhFk;.

 

xU mz;l tl;lk; 432 Nfhb Mz;LfshFk;. ,J gpukhTf;F xU ehs;. gpukhtpd;  MAl;fhyk; 100 el;rj;jpu my;yJ 2*4.32*360*100 = 3.1104*10^14 Mz;LfshFk;!

 

QhapW tPjp tpz;zf eLf;NfhLf;F (tpz;zf eLf;NfhL Gtp  eLf;Nfhl;bd; ePl;lk; MFk;) 23 ghif 52 fiy (60 tpfiy xU fiy. mWgJ fiy – xU ghif) rupe;J ,Uf;fp;wJ. ,it ,uz;Lk; xd;iw xd;W ntl;Lk; re;jp mad re;jp vdg;gLk;. ,J epiyahd re;jp my;y. Mz;nlhd;Wf;F 50.3 tpfiy gpd;Ndhf;fp efUfpwJ.

 

QhapW tpz;zf eLf;Nfhl;il njw;fpy; ,Ue;J tlf;F Nehf;fp efUk; nghOJ ntl;Lk; re;jpg; Gs;sp Nkl ,uhrpahFk;. kWGwk; tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J njw;Nf NghFk; nghOJ ntl;Lk; re;jpg; Gs;sp Jyh ,uhrpahFk;.

 

fypAfj;jpd; njhlf;fj;jpy; vy;yhf; Nfhs;fSk; Kjy; ,uhrpahd Nkl ,uhrp kw;Wk; Kjy; el;rj;jpukhd mRtpdp el;rj;jpukz;lyk; (Constellation) ,uz;bd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jd. gpd;dH Ntj fhyj;jpy; Kjy; ,uhrpahd Nkl ,uhrp fhHj;jpif el;rj;jpu kz;lyj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. ,jdhy;jhd; Ntj fhyj;jpy; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs; fhHj;jpifapy; ,Ue;J vz;zg;gl;ld. ,g;NghJ (2000) el;rj;jpukz;ly Nkl ,uhrp ntl;gkz;ly Nkl ,uhrpf;Fg; gpd;dhy; 23  ghif 51 fiy 14 tpfiyapy; (Lahiri-23 degrees 51 minutes 14 seconds ) ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j madhk;r Ntw;Wik gw;wp Vw;fdNt ehd; tpupthf tpsf;fpAs;Nsd;.  

 

caHTkhdp (Astrolabe)  gw;wp ,uz;L ngupa Ehy;fs;  gpw;fhyj;jpy; (14-16Mk; Ehw;whz;L) vOjg;gl;ld. ,e;jf; fUtp> Nfhs;fs; el;rj;jpuq;fs; mbthdj;jpy; ,Ue;J Nky; vOk; Nfhzj;ij msf;fg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ljhFk;.

 

Mdhy; ntF Jhuj;jpy; cs;s fhl;rpg; nghUl;fisg; ghHg;gjw;F njhiyNehf;fpf; fUtpfis ,e;jpa thdpayhsHfs; fz;Lgpbf;fj; jtwpajhy; gpw;fhyj;jpy; thdpay;gw;wpa Ma;tpy; gpd; jq;fptpl;lhHfs;. 

 

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (45)

 

rq;f fhy thdpay;       

 

gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; jkpopy; thdpay; gw;wpa jdp Ehy;fs; ,Ue;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. fpK Kjyhk; Ehw;whz;by; Njhd;wpa jpUf;Fws; kl;LNk jkpopy; ,aw;wg;gl;l Kjy; Ehy; vd;gij mwpAk; nghOJ jkpopy; thdpay; Ehy;fs; ,y;yhJ ,Ug;gjpy; tpag;NgJk; ,y;iy.

 

jkpoHfSila fy;tp> fiy> gz;ghL Kjypad KbAil %Nte;jHfs; Mz;l rq;f fhy Kw;gFjpapy; kpfTk; rpwg;Gw;W tpsq;fpaJ. vdNtjhd; rq;f fhyk; jkpoHfsJ nghw;fhyk; vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. Vwj;jho 473 rq;fg; GytHfs; jPQ;RitAk; fUj;jhoKk; kpf;f 2>351 jdpg;ghly;fisAk; (vl;Lj;njhif) 3>548 mb msT my;yJ 8>552 tupfisAk; (gj;Jg;ghl;L) ,aw;wpAs;sdH. Fws; cl;gl gjpnzz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fspy; 3>251 ghly;fs; ,aw;wpAs;sdH

 

GytHfspy; ey;ypirg; Gyik ngw;w 50 Fk; $Ljyhd ngz;ghy; GytHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wdH. ,J rq;f fhyj;jpy; Mz; ngz; ,UghyhUk; fy;tp fw;wijf; fhl;LfpwJ. NkYk; fy;tpr; nry;tk; murH> murpaH> ghzH> Faj;jpaH> FwtH> $ythzpfd;> kUj;Jtd;> nfhy;yd;> nghd;thzpfd;> NtspH;  vd vy;yhf; Fbkf;fSf;Fk; nghJthf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. njhopypd; mbg;gilapy; Fbfs; ,Ue;jd. gpwg;gpd; mbg;gilapyhd tUz (rhjp) Ntw;Wik rq;f fhyj;jpy; kUe;Jf;Fk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; epWtd rkaKk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

fy;tp fw;wy; typAWj;jg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ. vz;Zk; vOj;Jk; fz;nzdj; jFk; xUikf;fz; jhd;fw;w fy;tp xUtw;F vOikAk; Vkhg;Gilj;J vd;fpw Fws; thf;F> cw;Wop cjtpAk; cWnghUs; nfhLj;Jk; gpw;iwepiy KdpahJ fw;wy; ed;Nw vdg; ghz;bad; Mupag; gil fle;j neLQ;nropad; mwpTiuAk; mjw;Fr; rhd;W gfUfpwJ.

 

Mdhy; gpw;fhy jkpourHfs; ahNuDk; jkpo; nkhop gbf;fTk; jkpo;f; fiyfs; fw;fTk; gs;spf;$lk; fl;bdhd;> fy;Yhup epWtpdhd;> gy;fiyf; fofq;fisj; Njhw;Wtpj;jhd;> Ma;T ikaq;fis cUthf;fpdhd; vd;w nra;jpNa ,y;iy.

 

rq;f fhy filg;gFjp njhl;L jkpourHfs; jq;fs; nghd;idAk; nghUisAk; nghOijAk; ciog;igAk; Nts;tp nra;tjpYk;> Nfhapy; fl;LtjpYk; ghHg;gdHfis tlGyj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;J mtHfSf;F ,iwapyp gpukNjaq;fs;> rJHNtjp kq;fyq;fs; Kjypatw;iw cUthf;FtjpYk;> Ntj ghlrhiyfis elj;JtjpYk; fiuj;jhHfs;! fiuj;jJ kl;Lky;y mtw;iwg; ngUikahfTk; fUjpdhHfs;. 

 

Nrhod; uhr#ak; Ntl;l Nfhg;ngU ew;fps;sp> ghz;bad; gy;ahfrhiy KJFLkpg; ngUtOjp> jiyahyq;fhdj;Jr; nrUntd;w neLQ;nropad;> Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltd;> Nrud; nry;tf; fLq;Nfh thopahjd;> jf^H vwpe;j ngUQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw Kjypa kd;dHfs; Nts;tpfs; nra;jijAk; ghHg;gdHfSf;F vilf;F vil  nghd;idAk; nghUisAk; ms;spf; nfhLj;jijAk; GwehDhW Nghd;w rq;f Ehy;fs; vLj;Jf; $Wfpwd.

 

MupaH tUifahy; rhjpg; gpupTfs; jkpo;r; rKjhaj;jpy; jiynaLj;jd. mjd; gpd; fy;tp fw;wy; Nja;Tw;wJ.  fy;tp fw;wy; jpz;izg; gs;spf;$lq;fspy;> CH mk;gyq;fspy; fzf;fhaH kw;Wk; MrpupaH - khzhf;fH vd;w cwT Kiwapy; Klf;fg;gl;lJ. kUj;Jtk;> fzpjk;> ,ir> eldk; Nghd;w fiyfs; Fwpg;gpl;l rpy FLk;gq;fshy; jiyKiw jiyKiwahfg; gapyg;gl;L te;jd.

 

gjpw;Wg; gj;jpd; %d;whtJ gj;ijg; ghba ghiy fTjkdhH vd;w GytUf;F ghl;Lilj; jiytd; Nrud; gy;ahidr; nry;nfO Fl;Ltd; 'ePH Ntz;baJ nfhz;kpd;' vd 'ahDk; vd; ghHg;gdpAk; RtHf;fk; Gfy; Ntz;Lk;' vdg; ghHg;ghupw; ngupNahiuf; Nfl;L xd;gJ ngU Nts;tp Ntl;gpf;f> gj;jhk; ngU Nts;tpapy; ghHg;ghidAk; ghHg;gdpiaAk; fhzhuhapdH. (%d;whk; gj;J - gjpfk;)

 

Nrhfk; vd;dntd;why; ,e;j murHfspy;  ahUk; jq;fSf;F vd;W xU muz;kidiaf; $l ehk; ghHj;Jg; ngUikg;glj; jf;fthW fl;b itf;ftpy;iy.

 

filr; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,aw;wg;gl;l rpy Ehy;fs; fhy nts;sj;jpy; mope;J Nghapd. gd;dpuz;lhk;> gjpd;%d;whk; Ehw;whz;Lfspy; tho;e;j ciuahrpupaHfs; Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;ba gy Ehy;fs; $l ,d;W ePUf;Fk; neUg;Gf;Fk; ,iuahfptpl;ljhYk; Nghw;wpf; fhg;ghw;wg;glhjjhYk; kiwe;J Nghapd. rpyg;gjpfhuj;Jf;F ciu vOjpa mbahHf;Fey;yhH jd; fhyj;jpw;F Ke;jp ,Ue;j ehlfj;jkpo; Ehyhfpa gujk;> ,yf;fz Ehyhd mfj;jpak; KjyhTs;s njhd;Ehy;fs; ,we;jd vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; GytHfs; rpwpaJk; ePz;lJk; Md jdpg; ghly;fNs ,aw;wpAs;sdH. mtw;wpy; xU rpwpa njhifNa rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj; njhif gj;Jg; ghl;L ,uz;bYk; ,lk; ngw;Ws;sd.

 

vl;Lj; njhifapy; cs;s jdpg;ghly;fs; rpytw;wpYk; ,yf;fz Ehyhd njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpYk; jkpoHfsJ thdpay; mwpT gw;wpa gaDs;s nra;jpfs; fhzg;gLfpwd.

 

,e;j Ehy;fspy; jug;gl;Ls;s nra;jpfs; cUthfg; gy Ehw;whz;Lfs; nrd;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspd; Nky; vy;iy fpK 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;L vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ. njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; Nky; vy;iy fpK 5Mk; Ehw;whz;L vdf; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; MupauJ njd;dhl;L tUiff;F Kd;dNu jkpoHfSf;F thdpay; gw;wpa mwpT XusT ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ vdf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH ,e;j cyfj;jpd; Njhw;wj;ijg; gw;wpAk;> cyfpYs;s capHfspd; tsHr;rp gw;wpAk; Muha;e;J mwpTG+Htkhfj; njhFj;J  kugpaypy; vOjpapUf;fpwhH. kugpay; vd;gJ  gz;Lnjhl;L toptopahf tUk; Kiwik> tof;fhWfs; gw;wpf; $WtjhFk;.

 

"epyKk; neUg;Gk; ePUk; fhw;Wk; tpz;Zk; fye;jnjhU kaf;fkhd epiyapy; cyfk; cz;lhapw;W. ,itahTk; XH vy;iyf;F cl;gl;L ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j epiyapy; capHfs; Njhd;wpw;W" vdj; njhy;fhg;gpaH $WfpwhH. rkzHfsJ Nfhl;ghLk; ,Jjhd;. ,jdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH xU rkzH vd;gJ ngwg;gLk;.  

 

epyk; jP ePH tsp tpRk;NghL ma;e;Jk;

fye;j kaf;fk; cyfk; Mjypd;

,Ujpiz ma;k;ghy; ,ay;newp tohmikj;

jpupT,y; nrhy;nyhL johmy; Ntz;Lk;.  (njhy;. kugpay; 1589)

 

,t;Tyfk; epyk;> jP> ePH> fhw;W> thd; vd;w ma;k;G+jq;fspd; fyit MFk;. mjdhy; caHjpiz> my;jpiz> Mz;> ngz;> gyH> xd;W> gy vd;w ,Ujpiz> MA;e;J ghy;fspd; ,ay;gpdp;d;Wk; tOthJ> jpupG ,y;yhj nrhw;fshy; $wpj; jOtpf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

 

njhy;fhg;gpauJ fUj;ij mbnahl;br; rq;ffhyg; Gytuhd KuQ;rpA+H KbehfdhH xU ghly; ghb ,Uf;fpwhH.

 

kz; jpzpe;j epyDk;

epyd; Ve;jpa tpRk;Gk;

tpRk;G ijtU tspAk;

tspj; jiy,a jPAk;

jPKuzpa ePUk;> vd;whq;F

ma;k;ngUk; G+jj;J ,aw;ifNghyg; ......   (Gwk; 2)

 

,e;jg; ghlypy; nghUs; Kjy;thjj;ijr; rhHe;j ,aw;gpay; fUj;J Kd;itf;fg; gl;Ls;sijg; ghHf;f KbfpwJ. cyfk; epyk;> Mfhak;> fhw;W> jP> ePH vd;w ma;k; G+jq;fspdhy; MdJ vd;fpwhH.  

 

,Nj fUj;ij fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpahd mup];Njhl;lYk; (fpK 384-322) $wpapUg;gJ kdk; nfhs;sj;jf;fJ.  ,e;j cyfk; Nfhs  tbthdJ vd;W $wpa mtH cyfk; mz;lj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Ug;gjhff; $wpdhH. NkYk; me;j cyfk; epyk;> ePH> jP> tsp vd;w %yfq;fshy; (G+jq;fshy;) cUthf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; Mfhaj;jpdhy; (Ether) #og;gl;ljhfTk; $wpdhH.   

 

rq;f fhyj;jpy; thdpaypYk; mjd; mbg;gilapYk; vOe;j M&lj;jpYk; ty;y mwpQHfs;> mwptH> mwpNthH> fzp> fzpad; vd miof;fg;gl;ldH.

 

fzpad; G+q;Fd;wd;> gf;FLf;if ed;fzpahH> fzp NkjhtpahH vd;w ngaHfs; ,tHfs; thdpaypYk; M&lj;jpYk; Gyik ngw;W ,Ue;jijf; Fwpf;fpd;wd.

 

ef;fPuupd; je;ijahH kJiuapy; ngupa fzf;fpay; Mrpupauhf tpsq;fpdhH. mjdhy; mtH 'kJiuf; fzf;fhadhH' vd miof;fg;gl;lhH.

 

murHfsJ mitapy; ngUq;fzpfd; ,Ue;jijr; rpyg;gjpfhu MrpupaH ,sq;Nfh mbfs; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. fhyj;ijf; fzpf;f ehopif tl;by; gad;gLj;jg; gl;lij  rpyg;gjpfhuk; vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. ,e;j ehopif tl;by; atduplk; (fpNuf;fH) ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. fhyj;ijf; fzpg;gtH ehopiff; fzf;fH vd miof;fg;gl;ldH.

 

thdpay; gw;wp rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; nra;jpfs; gw;wp ,g;nghOJ ghHg;Nghk;.   

GwehDhw;wpy; KJfz;zd; rhj;jdhH vd;w GytH ghbAs;s ghly; gz;ila ehspy; thd;EhNyhH ,Ue;jjw;F rhd;W gfUfpwJ.  

 

nrQ;Qhapw;Wr; nryTk; mQ;Qhapw;Wg;

gupg;Gk; gupg;Gr; #o;e;j kz;byKk;

tsp jpupjU jpirAk;

twpJ epiy,a fhaKk; vd;W ,it

nrd;W mse;J mwpe;NjhH Nghy vd;Wk;

,idj;J vd;NghUk; csNu! midj;Jk;

mwpT mwpthfhr; nrwptpidahfpf;

fspW fTs; mLj;j vwp fy; Nghy

xspj;j Jg;gpid ahjypd; ntspg;gl

ahq;qdk; ghLtH GytH $k;nghL

kPg;gha; fisahJ ................           (GwehDhW 30)

 

Nrhod; eyq;fps;sp vd;w kd;dd;ghw; fhzg;gLk;  mlf;fkhfpa gz;G fz;L tpae;j KJfz;zd; rhj;jdhH "Nte;Nj! nrQ;Qhapw;wpd; tPjpAk; mQ; Qhapw;wpdJ ,af;fKk; mt; ,af;fj;jhw; #og;gLk; ghH tl;lKk; fhw;wpaq;Fk; jpf;Fk;> XH MjhuKkpd;wpj; jhNd epw;fpw MfhaKk; vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;l ,tw;wpd; msit Neupw; nrd;W fz;ltiug; Nghy; mwpthy; Muha;e;J ciug;NghUk; csH! mtHfshYk; Muha;e;jwpaf; $lhj mj;Jiz mlf;fKilatdha; ahid jd; fJg;gpd;fz; mlf;fpa vwpAk; fy;iyg; Nghy>  typ KOJk; Njhd;whjthW mlf;fpf; nfhz;L tpsq;Ffpwha;. cdJ typikia ahq;fdk; ghLtH GytH" vdg; ghuhl;LfpwhH.

 

nryT vd;gJ QhapW nry;Yk; ghij. gupg;ngd;wJ ,j;Jiz ehopiff;F  ,j;Jiz Nahrid nry;Ynkd;Dk; ,af;fj;ij MFk;. 

 

gz;ila jkpoHfs; 27 tpz; (ehz;) kPd;fisAk;> xd;gJ Nfhs; kPd;fisAk; (fpufq;fs;) Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhHfs;. thdj;jpy; Vw;gLk; Nfhs; khWghLfis mwpe;jpUe;jdH. Mdhy; GtpAk; xU Nfhs; vd;gij mtHfs; mwpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. 

 

fhHj;jpif tpohf; nfhz;lhLk; tof;fk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. re;jpuDk; fhHj;jpif el;rj;jpuKk; neUq;fp ,Uf;Fk; ehisf; fhHj;jpif ehs; vd;W nfhz;lhbdH.

                                         fhHj;jpif kPd; 

mk;k thop Njhop! ifk;kpff;

 .....................................................................                                                                          

 

FWKay; kWepwk; fpsu kjpepiwe;J

mWkPd; NrUk; mfy; ,Us; eLehs;

kWF tpsf;F cWj;J> khiy Jhf;fpg;

gotpwy; %JhHg; gyUld; Jtd;wpa

tpoT ................................................................    (mfehDhW 141)

 

"Njhop tho;thahf! ehd; $Wtijf; Nfl;ghahf! Mfhaj;jpd; fz;Nz rpW Kayhfpa kW khHgpNy tpsq;f> KO kjpahfpa> fhHj;jpif kPd; jpq;fSld; NrHe;jpUf;Fk; ehs; fhHj;jpif ehshFk;. ,e;ehspd; es;sputpy; tPjpapNy tpsf;Nfw;wp itj;J> kidthapy; NjhWk; kyHkhiyfs; njhq;f tpl;L myq;fupj;J kpfg; gioikahfpa KjpHe;j CupYs;s gyUk; xUNruf; $b tpohf; nfhz;lhLthHfs;...."

 

nts;sp (Venus) vd;Dk; Nfhisf;nfhz;L kio nga;Ak;> nga;ahJ vd;gijf; fz;lwpayhk; vdg; gz;ilj; jkpoHfs; ek;gpdhHfs;. nts;sp tlf;Fj; jpirapy; epd;why; kio nga;Ak; vd;Wk;> njw;fpj; jpir Nehf;fpg; Nghfpd; kio nga;ahJ vd;Wk; ey;y Nfhs;fSld; NrUk;nghOJ kio nga;Ak; vd;gJk; mtHfsJ ek;gpf;if MFk;.  

 

neL tapd; xspW kpd;Dg; gue;jhq;F

 ..............................................................................

twpJ tlf;F ,iwQ;rpa rPHrhy; nts;sp

gak; nfO nghONjhL Mepak; epw;g

fypOk; fUtpnahL if cw tzq;fp

 ........................................................................      (gjpw;Wg;gj;J 24)

 

gjpw;Wg;gj;J 69Mk; ghltpYk; ,Nj juT jug;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

epyk; gak; nghopa> RlH rpdk; jzpa

gak; nfO nts;sp Mdpak; epw;g

tpRk;G nka; mfy> ngay; GuT vjpu

ehy; NtW ede;jiy Xuhq;F ee;j>

,yq;F fjpHj; jpfpup epd; Ke;jprpNdhNu

......................................................................... '     (gjpw;Wg;gj;J 69)

 

epyk; gaidg; nghope;jhw;Nghy kpf tpisa> fhyj;Nj jtwhky; kio nga;jyhy; #upad; ntg;ge; jzpe;jhw;Nghd;W> cyfj;jpw;Fg; gad;nghUe;jpa nts;sp vd;Dk; Nfhs; kiof;Ff; fhuzkhf kw;w ehs; Nfhs;fSf;Fr; nry;fpd;w ey;y ehs;fspy; epw;f........

 

GwehDhw;Wg; ghly;fs; 114> 229> 260> 313 Mfptw;wpy;  Nkyjpf thdpay; Fwpg;Gf;fs; fhzg;gLfpwd. mtw;iwg; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;f.

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (46)

 

vupkPd; tPo;e;jJ fz;L fyq;fpa GytH 

 

GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; 229 ia ghbatH flYhH fpohH. Nfhr;Nrukhd; ahidf;fl; Nra;khe;juQ; NruypUk;nghiw vd;w kd;ddJ ,Wjp ehspy; mtd; ,wg;gjw;F VO ehs;fSf;F Kd; xU tpz;kPd; jP ff;f tpOe;jJ. mg;nghOJ thdpy; tpz;kPd;fspd; epiyiaf; fz;L ,e; epfo;r;rpf;F Vohk; ehspy; cyfhSk; Nte;jd; capH ePg;gd; vd;W czHe;jhH. flYhHfpohH fyq;fpathNw kd;dd; Vohk; ehs; capH ePj;jhd;.

 

ML ,ay; moy; Fl;lj;J

MH ,Us; miu ,utpd;

Klg; gidaj;J NtH Kjyhf;

fak; Fsj;Jf; fil fha

gq;Fdp caH mOtj;Jj;

jiy ehz; kPd; epiy jpupa

epiy ehz;kPd; mjd; vjpH VHjuj;

njhy; ehz; kPd; Jiw gbag;

ghrpr; nry;yhJ Crp Kd;dhJ

msHf;fj; jpiz tpsf;fhff;

fidvup gug;gf; fhy; vjpHg;G nghq;fp

xU kPd; tpOe;jd;why; tpRk;gpdhNd

mJfz;L ahKk; gpwUk; gy;NtW ,utyH

giwapir mUtp ed;dhl;Lg; nghUed;

Nehapydhapd; ed;W kw;W ,y;nyd

mope;j neQ;rk; kbcsk; gug;g

mQ;rpdk; vOehs; te;jJ ,d;Nw

ike;Jil ahid ifitj; Jwq;fTk;

jpz;gpzp Kurk; fz;fpope; JUsTk;

fhty; ntz;Fil fhy;gupe;J cywTk;

fhypay; fypkh fjpapd;wp itfTk;

NkNyhH cyfk; va;jpdd; Mfypd;

................................................................                (GwehDhW 229)

 

Nkl ,uhrp nghUe;jpa fhHj;jpif ehspy; Kjy; fhypd;fz;>

 

epiwe;j ,Uis cila ghjp ,utpd; fz;>

 

Klg;gid NghYk; tbitAila mDl;l ehspy; mbapd; nts;sp Kjyhf>

fakhfpa Fs tbTNghYk; tbTila GdHG+rj;Jf; filapy; nts;sp vy;iyahf tpsq;f>

 

gq;Fdp khjj;jpdJ Kjw; gjpide;jpd;fz;>

 

cr;rkhfpa cj;juk; mt;Tr;rpapdpd;Wk; rha>

 

mjw;F vl;lhk; kPdhfpa %yk; mjw;F vjpNu vohepw;f> 

me;j cj;juj;Jf;F Kd; nry;yg;gl;l vl;lhk; kPdhfpa kpUfrPuplkhfpa ehz; kPd; Jiwaplj;Nj jho> 

fPo;j;jpirapy; nry;yhJ tljpirapw; NghfhJ flyhy; #og;gl;l Gtpf;F tpsf;fhf> 

fid vup gug;g fhw;whw; gpjpHe;J fpsHe;J> 

xU el;rj;jpuk; thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpOe;jJ>

                vupkPd;

     mjidg; ghHj;J ahKk; gpwUkhfpa gy;NtWgl;l ,utyH> giwnahypNghYk; xypia cila mUtpia cila ey;y kiyehs;L Nte;jdhfpatd; Nehia cilatd; my;yhdhfg; ngwpd; mofpnjd> ,uq;fpa neQ;rj;JlNd kbe;j cs;sk; gug;g ahk; mQ;rpNdhk;.

mQ;rpd gbNa Vohk; ehs; te;jJ Mfypd;>

,d;W typikAila ahid ifia epyj;Njapl;L itj;Jr; JQ;rTk; jpz;zpa thuhw; gpzpf;fg;gl;l Kurk; fz; fpope;J cUsTk; cyfpw;F fhtyhfpa ntz;nfhw;wf;Fil fhy; Jzpe;J cywTk; fhw;Wg; NghYk; ,aiyAil kdQ;nrUf;fpa Fjpiufs; fjpapd;wpf; fplf;fTk;

,g;gbf; fplf;f NkNyhH cyfk; va;jpdhd; ...............................

moy; NrH Fl;lk; vd;gJ fhHj;jpif ehs;. mf;fpdpia mjpNjtijahf Tilikapd;> fhHj;jpiff;F monyd;gJ ngauhapw;W vd;g. 

Ml;bid tlEhNyhH Nkluhrp vd;gH. ML Kjy; kPd; <whfTs;s ,uhrp gd;dpuz;bw;Fk; mRtpdp Kjy; ,Nutjp <whfTs;s ehs; ,Ugj;NjopidAk; tFj;jspf;fpd;> Kjy; ,uz;Nlfhy; ehs; Mlhfpa Nklj;Jf;Fupathjypd;> fhHj;jpifapd; Kjw; fhiy "Mbay; mow; Fl;lk;" vd;whH.

guzp vd;gJ %d;W el;rj;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ,k; %d;Wk; mLg;Gg; Nghd;wpUg;gjhy; guzp (mLg;G) vdg; ngaH ngw;wJ.

mRtpdp vd;gJ Fjpiuapd; jiyNghy cs;s MW el;rj;jpuq;fs;. mRtk; - Fjpiu.

kfk; vd;Dk; cLf;fs; (el;rj;jpuq;fs;) $l;lj;jpd; tbtikg;G Fsj;jpd; fiu Nghd;W ,Ue;jJ vdg; nghUe;j ciuj;Js;sdH.

mDl;lk; vd;gJ MW kPd;fspd; njhFjp. mJ tise;j gidkuk; Nghy; mikjypd; 'Klg; gidak;" vdg;gl;lJ.  

NtHKjyh     - mbapd; nts;sp m/jhtJ Kjy; ehz;kPd;  

cauOtk;     - Kjw; gjpide;J ehs;  

jiy ehz;kPd; - cj;juehs;  

epiy ehz;kPd; -  vl;lhk; kPd; 

cr;rp kPDf;F Kd; vl;lhtJ kPd; mj;jkpj;jYk; gpd; vl;lhtJ kPd; cjpj;jYk; ,ay;G. "cr;rp kPDf;F vl;lhk; kPd; cja kPd;" vd;g.  

njhd;dhz; kPd; - vl;lhk; kPdhfpa kpUfrPuplk;  

faf;Fsk; GdHG+rk;. ,J Fsk; NghYk; tbTilaJ. ,jdhy; GdHG+rj;ij fak;> Fsk;> Vup vd;Dk; ngaupl;Lk; miof;fg;gl;lJ.  

ghrp - fpof;Fj; jpir  

Crp - tlf;Fj; jpir  

gq;Fdpj; jpq;fspy; el;rj;jpuk; tPopd; ,uhr gPil vd;gH.  

ey;yehs; nfl;lehs; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; gz;ilj; jkpoHfsplk; ,Ue;jJ. thdj;J tpz; kPd;fisAk;> Nfhs;fisAk; nfhz;Nl ey;y ehs; nfl;l ehs;fisf; fz;lwpe;jdH. ey;y ehspy; jpUkzk; nra;Ak; tof;fKk; ,Ue;jJ.   

ikg;Gwg; GOf;fpd; nea;f;fdp ntz;NrhW

tiuah tz;iknahL GiuNahHg; Ngzpg;

Gs;Sg; GzHe;J ,dpa thfj; njs;nshsp

mq;fz; ,UtpRk;G tpsq;fj; jpq;fs;

rflk; kz;ba JfBH $l;lj;Jf;;

fbefH Gide;J flTl; Ngzpg;

gLkz KonthL g&cg;giz apkpo

tJit kz;zpa kfspH tpJg;Gw;Wg;

......................................................................              (mfehDhW 136)

"nrk;kwpahl;bd; gpd; re;jpid Mf;fpa fwpnahL nea;ahsha ntspa Nrhw;wpid ,t; mstpdnjd;W $wg;glhj tz;ikAlNd Md;Nwhiu tpUk;gpaspj;J tz;Lfs;  te;J $b ,dpa ,irnaOg;g> mofpa ,lkfd;w Mfhak; tpsf;fkilaj; jpq;fs; cNuhfpzpapw; NrHjyhy; njspe;j xspAila Fw;wk; jPUk; $LjYila ehspNy fhtiyAila khspifia myq;fupj;J topgL flTis tzq;fp> khHr;rid mike;j FlKoTk;> kj;jsKk; gUj;j gythr;rpaKk; xypg;g tJit epkpj;jkhf myq;fupf;fg; ngw;w ngz;fs; tpUg;Gw;Wg; ....................................................."

fd;dpg; ngz;fs; ij ePuhLkhW itif Mw;wpy; nts;sk; te;jjijg; ghLfpw MrpupaH ey;ye;JtdhH jhk; ghba gupghlypy; (ghly; 11) mt; nts;sk;  mRtpdp Kjyhd ,Ugj;NjO ehz;kPd;fSs; xt;NthH ,uz;Nlfhy; ehs;fisAk; cs;slf;fpa Nkluhrp Kjypa tPLfs; gd;dpuz;Ls; ee;ehd;F tPLfisg; gpupe;J> xd;gnjhd;gJ ehz;kPd;fs; mlq;fpa %tif tPjpfisAila ,uhrp kz;byj;jpy;> nts;spahfpa Rf;fpud; ,lgj;jpYk; nrt;tha; Nklj;jpYk; Gjd; kpJdj;jpYk; Mjpj;jd; rpk;kj;jpYk; tpahodhfpa FU kPdj;jpYk; jpq;fSk; rdpAk; ,uhFk; kfuj;jpYk; NfJ flfj;jpYk; nry;yf;$ba Mtzpj; jpq;fs; mtpl;lehspy; jpq;fis ,uhF jPz;Lfpw fpufzk; NeUkhapd; kionga;Ankd;w thdpay; tpjpg;gb Nfhs;fs; $bdikahy; Nkw;Fj; njhlHr;rp kiyapy; kio nga;J itifapy; nts;sk; Guz;lJ vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.  

ehs;fspd; ngUf;fk; jpq;fs;> jpq;fspd; ngUf;fk; ahz;L> ahz;Lfspd; ngUf;fk; Cop vd jkpoH fzpj;jdH. “epd; ehs;> jpq;fs; midathf> jpq;fs; ahz;Nlhuida thf> ahz;Nl Cop midathf” (gjpw;Wg;gj;J 90) 

rq;f fhyj; jkpoH ehspd; ngUf;fkhd “jpq;fisAk;” mj; jpq;fs; rpytw;wpd; ngaHfisAk; mwpe;jpUe;jdH. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fspy; vy;yhj; jpq;fspd; ngaHfSk; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy.  

“itfy;> vz;NjH nra;Ak; jr;rd;> jpq;fs; typj;j fhy; (Gwk; 87)

“ij,j; jpq;fs;” (ew;wpiz 80> FWe;;njhif 196> Gwk; 70)

“Nehd;gpaH ij Cd; ,Uf;if” ( ew;wpiz 22)

“jz;nghopy; gq;Fdp Kaf;fk;” (mfk; 137)

“Mbj;jpq;fs; NgupUl; gf;fk; (rpyg;G – fl;Liufhij 133)

“gq;Fdp caH mOtj;Jj;” (Gwk; 229)  fhHj;jpifj; jpq;fs; fstop ehw;gJ (17) fhH ehw;gJ (26) ghly;fspy; Fwpg;gplg; gl;Ls;sJ.  

khjk; vd;gJ tlnkhopr; nrhy;> jpq;fs; vd;gNj jkpo;r; nrhy;. khjk; jkpo;r; nrhy; vd;W $WNthUk; csH. tU\k; tlnrhy;> Mz;L vd;gNj jkpo;r; nrhy;. Mz;L> ahz;L vd;W  jpupe;jJ. mNj Nghy; el;rj;jpuk; tl nrhy;. tpz;kPd; my;yJ ehz;kPd; jkpo;r; nrhy;.  

njhy;fhg;gpaH ,futPw;Wg; GzHr;rp> IfhutPw;Wg; GzHr;rp Mfpatw;wpy; kl;LNk "jpq;fSk; ehSk; Ke;J fpse;jd;d" vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,g;NghJs;s jpq;fs;fspd; ngaHfSk; ,fu my;yJ Ifhu <w;wpy;  Kbtjhy; mtH fhye;njhl;Nl ,g;NghJs;s jpq;fl; ngaHfs; tof;fpy; ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpwd vdj; njupfpwJ. ,it tlnkhop khjq;fsJ ngaHfNshL xj;jjhf ,Ug;gJk; kdq;nfhs;sj;jf;fJ.  

njhy;fhg;gpaH nghUsjpfhuk; mfj;jpiz ,aypy; ngUk;nghOij tFj;Jf; $wpatH ehs;fspd; ngaHfisNah jpq;fspd; ngaHfisNah Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.  

njhy;fhg;gpag; nghUsjpfhuk; nghOijr;  rpWnghOJ ngUk;nghOJ vdg; gFj;;Jg; NgRfpwJ.  

          rpWnghOJ 

fhiy              6 - 10 kzptiu  

ez;gfy;            10 - 02 kzptiu

Vw;ghL              2 - 06 kzptiu

khiy              6 - 10 kzptiu

ahkk;              10 - 02 kzptiu

itfiw (tpbay;)    02 - 06 kzptiu

 

xU ehopif      -   24 kzpj;Jsp;

,uz;liu ehopif -   xU kzpj;jpahyk;.

mWgJ  ehopif  -   xU ehs;.  

njhy;fhg;gpa vOj;jpyf;fzk; Ez;zpa fhy msitg; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. khj;jpiu vd;gJ xU xyp msT. ,ay;ghf xUtd; fz;zpikf;fpw nghOJk;> if nehbf;fpw nghOJk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; fhy msT. ,J ,d;iwa tpehb msthFk;. Fwpy; vOj;ij xypf;f 1 khj;jpiuAk; xw;W vOj;Jf;fs; Fw;wpaYfuk; Fw;wpaypfuk; Ma;jk; xypf;f ½ khj;jpiuAk; kfuf;FWf;fk; kw;Wk; Ma;jf; FWf;fk; xypf;f Ό khj;jpiuAk; vLf;Fk;.   

ngUk;nghOJ  

,sNtdpy;  -   rpj;jpiu> itfhrp

KJNtdpy;  -   Mdp> Mb

fhH        -   Mtzp> Gul;lhjp>

$jpH       -   ma;g;grp> fhHj;jpif

Kd;gdp     -   khHfop> ij

gpd;gdp     -    khrp> gq;Fdp   

,e;jg; gFg;G EhYf;F Ehy; NtWgLfpwJ. ,g;nghOJ fhH fhyk; ma;g;grp fhHj;jpifj; jpq;fs;fspy; ,lk;ngWfpwJ. mt;thNw Vida  ngUk; nghOJfspd; fhyKk; khWgLfpwd. Kd;dH $wpa madhk;r NtWghNl ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;. 

jkpoHfs; ijj; jpq;fs; Kjy; ehis jq;fs; Mz;bd; Jtf;fkhff; nfhz;ldH vdj; njupfpwJ. ijj; jpq;fs; Kjy; ehs; (rdtup 14) QhapW jdJ njd;jpirr; nryit Kbj;Jf; nfhz;L tljpir Nehf;fpr; nry;fpwJ. vdNt QhapW> kfu Xiuapy; (23½ ghif njw;F) Njhd;wp tlf;F Nehf;fpr; nry;yj; njhlq;Fk; ehisNa jkpoHfs; jq;fs; Mz;bd; Jtf;fkhff; nfhz;bUe;jdH.

                                        epyhtpd; tsHgpiw Nja;gpiw       

ctTkjp (G+uiz) ehspy; Gtpapd; xUGwk; QhapWk;> kWGwk; 180 ghifapy; jpq;fSk; vjpnujpNu epw;Fk; vd;gJ gz;ila jkpoHfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ. jpq;fs; Njhd;Wk;nghOJ QhapW kiwAk; vd;gjid>

 

ctTj; jiy te;j ngU ehs; mikaj;J

,URlH jk;Ks; Nehf;fp xU RlH

Gd;fz; khiy kiykiwe; jhq;F......          (Gwk; 65)

"KOkjp te;J $ba ngupa ehshhfpa nghOjpd; fz; QhapWk; jpq;fSkhfpa ,U RlUk; jk;Ks; vjpHepd;W ghHj;J> mtw;Ws; xU RlH Gy;ypa khiyg; nghOjpd;fz; kiyf;Fs; kiwe;jhw;Nghy" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshFk;. vl;lhk; ehs; gpiwepyit "vz;zhs; jpq;fs;" vd;Wk;>KOkjp"ctTkjp" vd;;Wk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.                                    

jhNk xsptpLk; kPd;fs; ehz;kPd;fs; vd;Wk;> Qhapw;wplkpUe;J gpwf;Fk; xspapdhy; xspUk; Nfhs;fs; Nfhs;kPd;fs; vdTk; miof;fg;gl;ld.  

Nfhs;; kPd;fspd; epwk; jkpoHf;F njupe;J ,Ue;jJ. nre;epwKila Nfhis nrt;tha; vd;Wk;> ntz;zpwKila Nfhis nts;sp vd;Wk;> fupa epwKila Nfhis rdp vd;Wk; (rdp fupaepwk; vd;gJ gpioahd KbT) ngaupl;ldH. ciuahrpupaH er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH md;iwa Mz;L Mtzpapy; njhlq;fp Mbapy; Kbe;jjhff; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,g;gbf; fzf;fpLk; Kiw fpK 500 Mz;Lf;F Kd; ,Ue;jjhff; $wg;gLfpwJ.

  


Nrhjplg; Gul;L (47)

XiufSk; tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fSk;         

tpz;kPd;fisAk; epyitAk; epytpd; Xl;lj;ijAk; xUq;fpizj;Jj; jkpoHfs; mjid xU jpq;fs; (khjk;) vd;whHfs;. mNj Nghy; QhapW nry;Yk; ghijiaAk; Xl;lj;ijAk; fzf;fpl;L Mz;Lf; fzf;fpid cUthf;fpdH.  Xiu (,uhrp) tl;lj;ij (zodiac) 12 Mfg; gpupj;J xt;nthU Xiuf;Fk; 2Ό tpz;kPd; $l;lj;ij xUq;fpizj;jdH. Zodiac vd;w fpNuf;fnkhopr; nrhy;Yf;F tpyq;Ff; $l;lk; vd;gJ nghUshFk;.   

     1) ML        -   Gutp> mLg;G> Muy; (Kjyhk; fhy;)

     2) khL        -   Muy; (2-4 Mk; fhy;) rfL> khd;jiy (1-2 Mk; fhy;)

     3) ,ul;ilaH   -   khd;jiy (3-4 Mk; fhy;) %jpiu> fio (Kjyhk; fhy;)

     4) ez;L       -   fio (2-4 Mk; fhy;) nfhbW> muT

     5) rpq;fk;      -   nfhLEfk;> fiz> cj;juk; (Kjyhk; fhy;)

     6) fd;dp       -   cj;juk; (2-4 Mk; fhy;) if> mWit (1-2 Mk; fhy;)

     7) vilf;Nfhy;  -   mWit (1-2 Mk; fhy;) tpsf;F> Kwk; (1-3 Mk; fhy;)

     8) Njs;        -   Kwk;; (4 Mk; fhy;) gid> Jsq;nfhsp

     9) tpy;         -  FUF> Kw;Fsk;> filf;Fsk;; (Kjyhk; fhy;)

    10) kfkPd;      -   filf;Fsk;; (2-4Mk; fhy;) Kf;Nfhy;> fhf;if  (Kjyhk; fhy;)

    11) Flk;        -   fhf;if (2-4Mk; fhy;) nrf;F>  ehop (1-3Mk; fhy;)

    12) kPd;         -   ehop (ehyhk; fhy;) KuR> Njhzp    

Xiu kw;Wk; tpz; kPd;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; ,e;jpa thdpay; (Nrhjplk;) gFg;Gk; jkpoHfsJ thdpay; (fzpak;) gFg;Gk; xj;J ,Ug;gijf; fhzyhk;. Xiuiag; nghWj;jstpy; mit fpNuf;fH> ggpNyhdpauJ gFg;ig xj;jpUf;fpd;wd.   

jkpoHfsJk; ,e;jpaHfsJk; Nkiy ehs;bduJk; fpoik ehs;fs; nghUspy; ngUksT xj;jpUg;gijg; ghHf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. 

jkpo;          ,e;jpah         Nkw;FehL

QhapW         #upathH         Sunday

jpq;fs;         NrhkthH         Monday

nrt;tha;       kq;fsthH        Tuesday

mwptd; (Gjd;)   Gjd;thH          Wednesday

tpahod;        FUthH          Thursday

nts;sp         Rf;fputhH        Friday

fhup (rdp)       rdpthH          Saturday   

jpq;fs;         re;jputhH         Monday

 

epyT tsHe;J tsHe;J epiwthfpg; gpd; Nja;e;J Nja;e;J kiwe;J gpd;dH Njhd;Wtjw;F 30 ehs;fs; Mfpd;wd. ,g;gb epyT xU Rw;W tsHe;J Nja;e;J epiwfpd;w fhyj;ij jkpoHfs; jpq;fs; vd;W mioj;jdH. gTzHkp vd;gJ ctTkjp Njhd;wpaJ Kjy; kiwepyT (mkhthir) tiuAs;s 15 ehs;fs; Nja;gpiw vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. kiwepyT Kjy; KOepyT cs;s 15 ehs;fs; tsHgpiw vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. gpujik Kjy; rJHj;jrp tiu cs;s jpjp ehs;fis jkpoHfs; Kjyhk; gpiw ,uz;lhk; gpiw %d;whk; gpiw vd mioj;jdH.   

 

                                       gd;dpU Xiufs; (gd;dpU ,uhrpfs;)

 

jkpo;

tlnkhop

,yj;;jPd;

cUtk;

khjk;N

Nkok;

Nk\k;

Aries

ML

rpj;jpiu

tpil

up\gk;

Taurus

khL

itfhrp

Mlit

kpJdk;

Gemini

,ul;ilaH

Mdp

flfk;

fHf;flfk;

Cancer

ez;L

Mb

klq;fy;

rpk;kk;

Leo

rpq;fk;

Mtzp

fd;dp

fd;dp

Virgo

fd;dp

Gul;lhrp

Jiy

Jyhk;

Libra

vilf;Nfhy;

ma;g;grp

esp

tpUr;rpfk;

Scorpion

Njs;

fhHj;jpif

rpiy

jDR;

Sagitarius

tpy;

khHfop

Rwtk;

kfuk;

Capricorn

RwhkPd;

ij

Fk;gk;

Fk;gk;

Acquarius

Flk;

khrp

kPdk;

kPdk;

Pisces

kPd;

gq;Fdp

 

jkpoHfspd; Mz;L Rwtj;jpy; (ijapy;) njhlq;fp rpiyapy; (khHfopapy;) Kbe;jJ. jkpoHfs; gpw gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghy; Mz;ilr; rpj;jpiuapy; njhlq;fp gq;Fdpf;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;W tpl;lhHfs;. QhapW ijj; jpq;fs; Kjy;ehs;jhd; RwTg; ghijapy; (kfuNuif) Njhd;wp tlf;F Nehf;fp efUfpwJ. mJNt jkpoupd; Mz;Lj; njhlf;fkhFk;. jkpoHfSf;Fj; ijj; jpq;fs; Kjy; ehs;jhd; jkpo;g; Gj;jhz;lhFk;. rpj;jpiuiag; Gj;jhz;lhff; nfhz;lhLtij iftpl;L ij Kjy; ehisg; Gj;jhz;lhfj; jkpoHfs; nfhz;lhl Ntz;Lk;.  

 

,g;nghOJs;s 60 Mz;Lfs; tpahod; ,uhrp tl;lj;ij ma;e;J Kiw Rw;wp tUjyhfpa fhyj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLtjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mJ jkpoHf;Nf cupj;jhdJ vd;Wk;> MupaUf;Fk; mjw;Fk; njhlHgpy;iy vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ. ,J cz;ikahapd; gpugt njhlq;fp ml;ra tiu cs;s Mz;Lfspd; ngaHfs; ahTk; tlnkhopapy; ,Ug;gJ Vd; vd;w Nfs;tp vOfpwJ.  CHg;ngaHfs;> flTsH ngaHfs;> gz;fspd; ngaHfis MupaHfs; tlnkhopkag; gLj;jpaJNghy Mz;Lfspd; ngaHfisAk; tlnkhopkag;gLj;jp tpl;lhHfsh?           

 

kiuf;fhL Ntjhuzpak; (kiu> kiw vdg; gpioahf nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ) vd;Wk;> kapyhLJiw khA+uk; vd;Wk; khky;yGuk; khgypGuk; vd;Wk; fPupkiy eFNy];tuk; vd;Wk; ngaH khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ Nghy jkpo; Mz;Lfspd; ngaHfSk; tlnkhopkag;gLj;jg; gl;bUf;fyhk;.  

 

gQ;rhq;fj;jpy; me;je;j Mz;Lf;Fupa gyd; nrhy;yg;gLk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf RghD Mz;Lg; gyd; thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fjjpy; gpd;tUkhW nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

nrhd;Ndd; Rghjdpw; Nwhd;W kio nfhQ;rkhk;

gpd;Nd tpisT ngUfhJ – kd;NdJd;

kj;jpkf;Nfh Sz;lh kbAehw; fhw;rPtd;

rw;WQ; Rfkpy;iyj; jhd;.                    (thf;fpa gQ;rhq;fk; - gf;fk; 33)

 

RghD Mz;Lg; gpwg;Gf;Fr; rhjfKk; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jpy; Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; ,e;j Mz;Lg;gyd; xUNghJk; khWtjpy;iy! vq;fs; Cupy; FL FLg;igf;fhud; ‘ey;y fhyk; gpwf;FJ! ey;y fhyk; gpwf;FJ! n[f;fk;kh ma;ah (mk;kh) Tf;F ey;y Fwp nrhy;Y! ma;ah (mk;kh)it gpbj;j Njhrk; vy;yhk;  njhiyAJ jdk;> jhdpak; ngUFJ….. vd;W tPL tPlhf xNu khjpup kdg;ghlk; nra;J xg;Gtpg;gJ Nghy ’RghD Mz;Lf;F (2003-2004) nrhy;yg;gl;l gyd; 60 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J kPz;Lk; RghD Mz;L (2063-2064) gpwf;Fk; NghJ mjw;Fk; mNj gyd;jhd; nrhy;yg;gLk;! mjhtJ kio nfhQ;rk;> tpisT (gQ;rhq;fj;jpy; tpioT vd;W gpioahf vOjg; gl;Ls;sJ) ngUfhJ vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;! Nrhjplg; Gul;Lf;F ,JTk; ey;y rhd;whFk;!  

 

fpoikapd; ngaHfs; jpUehTf;furH (fpgp 7 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) ghba NfhsW gjpfj;jpy;jhd; Kjy;Kiwahf tupirahfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. "QhapW jpq;fs; nrt;tha; Gjd; tpahod; nts;sp rdp ghk;G ,uz;LKlNd.....'  vd;gJ NfhsW gjpfj;jpy; tUfpw Njthu tupfs; MFk;.   

njhy;fhg;gpaH vOj;jjpfhuk; Fw;wpaYfug; Gzupay; njhlHghd #j;jpuq;fspy; xd;W> ,uz;L> %d;W> ehd;F> ma;e;J> MW> VO> vl;L> xd;gJ>  gj;J> EhW> Mapuk;> xd;gjpdhapuk;> Ehwhapuk; vDk; vz;Zg; ngaHfisg; gad;gLj;jpAs;shH. jpUts;StH “,uthik Nfhb cWk;” (Fws; 1061)  “mLf;fpa Nfhb ngwpDk;” (Fws; 954> 1005) “gOJ vz;Zk; ke;jpupapd; gf;fj;Js; nja;NthH vOgJ Nfhb cWk;” ( Fws; 639)

 

Nfhb jkpopy; gf;jpnewpf; fhynkdf; $wg;gLk; fpgp 7Mk; 8 Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu Ehwhapuk; vd;w nrhy;Ny gad;gLj;jg;gl;L te;jJ. gpd;dHjhd; ,yl;rk; vd;w tl  nrhy; GFe;J nfhz;lJ. 

 

fpgp 2 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; vOjg;gl;l kzpNkfiyapy; Nrud; nrq;Fl;Ltid kiytho; kf;fs; tho;j;Jtij 'Vo;gpwg;gbNak; tho;f epd; nfhw;wk; .......................gd;Dhwhapuj;jhz;L thopaH' vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

 

'ciwNrUk; vz;gj;jp ehd;F Ehwhapuk; Nahdp Ngjk;...'  vd fpgp 7Mk; 8 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ghlg;ngw;w Njthuj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;iwg; ghHf;Fk; nghOJ Mapuk; vd;gJ jkpo;r; nrhy; vd;gJ kl;Lky;y jkpopy; gj;jpd; jrk gz;G ntspg;gLk; tpjj;jpy; mike;jpUf;fpwJ vdyhk;.  

 

Mupag;gl;lH (fpgp 476-550) ig apd; ngWkjpia 3.1416 vdf; nfhLj;jhH vd;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. Mdhy; ,jid mtH 6>2832/20>000 vd;w gpd;dkhfNt nfhLj;jpUf;fpwhH. ,jdhy; gjpk (jrk) Kiw mtH fhyj;jpy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vdj; njupfpwJ.

 

fpK 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;lstpy; tho;e;j fhf;ifghbdpahH vd;w ngz;;ghy; GytH xU tl;lj;jpd; gug;gsit jhk; vOjpa fhf;ifghbdPak; vd;w Ehypy; xU #j;jpukhff; nfhLj;Js;shH. ,e;j Ehy; ,d;W KOikahff; fpilf;ftpy;iy. rpy #j;jpuq;fNs fpilj;Js;sd.

 

tl;lj;jiu nfhz;L tpl;lj;jiu

jhf;fpd; rl;nld;W njupAk; Fop

 

mjhtJ tl;lg;gFjpapd; miug;gq;F ePsj;ij tpl;lj;jpd; miug;gq;F ePsj;jhy; ngUf;fpdhy; tl;lj;jpd; gug;Gg; ngwg;gLk;. tl;lj;jpd; miug;gq;if tpl;lj;jpd; miug;gq;F ePsj;jhy; gpupj;jhy; ig apd; ngWkhdk; fpilf;Fk;. xU ngUf;fy; nra;ifia jdpNa vOj;jpy; nfhLf;f KbahJ. mjw;F vz;Zk; Njit. vdNt vz;fisf; Fwpf;Fk; FwpaPLfs; fpK rpy Ehw;whz;L Kd;dNu jkpopy; Vw;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vdf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

Mupag;gl;lH gpupj;jyhff; nfhLj;jij mtUf;Fj; njhshapuk; Mz;Lfs; Kd; tho;e;j fhf;ifghbdpahH ngUf;fyhff; nfhLj;Js;shH. ,e;jg; igapd; ngWkjpia Kjypy; fz;ltH MHfpkPb]; (Archimedes) vd;w fpNuf;fHMthH. ,tH fhyk; fpK 285-212 MFk;.  

 

vz;zy;> vLj;jy;> Kfj;jy;> ePl;ly; vd;w ehy;tif msit jkpoHf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ. vz;Zg; ngaHfs; rpw;wpyf;fk; (fPo;thapyf;fk;) Ngupyf;fk; (Nky;tha;apyf;fk;) vd ,Utifg;gLk;. xd;Wf;Ff; fPo;g;gl;lJ rpw;wpyf;fk; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;lJ Ngupyf;fk; vdg; gl;ld.   

 

fPo;tha;r; rpw;wpyf;fk;  

 

NjHj;Jf;fs;      -          1/2>3238245>3022720>0000000

,k;kp           -          1/2150400

fPo; Ke;jpup      -           1/102700

fPo;f; fhzp      -           1/25600

fPo; kh           -          1/6400

fPo; tPrk; my;yJ

fPo; khfhzp      -            1/5120

fPo; miuf;fhy;      -          1/2560

fPo;f;fhy;        -           1/1280

fPoiu          -           1/640

Ke;jpup (Ke;jpiu) -           1/320

 

miuf; fhzp     -           1/160

fhzp          -            1/80

fhy; tPrk;       -            1/64

miu kh        -            1/40

miu tPrk;      -            1/32

xU kh         -             1/20

,U kh         -            1/10

ehd; kh         -            1/5

khfhzp> tPrk;    -           1/16

miuf;fhy;      -            1/8

fhy;           -            1/4

miu           -           1/2

Kf;fhy;        -            Ύ

 

Ke;jpup vDk; rpwpa gpd;dj;jpypUe;J NkYk; rpwpa gpd;dg; ngWkhdq;fs; ngwg;gl;ld. .Ke;jpupapd; Vopy; xUgq;F ,k;kp> ,k;kpapy; Vopy; xUgq;F mZ> mZtpy; gjpndhd;wpy; xUgq;F Kk;kp> Kk;kpapd; xd;gjpy; xUgq;F Fdk; vdf; Fwpf;fg;gl;ld. 

 

Ngupyf;fk;

 

xd;W> ,uz;L> %d;W> ehd;F> ma;e;J> MW> VO> vl;L> xd;gJ> gj;J> EhW> Mapuk;>

,yf;fk; (Ehwhapuk;)>  xU Nfhb vd vz;zj; njupe;jpUe;jdH. 

 

Fk;gk;    -  Mapuk; Nfhb

fzpfk;   -   gj;jhapuk; Nfhb

jhkiu   -   Nfhlh Nfhb

thuzk;   -  EhWNfhlh Nfhb

gujk;     -  ,yf;fk; Nfhbf; Nfhlh Nfhb

 

“nea;jYk; FtisAk; Mk;gYk; rq;fKk;

ikapy; fkyKk; nts;sKk; Ejypa

nra; FwpaPl;lk; fopg;gpa topKiw……”  (gupghly; 2)

 

nea;jy;> Ftis> Mk;gy;> rq;fk;> fkyk; (jhkiu) nts;sk; Nghd;w vz;Zg; ngaHfs; Ngupyq;fq;fis Fwpj;jdthFk;.

 

fpNuf;fHfNshL xg;gpLk; nghOJ jkpoHfsJ thdpay; mwpTk; fzpj mwpTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fthW ,y;iy vd;gJ frg;ghd cz;ik MFk;. mjid xg;Gf; nfhz;Nl Mf Ntz;Lk;. Nfhs;fs;> Nfhs;fspd; njhiyT> Nfhs;fspd; mirT> Nfhs;fspd; Xl;lk;> Gtpapd; tpl;lk;> fpufzq;fs; Mfpaitgw;wpj; jkpoHfs; tpupthfTk; jpUj;jkhfTk; Ma;T nra;jjhfj; njupatpy;iy. nra;jpUe;jhYk; mit ,d;W fpilj;jpyJ.                                                    epyhkiwg;G      

  

GwehDhw;Wg; ghly; (260) ,y; “itafk; Gyk;g tis,a ghk;gpd; itNaapw; Wa;e;j ……”  vd tUk; mbfspy; ghk;gpdJ $upa gw;fspd;Wk;  gpioj;Jg; Nghd jpq;fisg; (re;jpud;) gw;wpa Fwpg;G tUfpwJ. ,J gz;ila jkpoHfsplj;Jk; epyh kiwg;Gf; fhyj;jpy; (fpufzk;) ghk;G mjidf; ft;TfpwJ vd;w %lek;gpf;if Fbnfhz;Ue;jijf; fhl;LfpwJ.   

 

rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfSf;F ,Ue;j thdpay; gw;wpa mwpT mjd; gpd;dH  te;j jiyKiwapduhy; Nkk;gLj;jg; gltpy;iy. gpw; fhyj;jpy; Nfhs;fisg; gw;wp Muha;tjw;Fg; gjpy; mtw;Wf;Fj; nja;tPfk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;L Nfhapy;fspy; topghL nra;ag;gl;ld.  

 

#upad;> re;jpud;> rdp> ,uhF> NfJ Mfpa Nfhs;fSf;Fj; jdpf; Nfhapy;fs; fl;lg;gl;ld. “vy;yhk; tpjp” “flTs; tpl;l top” vd;w  MupaHfspd; ntl;b Ntjhe;jj;jpy; jkpoH kjpapoe;J  Fl;br;RtuhapdH. ,e;j mty epiy ,d;Wk; njhlHfpwJ.

 

 

 


Nrhjplg; Gul;L (48)
 
Nfhs;fSf;Fk; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijf;Fk; cs;s Kbr;R vJ?

 

NkNy gz;ila fpNuf;fk;> ,e;jpah> jkpofk; Nghd;w ehLfspd; thdpay; Njhw;wk; tsHr;rp gw;wpg; ghHj;Njhk;.

 

gjpdhW my;yJ gjpNdohk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu> mjhtJ NfhngHdpf;f]; kw;Wk; fypypNah Nghd;w mwptpayhsHfsJ fhyj;Jf;F Kd;dH> thdpay; jdpj;j xU ,ayhfj;  Njhw;wk; ngwtpy;iy. thdpaYk; NrhjplKk; xd;whfNt ghHf;fg;gl;ld. njhykp thdpay; gw;wpAk; Nrhjplk; gw;wpAk; jdpj; jdp Ehy;fs; vOjpdhH.

 

thdpaYf;Fk; Nrhjplj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s xw;Wik Ntw;Wik gw;wp Kd;dH tpupthf vOjpAs;Nsd;. thdpay; mz;lj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; vz;zpwe;j tpz;kPd;fs;> thy; kPd;fs;> Nfhs;fs;> Jizf;Nfhs;fs;> ghy;kz;lyq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpd; jd;ik> mikg;G> ,Uf;if> mirT gw;wpf; fzf;fpay; kw;Wk; ,aw;gpay; mbg;gilapy; ,iltplhJ Ma;T nra;J mjd; ngWNgWfis tpjpfshf tFj;Js;sJ.

 

,jw;F khwhfr; Nrhjplk; Gtpapy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; gpwf;Fk; xU Foe;ijapd; jiytpjpia me;j Neuj;jpy; tpz;zpy; fhzg;gLk; rpy Fwpg;gpl;l Nfhs;fs;> ,uhrpfs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs; Mfpad jPHkhdk; nra;fpwd vd;W nrhy;YfpwJ. ,jid mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; vz;gpf;f KbahJ. Nrhjplj;jpd; mbg;gil kj ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; flTs; ek;gpf;if Nghy; ntWk; kdj;jstpyhd ek;gpf;if kl;LNk.

 

Nrhjplk; xU Nghyp mwptpay; vd;gij mt;tg;nghOJ jf;f rhd;WfNshL vz;gpj;J te;jpUf;fpNwd;. mtw;iwr; RUf;fkhf kPz;Lk; epidT gLj;j tpUk;GfpNwd;.

 

    1) Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; ehl;Lf;F ehL ,dj;Jf;F ,dk; cUtj;jpYk; cs;slf;fj;jpYk; NtWgLfpd;wd.

 

    2) ntg;g kz;ly Nrhjplk; neg;jpA+d;> A+Nud]; kw;Wk;  GSl;Nlh  Nfhs;fis fzf;fpy; vLf;fpwJ. Mdhy;  NfJ Nfhs;fisAk; 27 el;rj;jpuq;fisAk; fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy.  

 

    3) ,e;jpa Nrhjplk; neg;jpA+d;> ANwd];> GSl;Nlh Nfhs;fisf; fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy. Mdhy; ,uhF NfJ vd;w fw;gidf; Nfhs;fisf; fzf;fpy; vLf;fpwJ.

 

    4) Nrhjplk; QhapW FLk;gj;jpd; ikak; Gtp vd;W nrhy;tJ ngupa klik. mjd;  ikak; QhapW vd;gJ ,d;W mwptpay; ghy ghlk;.   

 

    5) Nrhjplk; QhapW Nghd;w tpz;kPidAk; epyh Nghd;w Jizf; NfhisAk; Nfhs;fshfNt nfhs;fpwJ.

 

    6) ,uhrp kz;lyj;ij 12 Mfg; gpupj;J mit xt;nthd;iwAk; 30 ghif nfhz;l tPl;Lf;Fs; milg;gJ nraw;if MdJ. mg;gbg; gpupf;fg;gLtjw;F ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; fpilahJ. mJ Kw;wpYk; tpjpf; fl;Lg;ghbd;wp kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; tFf;fg; gl;ljhFk;.

 

    7) ,uhrp cUtq;fs; (Nklk;> ,lgk;...) ntWk; fz;fhl;rpia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. ntt;NtW njhiytpy; $l;lkhf ,Uf;Fk; el;rj;jpuq;fs; gz;ila kdpjDf;F ML> khL> rpq;fk;> el;Ltf;fhyp Nghd;w Njhw;w kaf;fj;ijf; nfhLj;jd. me;jj; Njhw;wj;ij itj;J me;j ,uhrpfSf;F cz;ikahd ML> khL> rpq;fk;> el;Ltf;fhyp Nghd;wtw;wpd; Fzhk;rq;fis khl;Nlw;wpdH! mwptpay; tsHe;J  tpl;l ,e;jf; fhyj;jpYk; mwptpypfshd NrhjplHfs; jq;fs; %lj;jdj;ijf; iftplhJ njhlHe;J Nrhjplj;ijf; Fuq;Fg; gpbahfg; gpbj;J

tUfpd;wdH.

 

 

fub tpz;kPd;FO 

 

8) Nrhjplj;jpy; xU Foe;ij gpwe;j Neuk; kw;Wk; ,lk; Kf;fpakhdJ. Mdhy;  Foe;ijapd; gpwg;G vd;Dk; nghOJ mJ Foe;ij fUtiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ capH Vw;gl;l Neukh?  gpwf;Fk; nghOJ jiy ntspapy; njupe;j Neukh? fhy; jiuapy; gLk; Neukh? kUj;Jtpr;rp ifapy; vLj;j Neukh? njhg;Gs;nfhb mWf;fg;gl;l Neukh? kUj;JtH tapw;iw mWj;J vLj;j Neukh? Foe;ijapd; Kjy; %r;rh? my;yJ mOifah? ,jpy; vJ vd;gjpy; NrhjplHfspilNa fUj;J xw;Wik ,y;iy. ,uz;nlhU kzpj;Jsp Neu tpj;jpahrk; xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; rkaj;jpy; mbthdj;jpy; vOfpd;w ,uhrp tPlhd gpwg;G (n[d;k) ,yf;fpdk;> re;jpud; epd;w ,uhrp tPlhd gpwg;G (n[d;k) ,uhrp> gpwg;Gf; fhyj;jpy; re;jpud; ve;j el;rj;jpuj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;W ,Ue;jNjh me;jg; gpwg;G (n[d;k) el;rj;jpuk; Mfpait  NtW Ntwhf khw;wp tpl tha;g;G ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

                 tlkPd;FO

 

    9) Gtp jd;idj;jhNd jdJ mr;rpy; Rw;Wk;nghOJ jsk;gy; (wobble) Vw;gLfpwJ. mjdhy; QhapW jdJ gazj;jpy; Gtpapd; eLf;Nfhl;il flf;Fk; nghOJ Ke;jpa Mz;iltpl kW Mz;L rw;W Nkw;F Nehf;fpf; flf;fpwJ. ,e;j NtWghl;il ntg;g kz;ly Nrhjplk; fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy. ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapyhd ,e;j NtWghL ,d;W 24 ghifia (24 ehs;fis)  vl;b ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

    (10) xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; Neuj;jpy; tpz;zpy; tyk; tUk; Nfhs;fs;> ,uhrpfs; kw;Wk; tpz;kPd;fspd; ,Uf;iffs; me;jf; Foe;ijapd; jiytpjpia epHzapf;fpwJ vd;why; me;j ,uz;Lf;Fk; cs;s njhlHG vd;d? gy Nfhb fy; mg;ghy; ,Uf;Fk; Nfhs;fspd; <Hg;G my;yJ fhe;j tpirah? gy EhW xspahz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; cs;s el;rj;jpuq;fspd; <Hg;G my;yJ fhe;j tpirah? Mk; vd;why; me;jf; Foe;ijf;F mz;ikapy; cs;s gUg;nghUl;fspd; <Hg;G my;yJ fhe;j tpir Vd; fzf;fpy; vLf;fg;gLtjpy;iy?

                                                                       (rpk;k ,uhrp)

 

    (11) Gtpapd; eLf;Nfhl;Lf;F mzpkpj;j epyg; gFjpfspNyNa Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ. ,jd; jhHg;gupak; vd;dntd;why; eLf;Nfhl;Lf;F tlf;Nf my];f;fh> NehHNt> gpd;yhe;J> fpwPd;yhe;J Nghd;w ehLfspy; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfSf;Fr; rhjfk; fzpg;gJ Kbahj nrayhFk;. fhuzk; ,e;j ehLfspy; gfy; ,uTfs; gy fpoikfs; gy khjq;fs; njhlHr;rpahf ePbf;fpwJ. ,jdhy; xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; nghOJ mbthdj;jpy; vOk; ,uhrp kz;lyq;fisAk; Nfhs;fisAk; ghHf;f KbahJ. Nrhjplj;jpd; mbj;jsNk ,jdhy; Ml;lq;fz;L tpLfpwJ.

 

    (12) kdpjd; gpwe;j Gtp;f; NfhisAk; mjd; jhf;fj;ijAk; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; mwNt fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy. GtpAk; xU Nfhs; vd;gJ Nrhjpl rhj;jpupfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy vd;gNj mjw;fhd VJ MFk;.  

 

fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;l ml;ltiz  <Hg;G tpirapd; ngWkjpia (nrt;tha;f; NfhNshL xg;gpLk; nghOJ) fhl;LfpwJ. nrt;tha;f; Nfhs; tpjpf; fl;Lg;ghbd;wpj; njupT nra;ag;gl;lJ. nrt;thNahL xg;gpLtJ Nrhjplk;; me;jf; NfhSf;Ff; nfhLf;Fk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; fhuzkhfNt! .   

 

<Hg;G tpir          <Hg;G tpirapd; ngWkjp

 

jha;                      20

 

kUj;JtH                  06

 

kUj;Jtkid              500

 

QhapW                 854>000

 

epyh                    4>600

 

Gjd;                     .38

 

nts;sp                   27

 

nrt;tha;                   1

 

tpahod;                   46

 

ANwd];                    0.1

 

neg;jpA+d;                   0.03

 

GSl;Nlh                    0.059

 

thy; tpz;kPd;                0.00001

 

<Hg;G tpir Nfhs;fs; Gtpf;F mUfpy; tUk;nghOJ fzpf;fg;gl;ljhf nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Nkyjpfkhf nfhs;sg;gl;l mDkhdq;fs; (Assumptions).

 

Foe;ijapd; vil                                          -  3 fpNyh

 

jhapd; vil                                              -  50 fpNyh

 

kUj;JtH vil                                            -  75 fpNyh

 

kUj;Jtkidf; fl;llj;jpd; vil                          - 2.1 ju 1012

 

jha;f;Fk; Foe;ijf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s njhiy              - 0.1 kP

 

kUj;JtUf;Fk; Foe;ijf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s njhiy           0.3 kP

 

kUj;Jtkidapd; ika vilFk; Foe;ijf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s Jhuk; - 6.1 kP

 

NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;l juTfs; mbg;gilapy; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; nghOJ  jha;> kUj;JtH kw;Wk; kUj;Jtkidf; fl;llk; %ykhf ,lk; ngWk; <Hg;G tpirapd; jhf;fk; (force of gravity) Nrhjplk; mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;Fk; nrt;tha;f; Nfhis tpl KiwNa 20> 6 kw;Wk; 500 klq;F $Ljyhf ,Ug;gij ePq;fs; fhzyhk;. vdNt xU NrhjplH xU Foe;ijapd; rhjfj;ij <Hg;G tpir mbg;gilapy; jahupj;jhy; Nfhs;fis kl;Lky;y tpz;ntspapYk; kz;zpYk; fhzg;gLk; Vida gUg;nghUs;fisAk; fzf;fpy; vLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

<Hg;G tpir my;y me;j Mw;wy; kpd;fhe;j Mw;wy; (electro-magnetic energy)  vd;W Nrhjplk; nrhy;Ykhdhy; xU Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; nghOJ mjd; kPJ gUg;nghUl;fs; nrYj;Jk; kpd;fhe;j Mw;wy; nrt;tha;f; Nfhspy; ,Ue;J ntspg;gLk; kpd;fhe;j Mw;wNyhL xg;gpLk;nghOJ gpd;tUkhW fhzg;gLk;.

 

        gUg;nghUs;                        kpd;fhe;j Mw;wy;

 

        QhapW                                  3 ju 109

 

        200 tl;]; kpd;Fkpo; (2 kP njhiytpy;)        9 ju 106

 

        KO epyh                             7>600

 

        Gjd;                                    0.4

 

        nts;sp                                  4.4

 

        nrt;tha;                                 1

 

        tpahod;                                 0.8

 

        rdp                                     0.1

 

        ANwd];                                 .0004

 

        neg;jpA+d;                                .00005

 

        GSl;Nlh                                8 ju 10-8

 

NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;l juTfspd; mbg;gilapy;  200 tl;]; Mw;wy; cila xU kpd;Fkpopapy; ,Ue;J ntspg;gLk; kpd;fhe;j Mw;wy; nrt;tha;> Gjd;> nts;sp Nghd;w Nfhs;fistpl gy Mapuk; klq;F tYthdJ.

 

Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; nghOJ mjidg; ghjpg;gJ Nfhs;fspd; <Hg;G tpirAk; my;y kpd;fhe;j tpirAk; my;y vd;why; gpd; vJjhd; me;jf; Foe;ijapd; jiytpjpia epHzapf;fpwJ vd;gijr; NrhjplHfs; njspthf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpwg;gjw;F Kd;dNu Kw;gpwg;gpy; nra;j ey;tpid jPtpid  fhuzkhf xt;nthU capupd; jiytpjp jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpwJ vd;W ,e;J kjk; nrhy;fpwJ!

mJ cz;iknad;why; xU Foe;ijapd; gpwg;gpd; nghOJ Nfhs;fs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs;> ,uhrpfs; Mfpatw;wpd; ,Uf;if Kf;fpakw;Wg; Ngha;tpLfpwJ.

 

Nrhjplk; Kw;wpYk; gpioahd mbj;jsj;jpy; vOg;gg;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;gjw;F NkNy vLj;Jf; fhl;bait Nkyjpf rhd;WfshFk;.

 

thdpay; gw;wpa mwpT ,d;wpUg;gJ Nghy; gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; ,y;yhjjhy; NrhjplHfs; kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; Nfhs;fs; gw;wpAk; ,uhrpfs; gw;wpAk; ,uhrp  tPLfs; gw;wpAk; vOjp itj;jhHfs;. mg;gb vOj itj;jijg;  ngupa Fw;wk; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ.  md;iwa mwpT mtHfSf;F me;j kl;lj;jpy; kl;LNk ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; ,d;iwa NrhjplHfs; njhykp> tuhfkpuH Nghd;NwhH jq;fs; fhyj;jpy; vOjp itj;jijNa fpspg;gps;is Nghy; kdg;ghlk; nra;J mjd; mbg;gilapy; rhjfk; fzpj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,J NrhjplHfspd; cr;rfl;lg; Gul;L MFk;. 

 

xU Foe;ijapd; epwk; Fzk; cly; eyk; Gj;jpf; $Hik MAs; gyk; Nghd;w Fzhk;rk;fs; me;jf; Foe;ijapd; jha; je;ij ,UtuJ kuGf; FwpNa (genetic code) jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd. ,JNt ,d;iwa mwptpaypd; Kbe;j KbghFk;. mLj;j fpoik gpugy NrhjplHfs; nrhd;d vjpH$wy;fs; vg;gbg; gpioj;Jg; NghdJ vd;gJ gw;wpg; ghHg;Nghk;.   

  

 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (49)

 

,e;jpahtpd; fpsp NrhjplHfs;!  

 

vjpHtUk; a+d; 8 Mk; ehs; (2004) thd; ntspapy;  xU tpaj;jF fhl;rp ,lk;ngw  cs;sJ. Ehw;wp ,Ug;gj;njhU Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpwF QhapWf;Fk; Gtpf;Fk;  ,ilNa nts;spf; Nfhs; GFe;J xU FWfpa fhy QhapW fpufzj;ij Vw;gLj;j ,Uf;fpwJ. mjhtJ nts;spf; Nfhs; Gtpf;Fk; Qhapw;Wf;Fk; ,ilNa Njhd;wp #upaid kiwj;Jr; nry;Yk;.

 

nghJthfg; Gtpapd; Jizf; Nfhshd epyhjhd; Gtpf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilNa te;J Mz;by; ,uz;L my;yJ %d;W QhapW fpufzj;ij Vw;gLj;JtJ tof;fkhFk;.

 

Mdhy;> tUfpw A+d; 8 Mk; ehs; epyhTf;Fg; gjpyhf nts;sp ,ilapy; K.g. 5.13 kzpf;Fg; GFe;J Kg 11.26 f;F tpyfpr; nrd;WtpLk;. Gtpapy; ,Ue;J epyhitg; ghHj;jhy; mJ mstpy; Vwf;Fiwa QhapW Nghy; ,Uf;Fk;. mjdhy; fpufzj;jpd; nghOJ epyh Qhapiw KOjhf kiwj;J tpLfpwJ. Mdhy; nts;sp Qhapiw Kd;dhy; fle;J nry;Yk; nghOJ Qhapiw KOikahf kiwf;f ,ayhJ.

 

,jw;F Kd;G ,e;j mupa epfo;r;rp 1882 Mk; Mz;L ,lk; ngw;wJ. rpwg;Gf; fz;zhbfis mzpe;J nfhz;L me;j ehspy; Qhapiw Nehf;fpdhy; mjd; kPJ fUg;G tl;lk; xd;W gbe;J nkJthf CHe;J nry;tijf; fhz KbAk;. mg;nghOJ #upa tl;bypd;  1000 ,y; xU gFjpia kl;LNk nts;spapd; epoy; kiwf;Fk;. gpd;dH nts;sp gbg;gbahf ntspNaWk; fhl;rpiag; ghHf;fyhk;.  

 

Nfhs;fspy; nts;sp kl;LNk ,lk; tykhf (clock-wise) jd;idj;jhNd Rw;WfpwJ. vdNt nts;spf; Nfhspy; ,Ue;J ghHj;jhy; QhapW Nkw;fpy; cjpj;J fpof;fpy; gLtijg; ghHf;fyhk;.

 

nts;sp Vd; Qhapiw KOjhf kiwg;gjpy;iy vd;gjw;Fupa fhuzk; cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk;. nts;sp Gtpf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;sJ.  mstpy; nts;sp  Gtpia tpl rw;Nw rpwpaJ. nts;spapd; tpl;lk; 12>103.6 fpkP Gtpapd; tpl;lk; 12>742  fpkP.  epyhtpd; tpl;lk; 3>476 fpkP.  epyhit tpl gug;gstpy; ehd;F klq;F ngupa nts;sp Qhapiw Kw;whf kiwf;f Kbahky; ,Ug;gjw;Fg; Gtpf;Fk; nts;spf;Fk; (40.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP my;yJ 25.00 kpy;ypad; fy;) Gtpf;Fk; epyhTf;Fk; (384>467fpkP) ,ilapy; cs;s njhiy NtWghNl fhuzkhFk;. nts;sp re;jpuid tpl 104 klq;F njhiytpy; cs;sJ.

 

nts;sp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhyk; 243 Gtp  ehs;fshFk;.  Qhapiw xUKiw Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyk; 225 Gtp  ehs;fshFk;. ntl;gk; 13-202 ghif nry;rpa]; MFk;. (mjpfhuk; 7)

 

jkpo;ehs;by; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; jpdfud; vd;w ehNsL 2002 Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpugy ,e;jpa NrhjplHfs; nrhy;ypa M&lj;ij ntspapl;bUe;jJ. me;jr; nra;jpf;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l jiyg;G Gj;jhz;L vg;gb ,Uf;Fk;? Jizj; jiyg;G ",e;jpah-ghfp];jhd; Nghhpy; ehL ,uj;jf; fhlhFk;> gpugy N[hjplHfs; fzpg;G' vd;gjhFk;!

 

nrd;id> rdtup 2- ,e;jpah-ghfp];jhd; ,ilNa ngUk; NghH %Sk;. ehL ,uj;jf;fhlhFk; vd;W N[hjplHfs; Gj;jhz;L gyidf; fzpj;Jf; $wp cs;sdH.

2002 Mk; Mz;L ,d;W gpwe;jJ. ,e;jg; GJ tUlj;jpy; ehs;by; vd;ndd;d elf;Fk;? vd;gJ gw;wp gpugy N[hjplHfspd; fzpg;G ntspahfp cs;sJ. N[hjplHfspd; fzpg;G tUkhW:   

 

GtNdRtuk; N[hjpl NguhrphpaH epka ghdH[p

 

Gj;jhz;bd; Kjy; ghjp ekJ ehs;Lf;F vy;yh tifapYk; f\;lfhyk;. ,e;jpa - ghfp];jhd; cwtpy; fLk; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;L 2002 Mk; Mz;L kj;jpapy; KOikahd NghH ntbf;Fk;.  Nk> A+d; khjj;jpy; rdp-uhF xNu tPl;Lf;F tUtJk;> 5 fpufq;fspd; Nfhl;rhuKk; ed;whf ,y;iy. ,jdhy; ,e;jpah- ghfp];jhd; ,U ehs;Lf;Fk; ghjfk; Vw;gLk;. ,J Nghd;w fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; nghpa ehrKk;> ,uj;jf;fhlhFk; epiyAk; fle;j fhyq;fspy; Vw;gl;L cs;sd. vdNt NghH te;jhy; mJ ,e;jf; fl;lj;jpy; Vw;gLk;. 

 

,e;jpa- ghfp];jhd; cwT cr;rf; fl;lj;ij vl;b> rupahFk;. my;yJ 2005 Fs; epiyik rPuilAk;. ,Nj fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,e;jpa epyg; gFjpapy; ey;y tsHr;rp Vw;gLk;. rHtNjr mstpYk; ,e;jpahtpd; nry;thf;F caUk;.

 

Vg;upy;> Nk khjj;jpy; gpujkUf;F vjpHf;fl;rpahYk;> $l;lzpf; fl;rpfshYk; fLk; Nrhjid Vw;gLk.; rHtNjr gjl;lKk;> tFg;G Nkhjy;fSk;> ,aw;ifg; NguopTk; ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gLk;. nrg;njk;gH kj;jpapy; ,Ue;J xf;NjhgH kj;jpf;Fs; ,aw;if rPuopT Vw;gl mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;sJ. Mz;bd; kj;jpapy; gpujkH th[;ghapd; cly; epiy muRf;F rpukj;ij jUk;. gUtk; jtwpa kio> fLk; twl;rp ,uz;LNk ,e;j Mz;by; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

ngq;fH Nf.vd; ijte;j Nrhkah[{  

 

ghujpa [djh fl;rp jdJ murpay; Mjpf;fj;ij cj;jpu gpuNjrj;jpYk;  ehs;bYk; ,of;Fk;. fhq;fpu]; gyk; caUk;. Mdhy; mJ NrhdpahTf;F murpay; nry;thf;if caHj;jhJ. c.gp NjHjypy; nghpa mstpy; td;Kiw elf;Fk;. ,e;jpah jdJ vy;yh vy;iyapYk; Nrhjidia re;jpf;Fk;. ,e;jpahTk;> ghfp];jhDk; Nghhpy; <LgLtJ Nghd;w epiy tUl Muk;gj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;> Mdhy; KOg; NghH tuhJ. ,uhZt nryT $Lk;.

 

ehL ey;y kioiag; ngWk;. tptrha cw;gj;jp ed;whf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy; tptrhapf;F ,yhgk; tuhJ. fzpdpj; njhopypy; ];jpuj; jd;ik Vw;gLk;.

 

Me;jpu NrhjplH njhal;b ghD%Hj;jp

 

nghpa tpgj;Jfs;> jPtputhjk;> NghH gjl;lk; ,e;jpahitg; ghjpf;Fk;. Mdhy; 3 MtJ cyfg; NghH tuhJ. ngg;utup 1 Kjy; 2003 Mk; Mz;L Nk tiu ,e;jpahTf;F fLikahd Nrhjid fhyk;. Foe;ijfis Neha; jhf;Fk;. cztpy; tp\k; fyg;gjhy; Nguhgj;J tUk;. ehL KOtJk; kf;fs; njhif ngUkstpy; FiwAk;. murpd; nfhs;ifia vjpHj;J khztHfs; Nghuhl;lk; ntbf;Fk;. MrphpaHfSk; NtiyepWj;jk; nra;thHfs;. ehs;by; neUf;fb epiy gpufldk; nra;ag;gLk;.

 

nfhr;rp kfhNjt ma;aH

 

,e;j Mz;L njhopy; Jiwf;F ey;y Mz;L. kj;jpa Ml;rp jiyikapy; khw;wk; tuyhk;. Nk> A+dpy; ,aw;ifg; NguopT Vw;gLk;. A+Df;Fg; gpwF epiyik rPuhFk;.

 

xd;gJ Nfhs;fs;> 12 ,uhrpfs;> 12 ,uhrp tPLfs;> 27 el;rj;jpuq;fs;> Nfhs;fspd; ngaHr;rp Nghd;wtw;iwf; fzpj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;tjhfr; NrhjplHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; me;jg; gyd;fs; xNu khjpupahf ,Ug;gjpy;iy. mJ kl;Lky;y xd;Wf;F xd;W NeH vjpHkhwhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

'NghH gjl;lk; ,e;jpahitg; ghjpf;Fk; Mdhy; 3 MtJ cyfg; NghH tuhJ” vd;W Me;jpu NrhjplH njhal;b ghD%Hj;jp nrhy;y mjw;F NeH vjpHkhwhfg; GtNdRtuk; N[hjpl NguhrphpaH epka ghdH[p 'Gj;jhz;bd; Kjy; ghjp ekJ ehs;Lf;F vy;yh tifapYk; f\:;lfhyk;. ,e;jpa- ghfp];jhd; cwtpy; fLk; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;L 2002 Mk; Mz;L kj;jpapy; KOikahd NghH ntbf;Fk;' vd;fpwhH.

 

,e;jr; NrhjplHfs; nrhy;ypa gyd;fisf; fPo;f; fz;lthW tupirg; gLj;jyhk;.

 

1) nghJ mwptpd; my;yJ gl;lwptpd; my;yJ Gj;jprhypj;jdkhd mDkhdj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; nrhy;yg;gl;lit.

 

2) ,g;gbAk; elf;fyhk; elf;fhkYk; Nghfyhk; vd;w ,uz;Lk; nfl;lhd;  khjpupr; nrhy;yg;gl;lit.

 

3) xw;iw ,ul;il ghHj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;lit.

 

4) Kw;whfg; gpioj;Jg; Nghd gyd;fs;.

 

'A+d; khjj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,aw;if NguopT Vw;gLk;. gUtk; jtwpa kio> fLk; twl;rp ,uz;LNk ,e;j Mz;by; ,Uf;Fk;. 

 

Vg;upy;> Nk khjj;jpy; gpujkUf;F vjpHf;fl;rpahYk;> $l;lzpf; fl;rpfshYk; fLk; Nrhjid Vw;gLk.;  nrg;njk;gH kj;jpapy; ,Ue;J xf;NjhgH kj;jpf;Fs; ,aw;ifr; rPuopT Vw;gl mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;sJ.

 

Gj;jhz;bd; Kjy; ghjp ekJ ehs;Lf;F vy;yh tifapYk; f\;lfhyk;. fzpdpj; njhopypy; ];jpuj; jd;ik Vw;gLk;.

 

rHtNjr gjl;lKk;> tFg;G Nkhjy;fSk;> ,aw;ifg; NguopTk; ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gLk;. ,Nj fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; ,e;jpa epyg; gFjpapy; ey;y tsHr;rp Vw;gLk;. rHtNjr mstpYk; ,e;jpahtpd; nry;thf;F caUk;.

 

c.gp NjHjypy; nghpa mstpy; td;Kiw elf;Fk;. ,e;jpah jdJ vy;yh vy;iyapYk; Nrhjidiar; re;jpf;Fk;. Foe;ijfSf;F Neha; jhf;Fk;. nghpa tpgj;Jfs;> jPtputhjk; jiy Jhf;Fk;> NghHg; gjl;lk; ,Uf;Fk;.'

 

,e;jpa murpay;> r%f> gil epytuq;fs; gw;wpr; ruhrup mwpTs;s vtUk; Nkw;fz;l 'gyd;”fis kpf vspjhfr; nrhy;yptpl KbAk;. mjw;Fr; Nrhjpl mwpT Njitapy;iy. nghJ mwptpd; mbg;gilapy; nrhy;yptplyhk;!

 

,e;jpahtpy; nts;sk;> tul;rp Nghd;w ,aw;if mopTfs;> Ntiy epWj;jk;> tFg;G  Nkhjy;fs;> NghHg; gjl;lk; Nghd;w kdpj nray;ghLfs; ,ay;ghd epfo;Tfs;. ahiuf; Nfl;lhYk; nrhy;thHfs;.

 

',e;jpahTk;> ghfp];jhDk; Nghhpy; <LgLtJ Nghd;w epiy tUl Muk;gj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; Mdhy; KOg; NghH tuhJ. uhZt nryT $Lk;. NghH %StJ Nghd;w gjl;lk; epyTNk jtpu> nghpa mstpy; NghH tuhJ.  kj;jpa Ml;rp jiyikapy; khw;wk;tuyhk;.  ehL ey;y kioia ngWk;. tptrha cw;gj;jp ed;whf ,Uf;Fk;. Mdhy; tptrhapf;F ,yhgk; tuhJ. kj;jpa Ml;rp jiyikapy; khw;wk; tuyhk;. gpujkH th[;gha; mtuJ cly; MNuhf;fpak; gw;wp nuhk;g mf;fiw vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.'

 

,g;gbg; gyd; nrhy;tJ elf;Fk; elf;fhkYk; Nghfyhk; vd;w ,uz;Lk; nfl;lhd; tifiar; rhHe;jit.

 

',e;jpa- ghfp];jhd; cwtpy; fLk; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;L 2002 Mk; Mz;L kj;jpapy; KOikahd NghH ntbf;Fk;> ehL KOtJk; kf;fs;njhifg; ngUkstpy; FiwAk;.'  ,it Kw;whfg; gpioj;Jg; Nghd vjpH$wy;.      

 

'n[ayypjhtpd; flTs; gf;jpahy; mtH kPz;Lk; Kjyikr;rH gjtpapy; mkUthH. mtUf;Ff; FUtpd; mDf;fpufk; ntF rpwg;ghf cs;sJ' vd;gJ xw;iw ,ul;il ghHj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;l gyd;.  NjHjypy; epw;Fk; xUtH xd;wpy; nty;y Ntz;Lk; my;yJ Njhw;f Ntz;Lk;. nfhQ;rk; ntw;wp nfhQ;rk; Njhy;tp vd;Nwh xU ngz; miuf;fw;gkhf ,Uf;fpwhs; (half- pregnant) vd;w ghzpapy;  nrhy;y KbahJ.

 

mJ rup. ,e;jpa ehl;Lf;F vg;gbr; NrhjplHfs; rhjfk; fzpf;fpwhHfs;? ,e;jpah vg;nghOJ vd;d ,yf;fpdj;jpy; vd;d ,uhrpapy; gpwe;jJ? NrhjplHfs; ,e;jpah Rje;jpuk; mile;j ehis itj;J (Mf];l; 15> es;spuT 1947) rhjfk; fzpg;gJ mwptpaYf;F xj;JtUkh? ,e;jpah Fbaurhfg; gpwe;j ehis Vd; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ? cz;ikapy; ,e;jr; NrhjplHfSf;Fk; njUtpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L fpsp Nrhjplk; nrhy;fpwtHfSf;Fk; NtWghby;iy.    

  

 
 

 
 
 
 
Nrhjplg; Gul;L (50)
 
NrhjplHfis Vkhw;Wk; fpufq;fs;!  

 

cyf cj;jkH fhe;jpahupd; MAs; gyk; gw;wp jpUj;jzp NrhjplH tp.Nf. fpU\;zkhr;rhupahH vd;gtH 15-8-1947 md;W ntspte;j ghuj Njtp ,jopy; vOjpapUe;jhH. mtH nrhd;d vjpH$wy; vd;d njupAkh? mtuJ tlnkhopf; fyg;G eilapNyNa mjidj; jUfpNwd;.

 

"fhe;jpabfs; gpwe;jJ rpk;f yf;fpdk; kf el;rj;jpuk; tpbaw; fhyk;. kf el;rj;jpuj;jpy; [dpj;jtHfSf;F jPHf;fhAs; Nahfk; cz;L. ,Nj Nghy; rpk;f yf;dKk; ePz;l MAs; juf;$baJ.

 

"NkYk; [d;k yf;fpdk; rpk;fkhfTk; mjpy; re;jpud; jdpj;J ,Ug;gjhYk; MAs; ];jhdhjpgjpahd FU jrk Nfe;jpuj;jpy; epd;W yf;dhjp gjpahd #upaidAk; MAl;fhufdhjpa rdpiaAk; ghHg;gjdhYk; gukhAs; vd;w fzf;fhd 120 tU\q;fs; kfhj;khTf;F MAs; cz;L.

 

jtpu> Kd; fhyj;jpy; jg];Nu\;lHfshd up\P];tuHfs; jkJ jNgh kfpikahYk;> Nahfhrd mD\;lhd Mfhu epakq;fspdhYk; jkJ MAisg; ngUf;fpf; nfhz;L Mapuf;fzf;fhd tU\q;fs; [Ptpj;jpUe;jjhf ekJ Guhzq;fspd; thapyhf mwpfpNwhk;.

 

",NjNghy fhe;jpabfSk; jkJ Mfhu> mD\;lhd epHzaq;fshYk; nja;t gpuhHj;jidahYk; jkJ MAis tpUj;jp nra;J nfhz;L> [hjf uPjpahf Vw;gLk; gukhAs; 120 tU\q;fSf;F mjpfkhfNt [Ptpj;jpUg;ghnud;gJ vdJ jplkhd mgpg;gpuhak;.'

 

fhe;jpahH gpwe;j ehs; 2-10-1869. Nfhl;Nr vd;w kuhj;jpg; ghHg;gddhy; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg; gl;l ehs; 30-1-1948.  Mf nkhj;jk; 78 Mz;Lfs;  capUld; ,Ue;jhH.

 

jpUj;jzp Nrhjplupd; mirf;f Kbahj rhjff; fzpg;Gg;gb NkYk; 40 Mz;Lfs; fhe;jpahH capUld; tho;e;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; Nrhjplupd; nghy;yhj fhyk; fpufq;fs; mtiu Vkhw;wptpl;ld. mtuJ vjpH$wy; Kw;whfg; gpioj;J tpl;lJ. mtH gyd; nrhy;ypr; rupahf 5 1/2  khjq;fspy; fhe;jpahH ,we;J  NghdhH!  

 

jpUj;jzp NrhjplH kl;Lky;y NtW ve;jr; NrhjpldhYk; fhe;jpahupd; mfhy rhit Kd;$l;bNa nrhy;y Kbatpy;iy!

 

NrhjplHfisj; Njb XLtjpy; ,e;jpa - =yq;fh murpay;thjpfs; ngaH NghdtHfs;. Ntl;G kD jhf;fy; nra;tJ njhlf;fk; gjtp cWjp nkhop vLg;gJ tiu NrhjplHfs; fzpj;Jf; nfhLj;j fhy Neuj;ij Ntjthf;fhf kjpj;J mjid mr;nrhl;lhfg; gpd;gw;WfpwhHfs;.

 

,uhF fhyk;> vkfz;lk; ,lk;ngWk; Neuq;fspy; ve;jtpjkhd ey;y nray;fisAk; njhlq;fNth nra;aNth $lhJ vd;gJ Nrhjpl tpjp. mg;gb kPwpr; nra;jhy; jPa gyd;fs; Vw;gLk; vLj;j fhupak; Njhy;tpapy; KbAk;.

 

ve;jr; nraiyr; nra;a KbT vLj;jhYk; mJ epiwNtwhJ vdr; NrhjplHfs; ghku kf;fis kl;Lky;y gbj;j murpay;thjpfisAk; gaKWj;jp itj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

 

'Jy;ypakhf' fzpj;j gpugy NrhjplHfspd; gy fzpg;Gf;fs; gpioj;J ,Uf;fpd;wd! gyd;fs; ngha;j;J ,Uf;fpd;wd. FUl;L thf;fpy;jhd; rpy gypj;Js;sd.

 

,e;jpahtpd; Kd;dhs; gpujkH NjtfTlh gw;wpf; Nfs;tpg; gl;bUg;gPHfs;. gpujkH MdTld; ehkf;fy; MQ;rNeaH NrhjplH nry;yg;gh ma;auplk; jdJ rhjfj;ijf; nfhLj;Jg; gyd; Nfl;lhH.

 

'ma;e;J Mz;LfSf;F cq;fis ahUk; mirf;f KbahJ' vd;W NrhjplH mbj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. mjid ek;gpj; jk; ,r;irNghy; rpy KbTfisj; NjtfTlh vLj;jhH. tpisT? gpujkuhf te;J (01-06-1996) vz;zpg; gj;J khjq;fspy; (21-04-1997) gjtp gwp Nghapw;W!  

 

ng[d; jhUthyh cyfpd; Gfo;ngw;w Kjy; EhW NrhjplHfspy; xUtH. mtH 2003 A+d; 24 Fg; gpd;dH f\;kPH rpf;fy; jPHj;J itf;fg;gLk; vd;W 2001 ,y; fzpj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. ghtk; NrhjplH> f\;kPH rpf;fy; ,d;Dk; jPHe;j ghby;iy. mq;Nf Fz;L ntbg;Gf;fSk; Jg;ghf;fpr; #LfSk; rhTfSk; ehshe;jk; eilngw;w tz;zk; cs;sd.

 

Mujp rf;futHj;jp vz;fzpj NrhjplH. mtuJ fzpg;gpd;gb mly; gpfhup th[;ghapd; muR ,U Mz;LfNs ePbf;Fk; vd;Wk; 2001 ,y; mLj;j nghJj; NjHjy; tUnkd;Wk; 1999 ,y; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy; th[;gha; muNrh ve;j tpy;yq;fKk; ,d;wp  fpl;lj;jl;l ma;e;J Mz;L fhyk; gjtpapy; ePbj;jJ. ,g;nghOJ ,d;ndhU nghJj; NjHjYf;F Kfk; nfhLj;Js;sJ.

 

rz;bfhiur; NrHe;j gpugy NrhjplH gp. Fuhdh 'mLj;j gpujkH rpk;kuhrpf;fhuH. mtuJ ngaH b my;yJ vk; ,y; Muk;gkhFk;. th[;ghapf;F ve;j tha;g;Gk; ,y;iy.  fhq;fpu]; $l;lzp  muR xf;NjhgH 27> 2000 tiu ePbf;Fk;' vd;W 1998 ,y; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy; ele;jNjh NeH vjpHkhW. th[;gha; 1999 ,y; gpujkuhdhH. fhq;fpu]; vjpHf;fl;rp MdJ!

 

mk;upj;yhy; ,e;jpuh nfhiyia Kd;dNu fzpj;Jr; nrhy;ypajhfg; ngUik Ngrpf; nfhs;Sk; nfhy;fj;jh NrhjplH. mtuJ fzpg;G th[;ghNah> NrhdpahNth gpujkuhf KbahJ. Gjpa muR fhq;fpu]; jiyikapyhd $l;lzpahf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W 1999 ,y; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy; ele;jNjh NtW> ghujpa [djh fl;rpapd; jiyikapyhd Njrpa rdehaff; $l;lzpapd; MjuTld; th[;gha; gpujkuhdhH. fhq;fpurhy; ve;jf; $l;lzpiaAk; itf;f Kbatpy;iy.    

nrd;idia mLj;j Nfsg;ghf;fj;jpy; =uhk ,uh[;ak; vd;w ngaupy; Mr;rpukKk; fy;tp epiyaq;fSk; elj;jp tUgtH rptrq;fH ghgh. kiwe;j ahfth KdptUld; njhiyf; fhl;rpapy; MSf;F Ms; ehNa NgNa gprhNr vd;W nrd;idj; jkpopy; jpl;bf; nfhz;ltHfs;.  ,e;jr; rptrq;fH ghgh ef;fPud; fpoik ,jOf;F mspj;j NeHfhzypy; $wpajhtJ:

'Nfhit gPsNkl;by; tpRthkpj;jpuH ehb Nrhjpl ikak; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,q;F gy;yhapuf; fzf;fhd Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G tpRthkpj;jpuH> mfj;jpaH> rpj;jHfs; vy;yhk; vOjp itj;Jtpl;Lg; Nghd Rtbfs; (fhz;lq;fs;) ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; kdpjHfsJ vjpHfhyg; gyd;fis vOjpapUf;fhq;f me;j Qhdpfs;. ,e;jr; Rtbfis itj;Jj; jd;id ehb tUgtHfSf;F vjpHfhyg; gyd;fisr; nrhy;yp tUfpwhH. ehb NrhjpluJ ngaH Rg;gpukzpak;.

 

xUKiw NfushTf;Fg; NghapUe;j u[pdpfhe;j; ehb NrhjplH Rg;gpukzpaj;ijg; gw;wpf; Nfs;tpg;gl;L mtiur; re;jpj;jhH. u[pdpf;fhf vLf;fg;gl;l Rtbfspy; Nrhdpah fhe;jp u[pdpia murpaYf;F nfhz;L tUthq;fd;D vOjg;gl;bUf;F. ehb NrhjplH Rg;gpukzpak; Nghd gTHzkp md;W vd;idf; Nfsg;ghf;fj;jpy; re;jpj;jNghJ ,ijg;gw;wp tpupthfNt NgrpdhH.

 

Rtbapy; vd;d vOjpapUf;fpwJ vd;why;....

 

RghD jhz;l eq;if xUj;jp>

ehL tpl;L ehL fle;J>

gjpia ,g; ghUf;fhf ,oe;J>

gps;isAk; jhDk; gupjtpf;f>

,f; fhyk; %tHzf; nfhbjd;id

Ve;jp Kad; wpUg;ghs; Ml;rpiaj;jhd;

ft;Tths;. ft;tpa gpd;Nd ghghtpd;

jpUtb ,Uf;Fk; ,lk;Njb tUths;!"

 

vd;W vOjg;gl;L cs;sJ.

 

mjhtJ ,j;jhyp  Njrj;jpypUe;J ,e;jpahTf;F te;jtH Nrhdpah> ,e;jpahTf;fhf jdJ fztid ,oe;J gupjtpg;gtH> ,g;NghJ %d;W tHz nfhbahd fhq;fpu]; nfhbia Ve;jpg; gpbj;jpUf;fpwhH. mtH ,g;Ngh elf;Fk; RghD tUlk; KbQ;rJk; Ml;rpiag; gpbg;ghH.  ,jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; eq;if Nrhdpah fhe;jp MFk;. 

 

'NkYk;> kuhl;ba kd;ddpd; ehkj;ijj; jhq;Fk; ,tDf;F gthdpNa Fynja;tk;. epHTj;;jhLgtd;. ,j; njd;jkpo; kz;iz MSk; NahfKk; ghf;fpaKk; mtDf;Fr; Nru RghD jPHe;J Mz;L ,uz;L fopaf; fhzPH" vd;W tUfpwJ.

 

mjhtJ u[pdpapd; ,aw;ngaH rpth[puht;> kuhl;ba kd;ddpd; ngaH rpth[p> ,tUf;Ff; Fynja;tk; gthdp> gthdp vd;gJ mk;ghisf; Fwpf;Fk;. u[pdpf;Fk; Fynja;tk; mk;ghs;jhd;. epHTj;jhLgtd;> mjhtJ rpdpkhf;fhud;. mg;gbg;gl;l u[pdp murpaYf;F KOikahf tUtjw;F Nrhdpah fhe;jp tpj;jhf (tpijahf) ,Ug;ghH.

 

,d;Dk; tpsf;fkhfr; nrhd;dhy; u[pdpia murpaYf;F ,Oj;Jf;nfhz;L tUthH vd;fpwJ Rtb. ,e;jr; rk;gtk; vy;yhk; RghD tUlk; fope;J 2 tUlk; fle;j gpwF elf;Fk; vd;gJjhd; ,jd; nghUs;.

 

,e;jr; nra;jpiaf; fle;j xf;NjhgH 16> 2003 ,y; ntspahd jpdfud; (jkpo;ehL) ehNsL ntspapl;lJ. RghD (2003-2004) Mz;L fope;J ,g;NghJ jhuz (2004-2005) Mz;L elf;fpwJ. ,JTk; fope;jhy; mLj;J tUk; ghHj;jpg (2005-2006) Mz;by; ehb NrhjplH nrhd;d fzpg;Gg; gypf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ u[pdpia ,j;jhypapy; gpwe;J jw;NghJ ,e;jpa fhq;fpurpd; jiytpahf ,Uf;Fk; Nrhdpah fhe;jp (fhq;fpu];) murpaYf;F ,Oj;J tuNtz;Lk;. Mdhy; ,g;NghJ (2004) kf;fs; mitf;F elf;Fk; nghJj; NjHjypy; ejp ePH ,izg;ig Kd;ndLf;Fk; ghujpa [djh fl;rpf;Nf jdJ thf;F vd;W u[pdp gfpuq;fkhf mwptpj;Js;shH.

 

,kakiy mbthuj;jpy; ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;Lfshf tho;e;JtUk; ghghtpd; gf;juhd u[pdpf;F rhap ghgh fhypy; tpOe;J vOk; th[;gha; jiyik jhq;Fk; ghujpa [djh fl;rpiaj;jhd; gpbj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,jpy; xd;Wk; tpag;gpy;iy. kjrhHgw;w fhq;fpu]; fl;rpiaNah mjd; jiytp  NrhdpahitNah ,e;J mbg;gilthjpahd u[pdpfhe;Jf;Fg; gpbf;Fk; vd;gJ rhj;jpak; ,y;iy.

 

vJ vg;gbapUe;jhYk; ,d;Dk; xU Mz;L fope;jhy; ehb NrhjplH Rg;gpukzpaj;jpd; Gul;L mk;gykhfp tpLk;. nghWj;jpUe;J ghHg;Nghk;.

 

rpy Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH FKjk; fpoik VL ngaH Fwpg;gplg;glhj xUtupd; gpwe;j jpfjpiaAk; mtuJ ngUtpuy; milahsj;ijAk; jkpo;ehs;by; cs;s ehd;F gpugy ehb NrhjplHfsplk; mDg;gpg; gyd; nrhy;YkhW Nfl;lJ. me;j ehd;F NrhjplHfSk; MSf;F Ms; Kw;wpYk; Kuzhd gyd; nrhd;dhHfs;.

 

KjyhtJ  NrhjplH Fwpg;gpl;l Ms; xU gpugy kUj;JtH vd;whH. ,uz;lhtJ NrhjplH gpugy ebfH vd;whH. %d;whtJ NrhjplH tof;fwpQH vd;whH. ehd;fhtJ NrhjplH caH mur mjpfhup vd;whH.

 

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; me;jf; iftpuy; milahsk;  nrd;id Nfhlk;ghf;fg; gFjpapy; njUj; njUthfg; gpr;ir vLj;Jj; jpupe;j xU gpr;irf;fhuDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ! FKjk; mtdJ iftpuy; milahsj;ij vLj;J mjidr; NrhjplHfSf;F mDg;gp ,Ue;jJ!

 

xU gpugy fpoik VL xU gpr;irf;fhudJ ngUtpuy; milahsj;ij mDg;gp ,Uf;Fk; vd;W ehb NrhjplHfs; fdtpYk; vjpH ghHj;jpUf;f khl;lhHfs;. mjdhy;jhd; MSf;F Ms; kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; jq;fs; jq;fs; fw;gidf; Fjpiuiaj; jl;btpl;L Kw;wpYk; gpioahd gyidr; nrhd;dhHfs;! ,g;gb %f;Fil gl;lhYk; jq;fs; njhopiy kl;Lk; mtHfs; tpLtjpy;iy. njhlHe;J gbahj ghku kf;fisAk; gbj;j Kl;lhs;fisAk; Va;Jg; gpiof;fpwhHfs;.