Nrhjplg; Gul;L (31)

Gfo;ngw;w fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfs;  

Nrhjplj;jpdhYk; NrhjplHfshYk; jkpo; rKjhaj;jpw;F Vw;gLk; NfLfs;gw;wpg; gyH rpe;jpf;f kWj;jhYk; xU rpyuhtJ mijapl;L mf;fiw fhl;Lfpd;whHfs; vd;gijr; Nrhjplg; Gul;ilg; gbg;gtHfs; vdf;F mDg;Gk; kpd;dQ;ry;fs; Gyg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

Nrhjplg; Gul;ilg; gbg;gNjhL epy;yhky; gbnaLj;J kw;wtHfSf;Ff; nfhLj;Jg; gbf;f itg;gjhfr; rpy thrfHfs; vOjpj; njuptpj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. nkj;j kfpo;r;rp.

'Kaw;rp jpUtpidahf;Fk;'

'nja;tj;jhd; MfhJ vdpDk;> Kaw;rpjd;
nka;tUj;jf; $yp jUk;'
               (Fws; 619)

vd;gJ ts;StH thf;F.

,Njh rpe;jhupg;Ngl;il> nrd;idapy; ,Ue;J b.b.tp. ,uhkd; vd;gtH NrhjplHfspd; jpUFjhsq;fs; gw;wpj; jpdkyH ehNsl;Lf;F vOjpa kliy mg;gbNa jUfpNwd;.

'rkPgfhykhf gj;jpupiffspYk;> njhiyf;fhl;rpfspYk; rpy NrhjplHfs; Njhd;wpj; jq;fSila gpujhgq;fisr; rhw;Wfpd;wdH. Kd;ndy;yhk; ,e;jr; NrhjplHfs; ifNuif> Nrhjplk;> vz;rhj;jpuk; ,itgw;wpj;jhd; NgRtH. ,g;NghJ tpsk;guj;jpy; tUk; NrhjplHfs; jhq;fs; ifNuif> Nrhjplk;> vz;rhj;jpuk; ,it jtpu th];J> trpak; ,it vy;yhtw;wpYk; tpw;gd;dHfs; vd;W tpsk;guk; nfhLf;fpd;wdH.

,tHfspy; gyH jk; ngaUf;Fg; gpd;dhy; vk;.V. gp.vr;.b. (A.v];.V.) vd;W bfpup NrHj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdH. ,itfs; ve;jg; gy;fiyf; fofq;fshYk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lit my;y.

tpsf;fk; Nfl;lhy; vk;.V. vd;why; kh];lH Mg; m];l;uhy[p> gp.vr;.b. (A+.v];.V.) vd;why; A+idnll; nrhirl;b Mg; m];uhy[p (Nrhjpl ,izg;G rq;f cWg;gpdH) - ,g;gbr; nrhy;ypf; nfhs;fpd;wdH.

rpyH jq;fs; ngaUf;F Kd;dhy; GnuhgrH> lhf;lH vd;W gl;lk; NrHj;Jf; nfhs;tJ Nghd;W Nrhjpl rf;futHj;jp> Nrhjpl rpq;fk; vd;w gl;lq;fisr; NrHj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdH. ,e;jg; gl;lq;fis ahH ,tHfSf;Ff; nfhLj;jhHfNsh.... flTSf;Nf ntspr;rk;!

rpy rpj;j itj;jpaHfs; va;l;];> fhd;rH Nghd;w Neha;fSf;F (Mq;fpy Kiwapy; kUe;J fz;L gpbf;f Kbahj Neha;fSf;Fk;) kUe;J ,Ug;gjhf njhiyf;fhl;rp kw;Wk; gj;jpupiffspy; gpur;rhuk; nra;fpd;wdH. ,e;jg; gpurhuj;ij fz;L gy NgH gzj;ij ,oe;J Vkhe;J jq;fs; tho;f;ifiaf; Fl;br;Rtuhf;fpf; nfhs;fpd;wdH. ,e;jg; ngha;g; gpur;rhuj;ij jLf;f cupa mjpfhuk; gilj;jtHfs; rPf;fpuk; eltbf;if vLj;jhy; ey;yJ."

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; Nrhjplk; xU fl;Lg;gLj;jg;glhj njhopy; MFk;.  ahUk; jq;fisr; Nrhjpl rpfhkzp> Nrhjpl Mrhd;> Nrhjplf; fiyf;Nfh> Nrhjplg; Gyp vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L njhopy; nra;ayhk;. Njit xU ngaHg; gyif kl;;LNk. nfhQ;rk; trjpahdtHfs; nra;jpj;jhs;fspy; tpsk;guk; nra;fpwhHfs;. ,d;Dk; trjpahdtHfs; njhiyf;fhl;rpapYk; mwptpay; mz;ikapy; fz;Lgpbj;j ,iza jsj;jpYk; kpff; ftHr;rpfukhf tpsk;guk; nra;fpd;whHfs;.

kf;fs; NrhjplHfs; tpupf;Fk; tiyapy; tpohky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; mtHfs; vg;NghJk; tpopg;ghf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

gpshl;Nlh Vjd;]; efiur; NrHe;j xU nry;tf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jtH. mtH rpWtdhf ,Uf;Fk; NghNj je;ijahH ,we;J Nghf mtuJ jhahH kWkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. gpshl;Nlh jdJ ,stajpy; Cratylus  vd;gtuplk; gbj;jhH vd mtuJ khzhf;fuhd mup];Njhl;ly; vOjpapUf;fpd;whH. Cratylus jPNa mz;lj;jpd; mbg;gilg; nghUs; vd;W nrhd;d Heracleitus vd;gtupd; khztuhthH.  

gpshl;Nlhtpd; fhyj;jpy; thdpay; gw;wpa fw;if khw;wk; ngw;W gy topfspy; Kd;NdwpaJ. ntWkNd tpz;iz mz;zhe;J mofhd tpz;kPd;fisg; ghHg;gij tpLj;J fzf;fpaiyAk; (Mathematics) Nfj;jpu fzpjj;ijAk; (Geometry) gbj;J thdpaypd; cz;ikfisf; fz;lwpa Ntz;Lk; vd;W mtH tw;GWj;jpdhH.

thdpaypd; gbKiw tsHr;rpapy; gpshl;Nlh (Plato - fpK 427-347) Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jhH. thdpaiy xU mofpay; fiy vd;W ,y;yhky; mjid epyf;fzpjk; Nghd;w xU mwptpay; ghlkhff; fUj Ntz;Lk; vd;whH. Nfhs;fspd; Xl;lq;fis tpsf;f caH epyf;fzpjj;ijg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;whH. thdpaiy xU mwptpay; ghlkhff; fw;Fk; NghJ tpaj;jF khw;wq;fs; Vw;gLk; vd gpshl;Nlh ek;gpdhH. “vtd; thdpaiyg;gw;wp ed;F mwpe;J nfhs;fpwhNdh mtd;jhd; cz;ikahd mwpthsp” vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. gpshl;Nlh elj;jpa fofj;jpd; (Academy) Eio thrypy; ,g;gb vOjg;gl;bUe;jJ-

'fzf;fpaypy; Gyik ,y;yhjtHfs; cs; Eioaf; $lhJ.'  

NfhkH mz;lj;ij vspa Kiwapy; tpsf;fpdhH. mz;lk; xU tl;ltbtkhd jl;L> Gtpf;F NkNy thDyfk; (Heavens) fPNo fhty; fplq;F (Tartaus) ,Uf;fpwJ vd;whH. Mdhy;>> 5 Nfhs;> QhapW> epyh> Gtp ,tw;wpd; Xl;lq;fis tpsf;f rpf;fyhd xU khjpupgbtk; (Model) Njitg;gl;lJ.

igjhnfhwhrpdpaH kw;Wk; gpshl;NlhdpaH Gtp kw;Wk; Nfhs;fSf;F mirT ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij Vw;Wf; nfhs;sj; jaq;fpdH. mjd; tpisthf kpifg; gLj;jg;gl;l> fl;Lg;ghlw;w Nfhl;ghLfis mtHfs; cUthf;f NeHe;jJ.     

gpshl;Nlhtpd; Kjd;ik khzhf;fHfspy; xUtH mup];Njhl;ly; (Aristotle - fpK 384-323) MthH.  ,tNu krpNlhdpahit Mz;l kfh mnyf;rhe;jupd; MrpupaUk; MthH.  kfh mnyf;rhe;jH Kjypy; fpNuf;fj;ijf; ifg;gw;wpdhH. mjd; gpd;G vfpg;J> ghurPfk;> ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfs; kPJ gilnaLj;Jr; nrd;W mtw;iw ntw;wp nfhz;lhH.

 

,e;jg; gilnaLg;Gf;fs; mwptpay; kl;lj;jpy; Nkw;ifAk; fpof;ifAk; xd;wpizf;f cjtpd vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ. ,d;W ,e;jpa Nrhjplj;Jf;Fk; fpNuf;f Nrhjplj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; fhzg;gLk; xw;Wikf;F ,e;jg; gilnaLg;Ng VJ vdr; nrhy;yyhk;.

mup];Njhl;ly; tho;e;j fhyj;J kf;fspy; ngUk;ghNyhH gy nja;tq;fs;  ,Ug;gjhf ek;gpdhHfs;. ,aw;if epfo;Tfs; nja;tq;fspd; rpdk; my;yJ kfpo;r;rp ,uz;bdhYk; Vw;gLfpwJ vd epidj;jhHfs;. kfpo;r;rpahd nja;tk; ey;y tpisr;riyj; jUthH> rpdk; nfhz;l nja;tk; Gay;> nts;sk;> epyeLf;fk; Nghd;w mopTfis tpistpg;ghH.

mup];Njhl;ly; mtjhdpg;G %yKk; msit (logic) gFj;jha;T (reason) Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapYk; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa cz;ikfis mwpe;J nfhs;syhk; vd KbTnra;jhH. ,jd; fhuzkhfNt mup];Njhl;ly; “,aw;if mwptpaypd; je;ij” (Father of Natural Science) vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH. mup];Njhl;ly; fhyj;J kf;fs; Gtp jl;ilahdJ vd ek;gpdH. Mdhy; mup];Njhl;ly; mJ cUz;il tbtk; vd KbT nra;jhH. QhapW kw;Wk; re;jpud; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; Gtp tUk;NghJ re;jpu fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; re;jpud; kPJ tl;l tbtpy; gbtij mtjhdpj;jhH. Gtp jl;il vd;why; Gtpapd; epoy; NtW tbtj;jpy; ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.

gpshl;NlhdpaHfs; vjidAk; nja;tPfj;jd;ikNahL ghHf;Fk; mZF Kiwiaf; filg;gpbj;jhHfs;. mjw;F khwhf mup];Njhl;ly; mz;lj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;F mtjhdpg;G Kf;fpakhdJ vd thjpl;lhH. ,tupd; ,e;j kdg;ghd;ikNa njhkh]; mf;Fdh]; (Thomas Acquinas- fpgp 1225-1274) kw;Wk; Nwh[H Ngfd; (Roger Bacon - fpgp1214-1292) Nghd;w ,ilf;fhy ma;Nuhg;gpa mwptpayhsHfSf;F topfhl;lyhfTk; Kd; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhfTk; mike;jJ.

mup];Njhl;ly; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa gpshl;Nlhtpd; fw;gid gytw;iw epuhfupj;jhH. ,Ue;Jk; gpshl;Nlhtpd; mz;lk; (Cosmos) gw;wpa gpopitg; gpd;gw;wpdhH. mjhtJ ,e;j mz;lj;jpd; ikak; Gtp vd;gijAk; mijr; Rw;wpNa Vida Nfhs;fs; tyk; tUfpd;wd vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il mtH mg;gbNa Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.      

Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis tpsf;f mtH 28 Fg; gjpy;  54 cUisfis cUthf;fpdhH. mNj rkak; Nfhs;fSf;Fj; nja;tPfk; fw;gpf;fg;gLtij epuhfupj;jhH. cyfpaw;wpahid (Creator) mz;lj;Jf;Fk; tpz;kPd;fSf;Fk; mg;ghy; itj;jhH.

,J ,ul;il tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ.      

    1) mz;lk; Md;khthy; ,aq;Fk; xU capUs;s nghUs; vd;w gpshl;Nlhtpd; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;Fg; gjpy; mJ capuw;w xU ,ae;jpuk; vd;gJ.

    2) tpz;kPd;fs; nja;tPfk; gilj;jit vd;gjw;Fg; gjpy; mit nja;tPfj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jk; Clfq;fs; kl;LNk vd;gJ.

NtWtpjkhfr; nrhd;dhy; gpshl;Nlh vy;yhk; nja;tr; nray; vd;whH. Mdhy;> mup];Njhl;ly; tpz;kPd;fSf;Fk; mg;ghy; cs;s nja;tPfk; nky;yf; Nfhs; topahfg; Gtpia te;jilfpwJ vd;whH. mJ kl;Lky;y> kdpjdJ Ratpidf;Fk; (free will) ,lk; cz;L vd;W nrhd;dhH.   

gpsl;NlhdpaHfistpl Stoics vd miof;fg;gLk; jj;Jtthjpfs; Nfhs;fisj; nja;tq;fshfTk; NjtijfshfTk; ghHj;jhHfs;. Stocism  fpK 311 ,y; Vjd;]; efUf;Ff; FbNawpa rpupah ehl;ilr; NrHe;j rPNeh (Zeno) vd;gtuhy; Njhw;Wtpf;fg; gl;lJ. ,tuJ jj;Jtk; mbg;gilapy; fpNuf;f jj;Jtj;ij xj;jJjhd;. Mdhy;> njhdpapy; itjPf rkaf; fUj;Jf;fisf; nfhz;ljhf ,Ue;jJ.

Nrhjplj;Jf;F rPNehtpd; mwpTiufs; ,uz;L Kf;fpa tpisTfis cz;L gz;zpd. KjyhtJ thDyf clypfs; ( Heavenly Bodies) nja;tPfkhdit vd;gjw;F Nkyhf mz;lk; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; Njhd;wp kiwe;J tUk; ,ay;G cilaJ vd;whH.  ,uz;lhtJ 'ahJk; CNu ahtUk; NfspH' vd;W nrhd;d rq;fg; GytH fzpad; G+q;Fd;wdhH ghzpapy; 'cyf kdpjFyk; xd;Nw' vd;whH. kdpjFyk; xd;Nw vd;gJ kfh mnyf;rhe;jupd; gilnaLg;ghy; Vw;gl;l xU fUj;JUthf;fk; MFk;.

kdpjFy xw;Wik vd;gJ kd;dHfspd; xw;Wik vd;gjy;y> mJ jdp kdpjHfsJ xw;WikahFk;. xt;nthU kdpjDk; jdJ tpjpf;Fj; jhNd nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; mtd; jd;idj;jhNd Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; rhjfk; fzpg;gjd; Nehf;fk; kdpjd; jd;idg; Gupe;J nfhz;L jdJ jiytpjpapypUe;J jg;gpj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhfj;jhd; vd rPNdh nrhd;dhH.

thdpay; tsHr;rpapd; mLj;j fl;lk; Herakleides  (fpK 390-310) vd;gtNuhL njhlq;FfpwJ. gpshl;Nlh rprpypapy; ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; ,tNu mtuJ fofj;ij elj;jpdhH.  ,tH cyfk;jhd; mz;lj;jpd; ikak; vd;gij xj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. Mdhy;> mNj cyfk; jdJ mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;WfpwJ vd;whH. ,g;gb cyfk; jd;idj;jhNd Rw;Wtjhy;jhd; thDyfk; mirfpw khjpupahd khaj; Njhw;wk; cz;lhfpwJ vd;whH. Gjd; kw;Wk; nts;sp Nfhs;fspd; xOq;fw;w Nfhs;tPjpf;Ff; (orbit) fhuzk; mit Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUtjhy; Vw;gLfpwJ vd;whH. Mdhy;> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp Nfhs;fs; Gtpiaj;jhd; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH.

,jd; %yk; mup];Njhl;lypd; Nfhl;ghl;by; cs;s gytPdq;fis  Herakleides  tpsf;f Kaw;rpj;jhH. ,tH fpK 310 ,y; ,we;jhH.

mup];Njhl;lypd; Gtpikaf; (geocentricity) vd;w Nfhl;ghl;by; ,Ue;J Kw;wpYk; Kwpj;Jf; nfhz;l ngUik mwp];jhHR]; (Aristarsus - fpK310-230) vd;gtiuNa rhUk;. ,tNu Gtp cl;gl kw;wf; Nfhs;fs; midj;Jk; Qhapiw tyk; tUfpd;wd vd;w Gul;rpfukhd Nfhl;ghl;il Kd; itj;j Kjy; thdpayhsH MthH.  

mwp];jhHR]; md;iwa thdpayhsHfspy; Kd;dzp thdpayhsuhff; fUjg;gl;lhH. Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; 24 kzpj;jpahyj;Jf;F xUKiw jd;idj;jhNd Rw;WfpwJ vd;Wk; Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhyk; xU Mz;L vdTk;  Gtpiag; NghyNt Vida Nfhs;fSk; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhH.

Gtp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;wpf; nfhz;L QhapiwAk; tyk;tUfpwJ vdr; nrhd;d mwp];jhHRir nja;tgf;jp ,y;yhjtH vdr; Fw;wk; rhl;b mtiu ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jp jz;lid ngw;Wf; nfhLf;f Ml;rpahsHfs; epidj;jhHfs;!

gjpdhwhk; Ehw;whz;by; epf;fy]; NfhngHdpf;f]; (Nicolaus Copenicus (1473-1543) fz;L gpbj;Jr; nrhd;dij mwp];jhHf]; RkhH 1800 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu nrhy;yptpl;lhH. Mdhy;> ntt;NtW fhuzq;fSf;fhf mwp];jhHR]; nrhd;dij mtH fhyj;jpa thdpayhsHfs; Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. mtuJ  Gul;rpfu vz;zq;fs;  gpshl;Nlh kw;Wk; mup];Njhl;ly; ,UtuJ  Gtpika kjrhHG jj;Jtj;jpd; nry;thf;fpdhy; mKf;fg;gl;L kiwf;fg;gl;L tpl;ld.

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (32)

 

re;jpu #upa fpufzq;fs;!

'Ntjq;fis ek;G> mtw;wpd; nghUisj; njupe;J nfhz;L gpwF ek;G. Guhzq;fis Ntjq;fshf epidj;J klikfs; Ngrp tpyq;Ffs; Nghy; ele;J nfhs;shNj.

jkpoh! cdJ Ntiyfs; midj;jpYNk ngha;f; fijfs; kpjkpQ;rp tpl;ld. cdJ kjf; nfhs;ifs;> nysfpff; nfhs;iffs;> itjpf eil vy;yhtw;wpYNk ngha;fs; GFe;J jiy Jhf;fp Ml ,lq;nfhLj;J tpl;lha;. ,tw;iw ePf;fp tpL> tPl;bYk; ntspapYk;> jdpikapYk; $l;lj;jpYk; vjpYk; vg;NghJk; NeHikapUf;f Ntz;Lk;! cz;ikapUf;f Ntz;Lk;!

ePAk; gpwiu tQ;rpf;fyhfhJ! gpwUk; cd;id tQ;rpf;fyhfhJ! gpwH gpwiu tQ;rpg;gijAk; eP ,ad;wtiu jLf;f Ntz;Lk;!

vy;yhg; NgWfisf; fhl;bYk; cz;ikg; NgWjhd; ngUik nfhz;lJ. cz;ik jtq;fSf;nfy;yhk; capH> cz;ik rhj;jpuq;fSf;nfy;yhk; NtH> cz;ik ,d;gj;Jf;F ey;YWjp> cz;ik gukhj;khtpd; fz;zhb>  Mjyhy; jkpoh vy;yhr; nra;jpfspYk; cz;ik epyTk;gb nra;!

jkpoh! vOjpg; gbg;gnjy;yhk; nka;Akpy;iy. vjpH epd;W Nfl;gnjy;yhk; ngha;Akpy;iy. Ke;jpa rh];jpue;jhd; nka;> gpe;jpa rh];jpuk; ngha; vd;W jPHkhdk; nra;J  nfhs;shNj. fhyj;Jf;Fk; cz;ikf;Fk; vjpupilahf  xU fzf;F Vw;gl;bUf;fpwjh? 'jfg;gd; ntl;ba fpzW vd;W nrhy;yp %lHfs; cg;G ePiuf; Fbf;fpwhHfs;" vd;W gq;r je;jpuk; eiff;fpwJ." (ghujpahH fl;Liufs;- gf;fk; 134)

<uhapuk; Mz;L Xa;e;J fple;j gpd;dH thuhJ te;j kfhftp Rg;gpukzpa ghujpapd; fbe;JiuiaNa NkNy je;Js;Nsd;.

EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ‘vy;yhg; NgWfisf; fhl;bYk; cz;ikg; NgWjhd; ngUik nfhz;lJ’ vd;W etpd;w ghujpf;F ,Ue;j rpe;jidj; njspT> nka;awpT ,d;iwa jkpoDf;F ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

jkpopd tuyhw;wpy; jkpOf;Ff; fpilj;j kpfg; ngupa ftpQd; ghujp. ,J cz;ik ntWk; Gfo;r;rp ,y;iy!

ghujp xUtNd jkpo; nkhopf;F tho;j;Jg; ghbatd;. jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fj; jpUg;gs;sp vOr;rp ghbatd;. jkpo;j; Njrpaj;Jf;F fhy;Nfhs; ,l;ltd;.

rpd;dr;rhkp ma;aupd; gps;isahf mf;fpufhuj;jpy; gpwe;Jk; mr; r%fj;jpd; rhjpaf; fl;Lg;ghLfis cilj;njwpe;J ntspapy; te;J 'ghHg;ghid ma;anud;w fhyKk; Nghr;Nr" vd;W NtHg;g NtHg;g nghUs; nra;tnjhd;iwNa njhopyhff; nfhz;l ghHg;gdHfisf; fLikahfr; rhbatH.

,d;iwa cyfj;ijj; jiyfPohff; ftpo;j;J tpl;L Kw;wpYk; xU GJikahd> Gul;rpfukhd  cyfj;ij cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ghujpapd; fdT MFk;. Fwpg;ghf ghujp %lj;jdkw;w jkpo;r; rKjhaj;ij fl;bnaOg;g epidj;jhd;. rhj;jpuq;fisg; NgAiu vd;W rhbr; rq;F Cjpdhd;.

nrj;j gpwF rptNyhfk; itFe;jk;
    NrHe;jplyhk; vd;Nw vz;zpapUg;ghH
gpj;j kdpjH> mtH nrhYQ; rhj;jpuk;
   NgAiuahk; vd;wpq;F Cjlh rq;fk;!

rq;f fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dUk; ghujpf;F Kd;dUk; tho;e;j  jkpo;g; Gytd; vtDk; rKjha rPHjpUj;jk; gw;wpNah> rKjha kwkyHr;rp gw;wpNah ghltpy;iy. vy;NyhUk; rkar; Nrw;wpy; mkpo;e;J nfhz;L flTsH  gw;wpa Guhzf; Fg;igfisNa vOjpf; Ftpj;jhHfs;.  

ghujp xUtNd rhjp xopg;G> %lek;gpf;if xopg;G> ngz; tpLjiy> nghJTlik> jkpopdTzHT> jkpo;nkhopg;gw;W vd rfy jsq;fspYk; epd;W nfhz;L jdJ ghl;Lj; jpwj;jhy; itaj;ijg; ghypj;jtd;.  

Gtpaidj;Jk; Nghw;wplthd; Gfo;gilj;Jj;
   jkpo;nkhopiag; Gfopy; Vw;Wk;
ftpaurH jkpo;ehl;Lf; fpy;iynaDk;
   tirnad;dhw; fope;j jd;Nw! 

vd;W khHjl;ba ghtyDk; ghujpjhd;. 

fle;j rdpf;fpoik KOr; re;jpu fpufzk; ,lk;ngw;wJ. fdlhtpy; khiy 7 Kjy;  ghHf;ff; $bajhf ,Ue;jJ. thdj;jpy; nrk;kQ;rs; epwj;jpy; fhl;rp mspj;j epyh  fz;fSf;F mofhfTk; FspHr;rpahfTk; ,Ue;jJ.

epyh nrk;kQ;rs; Mfj; njuptjw;Ff; fhuzk; Qhapwpd; xsp fhw;W kz;lyj;ij CLUTk;NghJ mJ rpjWz;ZtNj (retract) MFk;.    

epyh kiwg;G (re;jpu fpufzk;) vg;gb Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gJ cq;fSf;Fj; njupAk;. epyhTf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilapy; Gtp xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; tUk;NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; epyh kPJ tpOe;J mjid kiwf;fpwJ.

KO epyhtpd; NghJjhd; epyh kiwg;G Vw;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJjhd; mJ QhapWf;F NeH vjpNu (180 ghif) epw;fpwJ. KO epyh kiwg;G EhW kzpj;Jsp ePbf;fyhk;.KO epyhtpd; NghJ epyh kiwg;G Vw;gLtJ Nghy; GJ epyhtpd; NghJ QhapW kiwg;G (#upa fpufzk;) Vw;gLfpwJ.

ghHf;fg; Nghdhy; xt;nthU khjKk; epyhkiwg;G Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> Gtpiag; NghyNt epyhTk; jdJ mr;rpy; 5 ghif  rupe;J ,Ug;gjhy; mit xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; vg;NghJk; tUtjpy;iy. nghJthf Mz;by; 3 epyh kiwg;Gf;fs; ,lk;ngWfpd;wd.

Mdhy;> QhapW kiwg;G (#upa fpufzk;) Mz;by; 5 Kiw Vw;gLfpd;wd. ,g;gbahd xU ,aw;if epfo;r;rpiaj; jkpoHfs; vd;d fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ghHf;fpd;whHfs;;?

goep  Nfhapy; Kd;djhf fOtp Jg;guT nra;ag;gl;lJ. re;jpu fpufz Njhrj;ij eptHj;jp nra;Ak; tifapy; ifyhrehjH Nfhapy; Kd; nts;spf; Fk;gk; itj;J jPHj;jk; epug;gp rk;ul;rid G+ir eilngw;wJ. mjd; gpd;dH rd;dpjpf;F me;j nts;spf; Fk;gk; nfhz;L nry;yg;gl;L %ytUf;F mgpNrfk; nra;j gpd; tof;fkhd G+irfs; eilngw;wd.

goep Nfhapypd; cg Nfhapy;fshd jpUMtpdd;Fbf; Nfhapy;> ngupa ehafpak;kd; Nfhapy;> ngupaTilahH Nfhapy; Nghd;w Nfhapy;fspYk; re;jpu fpufz eptHj;jp G+ir eil ngw;w gpd;dNu rd;djp jpwf;fg;gl;lJ.

goep Nfhapypy; kl;Lky;y vy;yhf; Nfhapy;fspYk; re;jpu fpufz Njhrk; ePq;fg; G+irfs; ele;jd.

,q;Fs;s thndhypapy; Ngrpa Nfhapy; FUf;fs; re;jpu fpufzk; KbAk; tiu rikf;ff; $lhJ> rhg;gplf; $lhJ vd;W jkJ mbahHfSf;F ";mwpTiu' toq;fpdhH.

FUf;fSf;F epyh kiwg;G vjdhy; Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gJ njupahJ vd;W ehd; epidf;ftpy;iy. me;jsTf;F mtH gbg;gwptpy;yhjtH my;y. Mdhy;> mtH Guhzq;fspYk;  rhj;jpuq;fspYk; uhF -NfJ vd;w ghk;Gfs; re;jpuidf; ft;TfpwJ vd;W vOjp itj;jpUg;gij Ntjthf;fhff; nfhs;tjhy; mg;gbg; NgRfpd;whH.

GuhzpfHfs; epyh xU flTs;> mtUf;F 27 kidtpkhH cz;nld;Wk; re;jpuidg; ghk;G tpOq;Fk; NghJ fpufzk; Vw;gLfpwJ vd;Wk; gpd;dH ghk;G mijf; ff;fpaTld; fpufzk; KbfpwJ vd;Wk; vOjp itj;Js;sdH.

ghk;G ft;tpdhy;  eQ;R Vwj;jhNd nra;Ak;? mjdhy;jhd; rikf;f Ntz;lhk;> rhg;gpl Ntz;lhk; vd;W  FUf;fs; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.

xU miu Ehw;whz;Lf;F Kd;dH mwptpay; ngupjhf tsuhj me;jf; fhyj;jpy;>  mt;itahH ghl;b Kw;wk; $l;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ epyh jiyapy; ,bf;f> mtH Nfhgk; nfhz;L mjid tpsf;Fkhw;why; tpshr mJ NkNy Ngha;tpl;lJ vd;w ghl;bf; fijiaf; Nfl;bUf;fpNwd;. mJ kl;Lky;y> epyhtpy; njhl;lk; njhl;lkhfj; njupfpw fWg;Gg; gFjpfs; mt;itahH Fe;jpapUe;J nfhz;L ghf;F cuy; ,bf;fpw fhl;rp vd;W $lr; nrhd;dhHfs;!

,t;thwhd Guhzf; fijfs;> ghl;bf; fijfs; ,g;NghJ nrhy;yg;gLtjpy;iy. nrhd;dhYk; ahUk; ek;gg; Nghtjpy;iy. Mdhy;> ,e;jr; re;jpu fpufz Njhrk; gw;wpa gak; kl;Lk; tpl;lFiw njhl;lFiwahfj; njhlHfpwJ. Nfhapy; FUf;fs;khUk;> kzpafhuUk; mjidj; jf;fthW gad;gLj;jp ghku kf;fsplk; gzk; gwpf;fpd;wdH.  

fdlhtpy; re;jpu fpufzk; ePq;Fk; tiu (,uT 11 kzp) ahuhtJ rikf;fhky; rhg;gplhky; ,Ue;jpUg;ghHfs; vd ehd; epidf;ftpy;iy. ngUk;ghyhNdhHf;F epyh kiwg;G te;J NghdNj njupe;jpUf;fhJ! xUtifapy; ,J tuNtw;ff; $ba vjpHkiw Kd;Ndw;wk; vd;W vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

re;jpu #upa fpufzq;fisg; ghHj;Jj; jkpoHfs; kl;Lk; eLq;fpdhHfs; vd;wpy;iy. kw;wg; gz;ghLfspYk; ,JNghd;w gak; ,Uf;fpwJ.

rPdHfs; re;jpu #upa fpufzj;jpd; NghJ re;jpu #upaiu Ntjhsk; (dragon) ft;tp tpOq;Ftjhf ek;gpdhHfs;! me;j Ntjhsj;ij tpul;br; re;jpu #upaiuf; fhg;ghw;w mtHfs; Nksq;fis mbj;J tPjpfspy; Muthuk; nra;jhHfs;.

re;jpu #upa fpufzq;fs; vy;yhg; gz;ghLfspYk; nfl;l rFdkhff; fUjg;gl;ld. mjdhy; NghYk; ,e;jf; fpufzq;fs; Vw;gl;lijg; gz;ila tuyhw;whrpupaHfs; tuyhw;wpYk; ,yf;fpaj;jpYk; gjpT nra;J itj;Js;sdH. ,g;gb Mapuj;Jf;Fk; Nkyhd gjpTfs;  gioa kw;Wk; ,ilf; fhyj;jpy; gjpag;gl;Ls;sd.

fpK 2300  Mz;lstpy; rPd NrhjplHfs; tpz;iz msf;fg; gy mtjhdpg;G epiyaq;fis epWtp ,Ue;jhHfs;. fpK 2650 ,y; yp R+ (Li Shu ) vd;gtH thdpay; gw;wp vOjj; njhlq;fptpl;lhH. rPdg; NguurHfsJ vjpHfhy cly; eyj;ijg;gw;wpg; gyd; nrhy;tjw;Ff; fpufzq;fis mtjhdpg;gJ mtrpakhf ,Ue;jJ. fpK xf;NjhgH 22> 2134 ,y; xU fpufzk; Vw;gl;ljhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. rPdHfs; vOjp itj;j Shu China vd;w Ehypy;  're;jpuDk; QhapWk; re;jpj;jNghJ me;jr; re;jpg;G RKfkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy' vd;w Fwpg;Gf; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

NkYk; Hsi kw;Wk; Ho vd;w ,uz;L muz;kidr; NrhjplHfs;  fpufzk; ,lk; ngWtij Kd;$l;bNa nrhy;yj; jtwp tpl;lhHfs; vd;w Fw;wj;Jf;Fj; jz;lidahf mtHfsJ jiyfs; rPtg;gl;ld. fpufzj;jpd; gpd;dH  QhapW jpUk;gpj; Njhd;wpdhYk; NrhjplHfs; tpl;l jtwpdhy; rPw;wk; mile;j NguurH mtHfsJ jiyia ntl;lf; fl;lis ,l;ljhfj; njupfpwJ.  muz;kidr; NrhjplHfs;  flik jtwpajw;F mtHfsJ kpjkpQ;rpa Fbg; gof;fk; fhuzkhk;!  

gz;ila fhyj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;w kpfTk; Gfo; tha;e;j fpufzk; fpK 585 Nk 28 ,y; ,lk; ngw;w #upa fpufzk; MFk;. ,uz;L kj;jpa fpof;F ehLfSf;F (Lydians and Medes) ,ilNa 5 Mz;L ePbj;J te;j NghH gfy; ,uthdNghJ ,UrhuhUk; rz;ilia epWj;jpf; nfhz;ldH. mjd; gpd;dH ,e;j ehLfs;  xU mikjp xg;ge;jj;ij vOjpf; nfhz;ld. ,e;jf; fpufzj;ij Kd;$l;bNa fzpj;Jr; nrhd;dtH Njy;]; (Thales) vd;w fpNuf;f thdpayhsH MthH. Mdhy;> Njy;rpd; vjpH$wy; rz;ilapl;l gilapdUf;Fj; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy.

     fpK 413 Mf];l; 27 ,y; ,lk;ngw;w re;jpu fpufzk; Vjpdpad;]; kw;Wk; rpwf;$]; (Syracus) ehLfSf;F ,ilNa ele;j Nghiu vjpHghuhj tifapy; KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jJ. thdj;jpy; Vw;gl;l re;jpu fpufzk; Vjpdpad;]; gil tPuHfisf; fjpfyq;f itj;jJ.  mjidf; nfl;l rFdkhff; fUjp mtHfs; NghHKidf;Fr; nry;y kWj;J tpl;lhHfs;. mtHfsJ gilj; jsgjp eprpad; (Nician) NrhjplHfis fye;jhNyhrpj;J tpl;Lg; gil efHit 27 ehs;fSf;Fg; gpw;Nghl;lhH. ,e;j fhy ,ilntsp Vjpdpad;]; ehl;L vjpup ehlhd rpwf;$]; gilf;F rhjfkhfg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.

rpwf;$]; ehl;Lg; gil kpf vspjhf Vjpdpahtpd; flw;gilia ntw;wpnfhz;lNjhL mjd; gilj; jsgjp eprpaidAk; nfhd;wJ.   

,e;jf; Fwpg;Gf;fs; gz;ila fhyj;jpy; ele;j Nghupy; fpufzq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpa jhf;fj;ijf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

vl;Lj; njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;whd

            epyh kiwg;G

GwehDhw;wpy; fgpyH ghba ghly; QhapW

NtWglj; Njhd;wpdhYk; vupnfhs;sp tpOe;jhYk; mit jPikf;fhd mwpFwpfs; vd;W jkpoHfs; ek;gpaJ njupfpwJ.

'ikk;kPd; GifapDk; Jhkk; Njhd;wpDk;
njd;jpir kUq;fpd; nts;sp XbDk;
tay; mfk; epiwag; Gjw;G kyu

……………………………."      (Gwk; 117> 1-3)

ikk; kPd; - fupa epwKila rdp

Jhkk; -   Gif

nts;sp – nts;spf; Nfhs; kPd;

nts;isf;Fb ehfdhH vd;w GytH Nrhod; FsKw;wj;Jj; JQ;rpa fps;sptstDila ehl;by; QhapW khwpj; Njhd;wpDk;> vupnfhs;sp tPopDk;> nts;sp njw;NffpDk; fhtpupahdJ tha;f;fhy; topNahb tsj;ijnay;yhk; Cl;b epw;Fk; vd;fpd;whH. 

'myq;FfjpHf; fdyp ehy;tapw; Nwhd;wpDk;
,yq;FfjpH nts;sp njd;Gyk; glupDk;
me;jz; fhtpup te;J ftHG Cl;lj;

…………………………."     (Gwk; 35> 6-8)

myq;FfjpH - QhapW

,yq;FfjpH - nts;sp

me;jz;   -   FspHe;j

Nrukhd; ahidf;fl;Nra; khe;juQ;Nruy; ,Uk;nghiw ,wf;fg; NghFk; epfo;it thdj;jpy; ,Ue;J vupel;rj;jpuk; tpOtJ Nghd;w rpy cw;ghjq;fs; %yk; mwpe;J jhk; mQ;rpajhfTk;> mt;tr;rk; cz;ikahFk; tz;zk; Vohk; ehspy; mtd; ,we;Jgl;ljhfTk; Gyj;Jiw Kw;wpa $lYhH fpohH (Gwk; 229) $wpapUf;fpd;whH.

ML,ay; moy; Fl;lj;J
MH,Us; miu,utpd;
Klg;gidaj;J NtHKjyhf;
filf;Fsj;Jf; fhak;fha;g
gq;FdpcaH mOtj;Jj;
jiyehz;kPd; epiyjpupa
epiyehz;kPd; mjd; vjpVHjuj;
njhd;ehz;kPd; Jiwgbag;
ghrpr; nry;yhJ Crpj; Jd;dhJ
jsf;$Hj;jpiz tpsf;fhff;
fidvup gug;gf; fhy;vjpHG nghq;fp
xU kPd; tPo;e;jd;why; tpRk;gp dhNd

…………………………………  (Gwk; 229> 1-12)

re;jpu - #upa fpufzk; gw;wp mq;nfhd;Wk; ,q;nfhd;Wk; Mfj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fspy; Fwpg;Gfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy;> fpufzk; gw;wpa fhuz fhupa tpsf;fk; fhzg;gltpy;iy.   

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (33)

NrhjplHfspd; Mrhd; njhykp 

Kd;dH mz;lj;jpd; GjpHfis mtpo;f;ff; fpNuf;f mwptpayhsHfs; njhlHr;rpahf Nkw;nfhz;l Kaw;rpfs; gw;wpg; ghHj;Njhk;. gpe;jpa jiyKiw Ke;jpa jiyKiwapd; Njhspy; epd;W nfhz;L tpz;iz mz;zhe;J ghHj;Jf; Nfhs;fs;> tpz;kPd;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; mirT> msT> njhiyT gw;wp Ma;e;Jk; gFj;Jk; te;jJ.

Gtpapd; Rw;wsitj; jbfs;> epoy;fs;> nfhQ;rk; fzpjk; ,tw;iw itj;Jf;nfhz;L Kjd; Kjypy; NgusT rupahff; fzf;fpl;ltH vfpg;jpy; cs;s mnyf;rhe;jpupah  efiur; NrHe;j vwNjh];jPd;]; (Eratosthenes-BC 276-195) MthH. gz;ila cyfj;jpd; Kjy; epyEhyhsuhd ,tH ,aw;gpay; fzpj epyEhypd; je;ijahff; (founder of physical and mathematical geography) fUjg;gLfpd;whH. Vjd;]; ehl;L Cyrene efupy; gpwe;j ,tH gpd;dH mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpw;Ff; FbNawpdhH. mq;F cyfg; Gfo; ngw;w mnyf;rhe;jpupah Ehy;epiyaj;jpd; ,af;Feuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. ,e;j efuk; ,d;iwa ypgpahtpy; (Shahhat) ,Uf;fpwJ. MHf;fpkpB]; vd;w ,d;ndhU Gfo;ngw;w fzpjtpayhsuhy; kpfTk; kjpf;fg;gl;ltH. mtiu Nkd;ikg; gLj;Jk; Kfkhf epyhtpy; cs;s epyf;Fop xd;Wf;F ,tuJ ngaH #l;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

njw;Nf iey; ejpf;F mUNf cs;s ird; (Syene) vd;w efuj;jpy; (jw;NghJ m];thd;) xU Mokhd fpzW xd;W ,Ue;jJ. Nfhil fhyj;jpy; (A+d; 21 ) cr;rp Neuj;jpy; tlf;Nf 23½ ghifapy; (Summer Solstice)  ird; (Sycne) efupy; ,Uf;Fk; me;jf; fpzw;Wf;F NkNy QhapW nrq;Fj;jhf (vertical) mjhtJ rupahf jiyf;F NkNy cr;rpapy; (90 ghif)  epw;gij vwNjh];jPd;]; kw;wtHfsplk; ,Ue;J Nfl;lwpe;jhH. mt;thW QhapW cr;rpapy; epw;Fk; NghJ epoy; tpOtjpy;iy. mNj Neuk; tlf;Nf mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpy; Qhapwpd; epoy;  (fjpHfs; vg;NghJk; rkhe;jukhf nry;tjhy; xj;j Nfhzq;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd) 7.3 ghif Nfhzj;jpy; tpOtijf; fz;lhH. cr;r #upa njhiyT  (zenith) vd;gJ cr;r #upa Gs;spapy; ,Ue;J #upad; eLg;gfypy; epw;Fk; Gs;spf;Fk; ,ilapyhd njhiyT MFk;;. ird; efuj;jpd; cr;r #upa njhiyT  0 ghif> mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpy; mJ 7.3 ghif MFk;.

ird; efuj;Jf;Fk; mnyf;rhe;jpupahTf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s njhiyT  5>000 ];Nubah (xU ];Nubah 500 mb) vd vwNjh];jPd;]; fzf;fpl;lhH. ,e;jj; njhiyit itj;Jf; nfhz;L Gtpapd; Rw;wsT vt;tsT njhiyT ,Uf;Fk; vdf; fz;lwpa Kw;gl;lhH. 

,uz;L efuq;fSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Nfhzj;jpd; ghif 7.2 vdf; fzf;fpl;L 5>000 ];Nubah cyfr; Rw;wstpy; 1y; 50 gq;F vdj; njupe;J nfhz;lhH. vdNt Gtpapd; Rw;wsT 25>500 fy; vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. Mdhy;> cz;ikahd Rw;wsT 24>901 fy;  MFk;. ,Ue;Jk; mtH fpl;lj;jl;l rupahfr; nrhy;yptpl;lJ Nghw;wj;jf;f rhjidahFk;. rpyH xU ];Nul;]; 520 mbf;F rkk; vd;fpd;whHfs;. mJ rupnad;why; vwNjh];jPd;]; mtHfsJ fzpg;G NkYk; jpUj;jkhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ.

vwNjh];jPd;]; epyTyfk; tl;ltbtkhdJ vd;w mDkhdj;jpy; Gtpapd; mr;R QhapW nry;Yk; ghij (Ecliptic) 23½  ghif rha;e;J ,Ug;gijj; jpUj;jkhfj;  jPHkhdpj;jtH. mJkl;Lky;y> 375 tpz;kPd;fisf; nfhz;l xU tpz;kPd; tiuglj;ijAk; jahupj;jhH. ehyhz;Lf;F xUKiw xU ehisf; $l;b kpF Mz;ilf; (leap year) fzpf;f  Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nahrid nrhd;dtUk; ,tNu vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ.

Mdhy;>  Gtp mt;tsT ngupjhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;w ek;gpf;if me;jf; fhyj;J kf;fSf;F Vw;gltpy;iy. mghkPah (Apamea) vd;w Ciur; NrHe;j nghrpNlhdpa]; (Posidonius - fpK 135-51) vd;w fpNuf;f thdpayhsH tpz;ntspapy; fhzg;gl;l fNdhg]; (Canopus) vd;w tpz;kPid itj;Jf; fzf;fpl;Lg; Gtpapd; Rw;wsT 180>000 ];Nubah vdf; $wpdhH. fNdhg;g];>  Nwhl;]; (Rhodes) vd;w Cupy; QhapW mbthdj;jpy; epd;wNghJ mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpy; 7.5 ghif FWf;Ff; Nfhl;by; fhzg;gl;lJ. mtuJ fzpg;gpy; ,uz;L gpiofs; Vw;gl;ld. Xd;W mnyf;rhe;jpupah 7.5 ghiff;Fg; gjpy; 5.25 ghifapy; ,Ue;jJ vd;w fzpg;G. ,uz;L Nwhl;];-mnyf;rhe;jpupah ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;snjhiyT  3>750 vd;gjw;Fg; gjpy; 5>000 ];Nubah vd;w fzpg;G.

vwNjh];jPd;];; (Eratosthenes)  nghrpNlhdpaRf;F 150 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu Gtpapd; Rw;wsT 252>000 ];Nubah vd;w rupahd ngWkjpiaf; fzf;fpl;lhH. ,Ue;Jk; nghrpNlhdpa]; fhyk; njhl;L ,ilf; fhyk; tiu 180>000 ];Nubah vd;w msitiaj;jhd; kf;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;.

fpwp];NjhgH nfhyk;g]; (fpgp 1451- Nk 20> 1506)$l 180>000 ];Nubah msitj;jhd; ek;gpdhH. mjd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; mtH Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; 3000 iky; gazk; nra;jhy; Mrpahit mile;J tplyhk; vd;W ek;gpdhH. mtUf;Fg; Gtpapd; cz;ikahd Rw;wsT njupe;jpUe;jhy; Nkw;F Nehf;fpf; flypy; nryT nra;Ak; vz;zj;ij mtH iftpl;bUg;ghH vd ek;gyhk;. NkYk; mt;tsT njhiyT flypy; Nghfj; JzpTs;s khYkpfis mtuhy; jpul;bapUf;fNt KbahJ. vy;yhtw;Wf;Fk; Nkhyhf mtUf;Nf mt;tsT Jzpr;ry; te;jpUf;Fkh vd;gJk; ma;aNk! fpgp 1521-23 Mz;Lfspy; nkfy;ydpd; fg;gy; FOtpy; kbe;jtHfs; Nghf vQ;rpapUe;j khYkpfs; jl;Lj;jLkhwpg; Gtpiar; Rw;wp te;J CH jpUk;gpa gpd;dNu vwNjh];jPd;]; fzf;Fr; rupjhd; vd;gJ njupe;jJ!

mup];Njhl;ly; (fpK 384-322) $l cyfk; cUz;il tbthdJ vd;whH. fhuzk; fpufzj;jpd; NghJ epyh kPJ tpOk; Gtpapd; epoy; tl;l tbtkhf fhzg;gl;ljhFk;. ,d;ndhU fhuzj;ijAk; nrhd;dhH - vfpg;jpy; njupAk; el;rj;jpuq;fs; tlf;Nf Nghdhy; mit njuptjpy;iy vd;gjhFk;.

Gtpapy; ,Ue;J epyhtpd; njhiyT vt;tsT? mjid mwp];jhHR]; (Aristarchus of Samos(fpK 310 -230) xU Ehjdkhd Kiwapy; fz;L gpbj;jhH. re;jpu fpufzj;ijj; Jy;ypakhf mtjhdpj;J me;jf; Nfs;tpf;fhd tpiliar; nrhd;dhH.

re;jpu fpufzj;jpd; NghJ Gtpapd; epoy; epyh kPJ tpOfpwJ. me;j epoypd; tpl;lk; re;jpudpd; tpl;lj;ijtpl ,uz;liu klq;F ngupjhf ,Ug;gijf; ftdpj;jhH. Gtpapd; tpl;lk; 8>000 fw;fs; vd;gJ fpNuf;fHfSf;Fj;
njupe;jpUe;jJ. mNj Neuk; thdj;jpy; ghHf;Fk; #upaDk; re;jpuDk; xU msthf ,Ug;gijf; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;L Nfj;jpu fzpjj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp epyhtpd; njhiyT  240>000 fy; (rupahd njhiyT 238>700 fy;) vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH.

fpNuf;fj;jpd; Gfo; ngw;w ,d;ndhU thdpayhsH fpg;gwhr;R]; (Hipparachus) MthH. fpK 190-120 tiu tho;e;j ,tNu thdpaypd; je;ij vd miof;fg;gLfpd;whH. ,tNu Gtpapd; ikag; gFjpapy; QhapW kw;Wk; epyh
,uz;bdhYk; Vw;gLk; vjpH vjpH <Hg;G Gtp mr;rpd; Row;rpia js;shlr; nra;J Nkw;F Nehf;fpg; (QhapW ghijapy;) gpd; js;SfpwJ
(precession of equinox ) vd;gijf; fz;L gpbj;Jr; nrhy;ypatH. ,JNt madhk;rk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gij Kd;dH ghhj;Njhk;. Mz;nlhd;Wf;F 50.291 MHf; nehbfs; (50.291 arc seconds per year)  tPjk; 72 Mz;Lfspy; 1 ghif NtWghL Vw;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Mz;L (2003) khHr;R 21 ,y; madhk;r NtWghL  23.57 ghifia vl;bAs;sJ.

fpg;gwhr;R]; Nicaea vd;w efupy; gpwe;jtH. ,Ue;Jk; Nwhl;]; (Rhodes) vd;w efupypNa jdJ tho;f;ifapd; ngUk;gFjpiar; nrytpl;lhH. kpfTk; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpa ,e;j thdpayhsH gw;wpr; nrhw;g jfty;fNs jg;gpg; gpioj;Js;sd. ,uz;lhk; Ehw;whz;by; njhykp (Ptolemy) vOjpa Almagest vd;w Ehypy; ,Ue;Nj ,tiug;gw;wpa jfty;fs; fpilj;Js;sd. jdf;F Kd; tho;e;j kpf Kf;fpa thdpayhsuhfj; njhykp ,tiug; ghHj;jhH.

fpg;gwhr;R]; thdpay; mwpTf;F Mw;wpa gq;F kpfg; ngupaJ. mtuJ gq;fspg;G eilKiw kw;Wk; Gjpa Nfhl;ghL  vd;w ,uz;L kl;lj;jpYk; ,Ue;jJ. ngUksT Nfj;jpufzpj khjpuptbtq;fisg; gad;gLj;jpdhH. Gerald Toomer vd;gtH Kf;Nfhzfzpjj;ij (Trignometry) fz;L gpbj;jtH ,tNu vd;W nrhy;fpd;whH. fpg;gwhr;R]; mz;lj;ij mtjhdpg;gjpy; mjpf mf;fiw vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. mtuJ mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; fpK 147y; ,Ue;J fpK 127 tiu ePbj;jJ. rk gfy; ,uT Gs;spfs; (Equinox) tpz;zpy; fhzg;gLk; el;rj;jpuq;fspd; gpd;dzpapy; fpof;fpy; ,Ue;J Nkw;F Nehf;fp efHtij fz;L gpbj;jJ mtuJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;f rhjidahFk;.

ggpNyhdpaHfsJ thdpay; juTfis fpg;gwhr;R]; jhuhskhfg; gad;gLj;jpdhH. ,jd; %yk; ggpNyhdpaHfs; ,lkpUe;Nj fpNuf;fHfs; thdpay; juTfis Neubahfg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs; vd;gJ vz;gpjkhfpwJ. gpshl;Nlh> mup];Njhl;ly; ,UtUNk Gtpikaf; fUJNfhis (geocentric theory) epWtpatHfs; vd;gij Kd;dH $wpapUe;Njd;. ,tHfsJ fUJNfhspd; Kf;fpa mbg;gil nka;ikfs; kw;Wk; nfhs;iffs; (postulates and the  principles of the theory) gpd;tUkhW:

    1)  mz;lk; Nfhs (cUis) tbthdJ.

    2)  Gtp cl;gl vy;yh tpz;zf clypfSk; (Celestial bodies) Nfhs tbthdJ.

    3)  Gtp mirtw;wJ . mJ mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; cs;sJ.

    4) tpz;Zyf mirTfs; Gtpiar; Rw;wp rPuhfTk; tl;l tbthfTk; ,lk; ngWfpd;wd. ,e;j tpz;zf clypfs; GtpapypUe;J ntt;NtW njhiytpy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd. tpz;kPd;fs; tpz;zf clypfistpl mjpf njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd.  Gtp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;Wk; NghJ tpz;kPd;fs; mbthdpy; Njhd;wp kiwfpd;wd.

FNshba]; njhykp (fpgp 90-170) Nkw; $wg;gl;l gpshl;Nlh mup];Njhl;ly; ,UtuJk; Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il mg;gbNa gpd;gw;wpdhH.

mwptpay; cyfpy; FNyhba]; njhykpiaj; (Claudius Ptolemy) njupahjtHfs; ,Uf;f KbahJ. Nrhjplk;> thdpay;> Gtpapay;> fzf;fpay; Nghd;w midj;Jj; JiwfspYk; Gfo;f; nfhb ehl;batH.

njhykp tiue;j gz;ila ,yq;ifapd; tiuglj;ij ,yq;if gw;wpa epyEhy; kw;Wk; tuyhw;W Ehy; ,uz;bYk; fhzyhk;.

,tH vfpg;jpy; tho;e;jpUe;jhYk; fpNuf;f ,dj;jtH. ,tuJ Kjy; ngauhd FNshba]; mtuJ Kd;NdhUf;F cNuhk kd;dHfs; toq;fpa FbAupikiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ vd;fpwhHfs;. ,e;jj; njhykp NtW> mNj ngaupy; vfpg;ij Mz;l kd;dH njhykp (fpK 372-283) NtW. njhykp vd;gJ xU nghJg; ngaH.

njhykp mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpy; ,Ue;j Ehyfj;jpy; fpgp 127-150 tiu gzpahw;wpdhH. mg;NghJ ,tH %d;W Ehy;fis vOjp ntspapl;lhH.

    1) thdpay; kw;Wk; fzf;fpay; gw;wpa Almagest.

    2) Nrhjplj;ijg; gw;wpa Tetrabiblos.

    3) vl;Lj; njhFjpfs; nfhz;l epyEhy; (Geography).

Gtp gw;wpa Kjy; njhFjp cUz;il tbtkhd cyfj;ij (fpNuf;f jj;JtthjpfSf;F cyfk; tl;l tbtkhdJ vd;w cz;ik njupe;jpUe;jJ) xU jl;ilahd jhspy; tiutjpy; cs;s rpf;fy;fisg; gw;wpj; njuptpf;fpwJ. vQ;rpa 7 njhFjpfSk; cyfpy; cs;s vz;zhapuj;Jf;Fk;; mjpfkhd ,lq;fs; gw;wpa juTfisf; nfhz;lit.

njhykpjhd; Gtpapd; FWf;Ff;NfhL (latitude) neLf;NfhL (longitude) ,uz;ilAk; cUthf;fpatH. ,Nj Kiwiaf; Nfhs;fSf;Fk; gad;gLj;jpdhH.

njhykpapd; tiuglj;jpy; gy gpiofs; fhzg;gl;ld. fhuzk; mtH ,lq;fs;gw;wpa juTfis Neubahf ,y;yhky;> topr;nrytHfsplk; (gazpfs;)  ,Ue;Jk; fly; gazk; Kbj;J ehL jpUk;Gk; khYkpfsplk; ,Ue;Jk; ngw Ntz;b ,Ue;jNj.

njhykp cyfpd; Rw;wsitf; fzpg;gjpy; jtW ,ioj;jhH. mNj Nghy; ,e;J rKj;jpuj;ij xU cs;ehl;Lf; fly; (Inland Sea ) vdTk; mjd; njw;F vy;iy Terra Incognita (Unknown Land) vdTk; njhykp epidj;jhH. ,e;jj; jtWjhd; fpof;Nf rPdh> ,e;jpah Nghd;w fPo;j;jpir ehLfis Nkw;F Nehf;fpr; nrd;why; milayhk; vd mnkupf;fhitf; fz;L gpbj;j nfhyk;gir ek;g itj;jJ!

gz;ila Ehy;fs; gy fhynts;sj;jpy; mope;J gl;lJ Nghy njhykp vOjp ntspapl;l Ehy;fSk; gy Ehw;whz;L fhykhff; fhzhky; Ngha;tpl;ld. gjpide;jhk; Ehw;whz;bd; Kw;gFjpapNyNa mit kPs; fz;L gpbf;fg;
gl;L ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;ld.

njhykpapd; Gtpika Kiwik 1400 Mz;L fhyk; ve;j khw;wKkpd;;wp ePbj;jJ. ,e;j ePz;l ,ilntspapd; NghJ ma;Nuhg;ghtpy; thdpay; xU Njf;f epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy;> mNugpaHfs; mjid nrk;ikg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L ,Ue;jhHfs;. mtHfs; mtjhdpg;Gf; NfhGuq;fisf; fl;bAk; fUtpfis cUthf;fpAk; Ma;T nra;J nfhz;bUe;jdH. ,Ue;Jk; mtHfs; njhykpapd; rpf;fyhd G+kpika Nfhl;ghl;bYk; ,yFthd Kiwikiaj; Njl ehl;lk; nfhs;stpy;iy. 

njhykp vOjpa Syntaxis mathematica vd;w thdpay; Ehy; 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; muG nkhopapy; Almagest vd;w ngaupy; nkhopngaHf;fg;gl;lJ. Almagest  vd;why; "khngUk; fzpj Ehy;"  vd;W nghUs; MFk;.  

fpg;gwhr;Rrpd; Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gpd;gw;wp mjid NkYk; tpupTgLj;jp njhykp vOjpa EhNy Almagest   MFk;. ,e;j Ehy; gy EhW Mz;Lfs; fpNuf;fj;jpYk; mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpYk; fpNuf;f thdpayhsHfshy; mtjhdpf;fg;gl;l thdpay; mtjhdpg;Gf;fspd; mbg;gilapy; vOjg;gl;ljhFk;. Almagest  fpNuf;f thdpay; gw;wpa iggps; vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. Nfj;jpu fzpjj;Jf;F ,f;Fypl;bd; (Euclid) gq;fspg;G ve;jsNth mNj gq;fspg;ig ,e;j Ehy; thdpaYf;F Mw;wpaJ vdf; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. QhapW> epyh> rdp tpahod; Nghd;w Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis tpsf;Ftjw;F 80 Ff; Fiwahj rpW tl;lq;fis  ( Epicycles) njhiykp tiue;jhH.

Almagest vd;w Ehy; njhykpapd; Kiwik (Ptolemaic System) my;yJ njhykpapd; mz;lk; (Ptolemaic Universe)  gw;wp rpj;juppf;fpwJ. njhykpapd; mz;lk; fPo;f; fz;lthW mike;jpUe;jJ:

    1) Gtp mirtw;wJ. mJ mz;lj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.                                   njhykpapd; mz;lk;

    2) Gtpia ikakhff; nfhz;l ,uz;L tl;l tbthd Rw;Wg; ghijapy; jpq;fSk; QhapWk; rPuhf Rw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

    3) jpq;fs;> Gjd;> QhapW> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> nts;sp> rdp Nfhs;fs; rpWtl;lq;fs; neLfpYk; rPuhfr; Rw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

    4) Gtpapy; ,Ue;J jpq;fs;> Gjd;> nts;sp> QhapW> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp  mz;ik - Nrz;ik tupirapy; ,Uf;fpd;wd. 

njhykp #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs; vg;gb Vw;gLfpd;wd vd;gij tpsf;fpdhH. ,d;W ehk; gad;gLj;Jk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fspy; 48 njhykpahy; ,lg;ngw;w mNj ngaHfspNyNa miof;fg;gLfpd;wd vd;gJ kdk; nfhs;sj;jf;fJ.

njhykpapd; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa rpf;fyhd tpsq;fq;fis vspjhf tpsf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; epyh> Gjd;> QhapW> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> nts;sp> rdp Nfhs;fs; xt;nthd;Wk; Gtpiag; ngU tl;lg; ghijapy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd> mNj Neuk; mit xt;nthd;Wk; rpW tl;lg;ghijapYk; Rw;Wfpd;wd vd;gJjhd;. GjDk; nts;spAk; QhapWf;Fk; Gtpf;Fk; ,ilapy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;gjw;Fg; gjpyhf mit Gtpf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; ,ilapy; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vdj; njhykp epidj;jhH. Mdhy;>  Gtp cUz;il tbthdJ vd;gJ njhykpf;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jJ.

NfhngHdpf;f]; 1543 ,y; QhapW ikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;nkhopAk; kl;Lk; njhykpapd; Nfhl;ghNl vy;NyhuhYk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L te;jJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Almagest  vd;w Ehiy vOjpa gpd;dNu njhykp Tetrabiblos vd;w Nrhjpl Ehiy vOjpdhH. fpgp 140 Mk; Mz;lstpy; vOjg;gl;l ,e;j Ehy; 4 njhFjpfisAk; 61 mjpfhuq;fisAk; nfhz;lJ. gjpd;%d;whk; Ehw;whz;by; vOjp itf;fg;gl;l ifnaOj;Jg; gbNa ,d;W fpilj;Js;sJ. ,e;j EhNy ntg;gkz;ly NrhjplHfSf;F Kjy; EhyhfTk;> mij vOjpa njhykp mtHfsJ Nrhjpl MrhdhfTk; tpsq;Ffpd;whH.

njhykpf;F thdpaYf;Fk; Nrhjplj;Jf;Fk; cs;s xw;Wik Ntw;Wik njupe;jpUe;jJ. Tetrabiblos vd;w EhYf;F vOjpa mwpKfTiuapy; gpd;tUkhW vOjpAs;shH.

'Kjy; Ehy;" (Almagest ) QhapW> epyh kw;Wk; el;rj;jpuq;fspd; mirTfs; gw;wpAk; mtw;Wf;Fk; Gtpf;Fk; cs;s cwTfs; gw;wpaJk; MFk;.... ,g;NghJ ehk; ,e;j Ehypy; (Tetrabiblos) jj;Jt mbg;gilapy; kdpj tho;f;iapYk; nraw;ghLfspYk; mit nrYj;Jk; nry;thf;if tpsf;FNthk;. cz;ikfisr; rhd;WfNshL fz;lwptjpy; ,e;jr; Nrhjpl Ehiy Kjy; nrhy;ypa EhNyhL xg;gpl KbahJ.'

njhykp vOjpa Tetrabiblos vd;w Ehy; Kbe;j kl;Lk; mwptpay; Nfhzj;jpy; ,Ue;J vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. nja;tPfj;jd;ik> Guhz ek;gpf;iffs; ngUksT ,e;j Ehypy; jtpHf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (34)

NfhngHdpf;fd; Gul;rp (Copernican Revolution)

Tetrabiblos Ehypd; Kjy; njhFjpapy; njhykp Nrhjplj;ij mwptpay; Nehf;NfhL ghHf;fpd;whH. ,uz;lhtJ njhFjpapYk; nghJthf vy;NyhUf;Fk; nghUe;jf; $ba Nrhjplk; gw;wpf; $Wfpd;whH. %d;whtJ ehd;fhtJ njhFjpfspy; jdpkdpj Nrhjplk; gw;wpf; $Wfpd;whH. filrp ,uz;L njhFjpfSk; (5> 6) %d;W mjpfhuq;fshf gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mitahtd-

(m) gpwg;Gg; rFdq;fs;

(M) gpwe;j Neuk;

(,) gpwe;j gpd; vd;d elf;fpwJ

gz;ila thdpayhsH QhapW my;y Gtpjhd; mz;lj;jpd; ikak; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;by; itj;j ek;gpf;iff;F %d;W gpioahd vLNfhs;fs; (hypothesis) fhuzkhFk;. mitahtd:

(1) thdj;jpy; ,lk;ngWk; mirTfs; vy;yhk; xU rPuhd tl;l tbtkhdJ.

(2) thdj;jpy; cs;s fhl;rpg;nghUl;fs; (objects) fyg;gw;w gUg;nghUl;fshy; Mdit. vdNt mit jkJ ,dg;nghJg; gz;Gfis (intrinsic properties) khw;w KbahJ.

(3)  Gtp mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.

,t;thwhd fUj;Jf;fs; njhykpapdhy; ml;ltizg; gLj;jg;gl;ld. MfNtjhd; #upa kz;lyk; gw;wpa ,e;jf; fl;likg;G njhykpapd; mz;lk; (Ptolemaic Universe) vd miof;fg;gl;lJ.

mjidj; njhlHe;J mtuJ jj;Jtk; kj;jpa ma;Nuhg;gpa ,iwapay; (Theology) fpwp];Jtj;NjhL njhkh]; mf;Fdh]; Nghd;w rkahr;rhupaHfshy; xd;wpizf;fg;gl;lJ.

mup];Njhl;ly; Gtpia ikakhff; nfhz;l xU Nfhs tbthd mz;lj;ij Kd;nkhope;jhH. mz;lk; epyk;> fhw;W> neUg;G> jz;zPH vd;w ehd;F %yfq;fshy; MdJ> mit Xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; mjd; ‘mlHj;jp’ iag; nghWj;J mjw;fhd ,lk; cs;sJ. mit NeHf;Nfhl;by; mire;J nry;fpd;wd. epyk; fPOk; neUg;G NkYk; mirfpwJ. fhw;Wk; jz;zPUk; fPOk; NkYk;  ,ilg;gl mirfpwJ. mup];Njhl;ly; Mfhaj;ij 5 MtJ %yfk; vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. Mfhak; tl;ltbtpy; mirfpwjhfr; nrhd;dhH.

mup];Njhl;ly; ,aw;ifia tpsf;Ftjw;F rpw;wsT ,aw;gpaiyAk; (Physics) NgusT ,ay; fle;j Ma;itAk; (Metaphysics) iff;nfhz;lhH vdf; $wyhk;. Mdhy;> mtH jdJ fhyj;jpy; kw;wtHfistpl Mokhfr; rpe;jpj;jhH vd;gij ahUk; kWf;f KbahJ. mup];Njhl;ly; 400 Fk; mjpfkhd Ehy;fis vOjpdhH vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

mup];Njhl;ly; Kjd;ik ,af;FeH (Prime Mover) xUtH ,Ug;gjhf thjpl;lhH. ,aw;ifapd; Fwpf;NfhSf;Fk; xUikg; ghl;Lf;Fk; mtNu nghWg;G vd;whH. flTs; epiwthdtH (God is perfect)  vdNt cyfpy; cs;s capupdq;fspd; vy;yhk; epiwthdtw;iwf; Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;bUfpd;wd vd;whH. NtW ,af;FeHfSk; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;> mtHfs; Nfhs;fisAk; tpz;kPd;fisAk; mirf;fpd;wdH. mtHfspd; vz;zpf;if 55 my;yJ 57 Mf ,Uf;fyhk; vdr; nrhd;dhH.

mup];Njhl;lypd; Kjd;ik ,af;FeH (Prime Mover ) fpwp];jt ,iwapaypy; flTshf khw;wk; ngw;whH. Kjd;ik ,af;Feupd; Nfhsq;fs; fpwpj;jt guNyhfj;NjhL milahsk; fhzg;gl;ld. Gtp ,e;j mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; ,Ug;gJk; kdpjHfspd; nray;ghLfspy; flTs; mf;fiw nfhz;bUg;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ vdf; $wg;gl;lJ.

Gwr;rka (Pagan) fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfshy; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fs; fj;Njhypf;f kj gPlj;jhy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;L ehsiltpy; mit mjpfhuG+Htkhd rkaf; nfhs;ifahf Vw;wk; ngw;wd. ,jd; tpisT mz;lk; gw;wpa fUj;Jf;fis thdpayhsH vjpHj;Jiuj;jNghJ mJ mwptpay; rpf;fyhf kl;Lk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mJ ,iwapay; rpf;fyhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  ,jdhy; mtHfs; ty;yik gilj;j Njthyaj;jpd; gifiaAk; Njl Ntz;b Vw;gl;lJ.

kj;jpa fhyj;jpy; ma;Nuhg;ghtpy; mup];Njhl;ly; vOjpa Ehy;fs; kPs; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;L mit ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; nkhopngaHg;G nra;ag;gl;ld vd Kd;dH fz;Nlhk;. ,jdhy; mup];Njhl;lypd; fUj;Jf;fs; jj;Jtkhf cUg;ngw;Wg; Gjpa typik ngw;wJ.

gy mtjhdpg;Gfs; Gtp miratpy;iy vdf; fpNuf;fHfis ek;g itj;jd.

(1) Gtp thDyfpd; xU gFjpahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,d;W Gtp ghy;kz;lyj;jpd; xU Nfhbapy; ,Uf;Fk; QhapW tpz;kPidr; Rw;wptUk; 9 Nfhs;fspy; xd;W vd;gJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupAk;. Mdhy;> ,e;j vz;zk; njhiyNehf;fp vkJ fhl;rp Mw;wiy mjpfg;gLj;jpajhy; Vw;gl;lJ.

The Earth is not part of the heavens. Today the Earth is known to be just one planet of nine that orbit an average star in the outskirts of a large galaxy, but this idea gained acceptance only recently when telescopes extended our vision.

(2) fpNuf;fHfs; thDyf fhl;rpg;nghUl;fs; xspkakhd ntspr;rg; Gs;spfs;. GtpNah kz;zhYk; fy;ypdhYk; Mf;fg;gl;l xspaw;w ngupa Nfhsk;. ,d;W tpz;kPd;fs;  QhapW  NghyNt xsptpLk; fhl;rpg; nghUs;fs;> mit ntFnjhiytpy;  ,Uf;fpd;wd> Nfhs;fSf;Fr; Ra xsp ,y;iy> Nfhs;fs; ntWkNd Qhapwpd; xspiaj; njwpf;fr; nra;fpd;wd vd;gJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupAk;.

The celestial objects are bright points of light while the Earth is an immense, nonluminous sphere of mud and rock. Modern astronomers now know that the stars are objects like our Sun but very far away and the planets are just reflecting sunlight.

(3) fpNuf;fHfs; thDyfpy; kpfr; nrhw;g khw;wj;ijNa fz;lhHfs;. ,uT khwp ,uT xNukhjpupahd  tpz;kPd;fisf; fz;lhHfs;. mjw;F vjpHkhwhfg; Gtpapy; capHfspd; gpwg;G> khw;wk;> mopT eilngw;w tz;zk; ,Ue;jd. vdNt thDyfpy; fhzg;gLk; fhl;rpg; nghUs;fs; rPuhf ,aq;fpd> Mdhy;> mg;gbahd xOq;ifg;  Gtpapy; ghHf;f Kbatpy;iy.

,d;W thdpayhsH tpz;kPd;fs;  gpwe;J gpd; ,wf;fpd;wd vd;Wk; mtw;wpd; tho;ehs; kdpj tho;ehis tpl mjpfkhdjhy; mit khWglhjitahfj; Njhw;wk; jUfpd;wd vd;Wk; tpsf;fk; jUfpd;whHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; jw;fhy thdpayhsupd; Ma;Tg;gb el;rj;jpuq;fs; jq;fSf;Fs; ,lk; khWfpd;wd vd;gJ fz;lwpag; gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy;> njhiyNehf;fpapd; cjtpapd;wp ,e;j ,lkhw;wj;ij mtjhdpf;f gy EhW Mz;Lfs; nry;fpd;wd.

The Greeks saw little change in the heavens---the stars are the same night after night. In contrast to this, they saw the Earth as the home of birth, change, and destruction. They believed that the celestial bodies have an immutable regularity that is never achieved on the corruptible Earth. Today astronomers know that stars are born and eventually die (some quite spectacularly!)---the length of their lifetimes are much more than a human lifetime so they appear unchanging. Also, modern astronomers know that the stars do change positions with respect to each other over, but without a telescope, it takes hundreds of years to notice the slow changes.

(4) ,Wjpahf vkJ Gyd;fs; cyfk; mirahJ Xuplj;jpy; epw;fpwJ vd;gij czHj;JfpwJ! cyfk; mirtJ cz;ikahdhy; fhw;W> gwitfs; kw;Wk; GtpNahL ,izf;fg;glhj nghUl;fs; gpd;Df;F tplg;gl;LtpLk;. cyfk; Roy;fpwJ vd rpy jPtpu rpe;jidahsHfs; nrhy;tJ rupnad;why; mJ gykhf tPRk; fhw;W ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk rhj;jpakhFk;. Mdhy;> gykhd fhw;W ,y;iy. cyfk; Rw;WfpwJ vd;why; caukhd ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J ghAk; xUtH tpo Muk;gpj;j ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J gpd;dhy; te;J  tpoNtz;Lk;. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; RoYk; Gtpapy;  ,Ue;J nghUl;fs; Jhf;fp tPrg;gl;LtpLk;.

ghiwfs;> kuq;fs; kw;Wk; kdpjHfs; Gtpapy; ,Ue;J Jhf;fp tPrg;gLtjpy;iy vd;gJ Gtp miratpy;iy vd;gijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

,d;W  Gtp RoYk; NghJk; Rw;Wk; NghJk; nghUl;fs; Jhf;fp tPrg;glhjjw;Fupa VJit mirtpd;ik (inertia) gw;wpa tpjpfs; %yk;> gpshl;Nlhtpw;Fg; gpd;dH 2>000 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J>  thdpayhsHfs; tpsf;fpAs;shHfs;. mirtpd;ik vd;gJ mirAk; nghUs; NtnwhU nghUshy; jLf;Fk; tiu mire;J nfhz;Lk;> mirAk; nghUs; NtnwhU nghUshy; jLf;fhj tiu mirahkYk; ,Uf;Fk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;Lr;  nrhy;y NtZkhdhy; kpjptz;b XLk; NghJ rhahkYk; Xlhky; ,Ue;jhy; rha;e;Jk; tpLfpwJ.

,d;W $lg; gbahj kf;fSf;Fg; Gtp> QhapW> tpz;kPd;fs; ,tw;wpd; mirT gw;wp vy;yhk; njupe;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. mtHfs; gUt khw;wq;fs;> #upa-re;jpu fpufzq;fs; vjdhy; vg;gb Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gijj; njupe;J itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs; vd;Wk; nrhy;y KbahJ. gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j GuhzpfHfSk; thdpay; mwpitg; nghWj;jstpy; ghkuHfs;jhd;. mjdhNyNa eufhRud; Gtpiag; ghahfr; RUl;bf; nfhz;L Ngha; flYf;Fs; xspj;J itj;jhd; vd;W fij vOjp itj;jhHfs;.

fpwpj;jtHfspd; Ntjhfkj;jpy;  Gtp xUNghJk; mg;gb ,g;gb Mlhky; ,Uf;FkhW flTs; mjid mjd; mbj;jsj;jpy; ehl;b itj;jhH vdr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ. (Psalm 104:5: "Thou did fix the earth on its foundation so that it never can be shaken." )  Gtp jhdhf cUthftpy;iy> mJ flTshy; gilf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w thjk; kj gPlq;fshy; ,d;Wk; Kd; itf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ. cyfk; jl;il vd;W ek;GfpwtHfSk; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;!

mup];Njhl;ly; - njhykp ,UtuJ Gtpika mz;lk; Nkw;Fyf rpe;jidia 2>000 Mz;L fhyk; Ml;bg;gilj;jd.

Gjpdhwhk; Ehw;whz;by;jhd; Nghye;J ehl;bd; Gfo;ngw;w thdpayhsH epf;fy]; NfhngHdpf;f]; (fpgp1473-1543) xU Gjpa Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;nkhope;jhH.

epf;fy]; NfhngHdpf;f]; (Nicholaus Copernicus) 1473 ngg;utup 19 ,y; Nghye;jpy; cs;s Torun  efupy; gpwe;jtH. ,j;jhypapy; cs;s Gfo;ngw;w gLth gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; (Padua University ) kUj;Jtk;> fpNuf;fnkhop> fzf;fpay; gbj;jhH. filrpahff; fpwpj;jt jpUKiwapy; gl;lk; ngw;whH. NfhngHdpf;f]; jdJ nrhe;j ehlhd Nghye;Jf;Fj; jpUk;gp mq;F kUj;Jtuhfg; gzpahw;wpdhH. Mdhy;> mtuJ mur Kiwahd (official) njhopy; mq;fpUe;j Njthyaj;jpd; kjFU vd;gNj.

NfhngHdpf;f]; xU KONeu thdpayhsuhf ,Ue;jjpy;iy. mtH vOjpa “thDyf  clypfspd; Rw;Wf;fs;” (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies) vd;w  Gfo;ngw;w Ehy; mtuJ Xa;T Neuj;jpy; vOjg;gl;ljhFk;.

NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWika Kiwik 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; eLg;gFjp tiu mtuJ rkfhy thdpayhsHfshYk; ,aw;if jj;JtthjpfshYk; nghUj;jkw;wJ vd vz;zg;gl;lJ.

Mdhy;> mtuJ Nfhl;ghLf;F MjuT toq;fpatHfspy; Nahfhd;]; nfg;yH (1571-1630) kw;Wk; fypypNah fypyp (1564-1642) Kd;dzpapy; ,Ue;;jhHfs;. ,Wjpahf NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; typik NrHj;j ngUik NrH ma;rf; epA+l;ldJ 'cyfshtpa <Hg;G %y mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghL' (Theory of Universal Gravitation) MFk;.

NfhngHdpf;f]; vOjpa thDyf  clypfspd; Rw;Wf;fs; vd;w Ehypy;  Gtp my;y> QhapNw QhapW kz;lyj;jpd; ikag; gFjpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;w Nfhl;ghL Kd;nkhopag;gl;lJ. mjd; mbg;gilapy; Qhapiw tupirahfr; Rw;wp tUk; Nfhs;fspy; Gtp %d;whtJ ,lj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;lJ. thDyf  clypfspd; Rw;Wf;fs; NfhngHdpf;f]; kuzg; gLf;ifapy; gLj;jpUe;jNghJjhd; ntspaplg;gl;lJ.

e;j khw;wq;fs; NfhngHdpf;fd; Gul;rp (Copernican Revolution ) vdr; rpwg;ghf miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

Gjpa xOq;fpd;gb  Gtp ,d;ndhU Nfhs;>  epyh> Qhapiw my;y Gtpiar; Rw;wp tUfpw cgNfhs;> ntF njhiytpy; cs;s tpz;kPd;fs; Qhapiwr; Rw;Wtjpy;iy> Gtp jd;idj;jhNd 24 kzpj;jpahyj;Jf;F xUKiw Rw;WfpwJ>  mg;gbr; Rw;Wk; NghJ thdj;jpy; cs;s tpz;kPd;fs; Gtpia vjpHj;jpirapy; Rw;WtJNghd;w xU khaj; Njhw;wj;ij (czHTf; fhl;rpia) cz;lhf;FfpwJ.

QhapWjhd; Gtpiar; Rw;wp tUfpwnjd;w fUJNfhisg; Gwe;js;spajd; tpisthf Nfhs;fspd; NtWgl;l xsp tPr;R kw;Wk; Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ghHf;Fk;NghJ mtw;wpd; gpd;dPl;L mirTf;F (retrograde motion) ,yFthd tpsf;fk; mspf;f Kbe;jJ.

    (1) QhapW ika Kiwikapy; Nfhs;fspd; khWgl;l xsp tPr;Rf;F me;jf; Nfhs;fs; Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ntt;NtW njhiytpy; ,Ug;gNj fhuzkhFk;.

    (2) Nfhs;fspd; gpd;dPl;L mirTf;Ff; Nfj;jpu fzpj mbg;gilapy; tpsf;fk; nfhLf;fyhk;. tpiuthf rpwpa ePs;tl;lj;jpy; Rw;wp tUk; Nfhs; ngupa ePs;tl;lj;jpy; nkJthfr;  Rw;wp tUk; Nfhisf; fle;J nry;Yk; NghJ gpd;ida Nfhs; gpd;dhb XLtJ Nghd;w kUl;rpiaj; (illusion) Njhw;Wtpf;fpwJ.  Gtp - nrt;tha; Xl;lk; my;yJ  Gtp - tpaho Xl;lk; ,g;gbahd kUl;rpiaj; Njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd.

,e;jf; fUj;JUit xU neLQ;rhiyapy; ntt;NtW xOq;ifapy; ntt;NtW Ntfj;jp;y; XLk; tz;bfis vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf itj;J tpsf;fyhk;. kzpf;F 100 fpkP Ntfj;jpy; xLk; xU tz;bia kzpf;F 140 fpkP Ntfj;jpy; XLk; tz;b Ke;Jk; NghJ Ntfk; Fiwe;j tz;b gp;d;dhb XLtJ Nghd;w kUl;rpia Vw;gLj;Jk;. cz;ikapy; mJTk; Kd;dhb Xbf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpwJ.

Nfhs;fspd; ,e;jg; gpd;Ndhl;lj;ijr; Nrhjplj;jpy; tf;fpuk; vd;W miog;ghHfs;. Nfhs;fs; vy;yhk; Qhapiw ePs;tl;lj;jpy; Rw;Wtjhy; gpd;dhb nry;Yk; Nfhs;fs; rpwpJ fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpwF kPz;Lk; Kd;dhb nry;yj; njhlq;Fk;. Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; mg;gbg; gpd;dhbr; nry;Yk; Nfhs;fSf;Fr; NrhjplHfs; gyd; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;!

gpd;dhb nry;Yk; fhyj;jpy; mJ vd;d Nfhs; vd;gijg; nghWj;J rhjffhuH fle;j fhyj;ij ,l;L kPsha;T nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ nghJg; gyd;.

NfhHngdpf;f]; gpd;dPl;L அசைவு                   njhykpapd; gpd;dPl;L அசைவு     

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuq;fis vOjpatHfSf;F ,e;jg; gpd;Ndhl;lk; gw;wpa fhuz fhupak; njupahjjhy; jq;fsJ fw;gidapy; Njhd;wpaij vOjp itj;J tpl;lhHfs;. mtw;iw  NrhjplHfs; ,d;Wk; fz;%bj;jdkhfg; gpd;gw;Wfpd;whHfs;.       

gz;ila thdpayhsUf;F QhapW my;y Gtpjhd; mz;lj;jpd; ikak; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;by; mup];Njhl;ly; fhyk; njhl;L 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;L tiu itj;j ek;gpf;iff;F %d;W gpioahd Nfhl;ghLfs; fhuzkhFk; vdj; njhlf;fj;jpy; ghHj;Njhk;.

    (1) thdj;jpy; ,lk;ngWk; mirTfs; vy;yhk; xU rPuhd tl;l tbtkhdJ (uniform ar motion").

   (2) thdj;jpy; cs;s fhl;rpg;nghUs;fs; (Objects) fyg;gw;w gUg;nghUs;fshy; Mdit. vdNt mit jkJ ,dg; nghJg; gz;Gfis (intrinsic properties) khw;w KbahJ.

    (3)  Gtp mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.

NfhngHdpf;f]; KjyhtJ Nfhl;ghl;ilapl;Lf; Nfs;tp vOg;gpdhH. Mdhy;> ,uz;lhtJ Nfhl;ghL gw;wpf; Nfs;tp vOg;gtpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; NfhngHdpf;fd; Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghL ,uz;lhtJ Nfhl;ghl;il kiwKfkhf kWj;jJ. cyfk; ,d;ndhU Nfhs; vd;gjhy; Vida Nfhs;fSk; Gtpapy; fhzg;gLk; nghUs;fshy; cUthdit vdf; NfhngHdpf;f]; Cfpj;jhH.

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L 

 

G+kpia kl;Lky;y kdpj kdijAk; mira itj;j kdpjH

 

(35)

NfhngHdpf;f]; xU Gul;rpf;fhuH my;y. mtH vOjpa Ehy; mtuJ ,Wjpf; fhyj;jpy; ntspaplg;gl;ljw;F vq;Nf jdJ Nfhl;ghLfs; jdJ NkyhsHfshYk; jpUr;rigapdhYk; Vsdk; nra;ag;gLNkh my;yJ xg;Gjy; ngwj; jtwptpLNkh vd;w mr;rk; fhuzk; vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> jaf;fkhd Gul;rpahsH vdj; jd;id fhl;bf; nfhz;l ,tH Nkw;Fyf ehfupfj;jpd; rpe;jidj; jsj;jpy; jtotpl;l vz;zq;fs; ehsiltpy; khngUk; Gul;rpia (mtH ,we;J ePz;l fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH ) Vw;gLj;jpaJ. njhlf;fj;jpy; mtuJ vz;zq;fs; mtH ,we;J EhW Mz;L fhyk; tiu ftdpg;ghuw;Wf; fple;jd.

NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghL QhapW FLk;gj;jpd; fl;likg;igg;gw;wp Neubahff; $wpdhYk; mwptpay; Jiwapy; mjd; kiwKf tpisT msg;gupaJ. mz;lk; gw;wpa kdpjdJ ghHitapy; mJ ngupa jpUg;G Kidia Vw;gLj;jpaJ vdyhk;.  NfhngHdpf;f]; fhyk; fhykhf kuGtop %lek;gpf;iffspdhy; tpyq;fplg;gl;Lf; fple;j kdpj %isf;F tpLjiy ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jhH.

NfhngHdpf;f]; Vwf;Fiwa md;iwa KO cyfj;ijAk; vjpHj;J epd;whH vd;Nw $wyhk;. Fwpg;ghf rfy ty;yikAk; mjpfhuKk; gilj;j  fpwpj;jt jpUr;rig kw;Wk; Gdpj Ntjhfkk; ,uz;ilAk;  vjpHj;J epd;whH. mJ kl;Lky;yhky; mtUf;F Kd;dH gy Ehw;whz;L fhyk; tho;e;J kiwe;j jj;Jtthjpfspd; rpe;jidfs;> Nfhl;ghLfs;> KbTfs; Nghd;wtw;iw  vjpHj;J epd;whH. ,jd; %yk; Jzpr;ryhd rpe;jidf;F tpj;jpl;lhH> mNj Neuk; cz;ikf;fhd NjLjypy; gzpTk;  jd;dlf;fKk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk; mtH typAWj;jpdhH.

NfhngHdpf;frpd; mwptpay; Gul;rp Nfhs;fs; kw;Wk; tpz;kPd;fs; Mfpatw;NwhL epd;W tpltpy;iy> mJ kdpjidg; gw;wpAk; RoYk; Gtpapy; mtdJ ,lk; gw;wpAk; Md mwptpayhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.

NfhngHdpf;f]; jhd; jpUr;rigf;F Kuzhdtd; vd;w Fw;wr; rhl;by; ,Ue;J jg;Gtjw;Fj; jhd; vOjpa De Revolutionibus Orbium  Coelestium  vd;w Ehiyg;  Nghg;ghz;ltUf;Nf xg;gilg;Gr; nra;jhH. mg;gbr; nra;j fhuzj;jhy; mtuJ QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghL ntWkNd xU GidTNfhshf (thj Mjhukw;w jw;fhypfkhff; nfhs;sg;gLk; fUj;J)  kl;LNk nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W me;j EhYf;F mwpKfTiu vOjpatH Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhH. kj;jpa ma;Nuhg;ghtpy; jpUr;rigf;F khwhf vOJgtHfs;>  NgRgtHfs; fpgp 1215 ,y; epWtg;gl;l kjtprhuiz kd;wj;Jf;F (Inquisition)  Kd; epWj;jg;gl;L jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. mtHfs; ghjhsr; rpiwapy; milj;J itf;fg;gl;Lr; rpj;jputij nra;ag; gl;lhHfs; my;yJ capNuhL vupA+l;bf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;.   

fpgp 1620 ,y; NguhaH my;ghNdh (Bishop Albano ) vd;gtuhy; NfhngHdpf;f]; vOjpa Ehy; jilnra;ag;gl;l Ehy;fspd; gl;baypy; NrHf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; me;j Ehiy mLj;j ,uz;L Ehw;whz;Lf;F ahUNk gbf;f KbahJ Ngha;tpl;lJ!

NfhngHdpf;f];  'Gtpia kl;Lky;y kdpj kdijAk; mira itj;j kdpjH' vd;W Nghw;wg;gLfpd;whH. NkYk; 'mnyf;rhe;jH> n[d;fp]; fhd;> neg;Nghypad;>  Nghg;ghz;ltHfs; ,tHfis tpl kdpj tuyhw;wpy; jPtpu nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpatH" vdg; ghuhl;lg; gLfpd;whH. Gtpapd; %tif mirTfis Vw;Wf; nfhz;L mjid Vida thDyf Nfhs;fSld; itj;Jf; NfhngHdpf;f]; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa xU Gjpa ghHitf;F mbj;jsk; ,l;lhH.

gjpNdohk; Ehw;whz;by; nfg;yH> fypypNah kw;Wk; epA+l;ld; NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWika mz;lf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; mbj;jsj;jpy; epd;W nfhz;Nl Nrhjid %yk; jq;fsJ Ma;Tfis Nkw;nfhz;lhHfs;. mjd; tpisthf thdpay; Jiwapy; xU Gul;rp Vw;gl;lJ.  mup];Njhl;ly;> njhykp ,UtuJk; Nfhl;ghLfs; Kw;whfj; Jhf;fp tPrg;gl;L mjw;Fg; gjpyhf ,d;iwa Gjpa thdpay; kw;Wk; ,aw;if mwptpay; Nfhl;ghLfs; mur fl;by; Vwpd.  

Kd;dH $wpathW NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghL Kw;Wk; Gjp;jhdjJ my;y.  fpK 200 ,y;  rhNkh]; jPtpy; (,d;W JUf;fp ehl;bd; flw;fiuf;F mg;ghy; cs;s jPT) tho;e;j mup];jhHr;R]; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Kd; nkhope;jpUe;jhH vd;gij Vw;fdNt ghHj;Njhk;.  

,d;iwa thdpay; mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; Vuzk; kw;Wk; fzpjapay; mbg;gilapy; (In logical and mathematical  way ) Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.  vz;gpf;ff; $ba Nfhl;ghLfspd; mbj;jsj;jpy; fl;b vOg;gg;gLfpd;wd. NfhngHdpf;fd; Gul;rpapd; Kf;fpa mk;rk; vd;dntd;why; thDyfj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; fhl;rpg; nghUl;fspd; mirTfs; gw;wpj; jpUj;jkhd juTfisj; jpul;baJjhd;.  

“Finally we shall place the Sun himself at the center of the Universe. All this is suggested by the systematic procession of events and the harmony of the whole Universe, if only we face the facts, as they say, 'with both eyes open'.”

'Kbthf Qhapiw mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; itg;Nghkhf. mz;lj;jpd; xUq;fpirT (harmony)  kw;Wk; epfo;r;rpfspd; Kiwahd efHTfs; mjidNa Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. gyH nrhy;tJNghy; ehq;fs; kl;Lk; 'jpwe;j fz;fNshL' nka;ikfSf;F Kfk; nfhLg;Nghkhdhy; ,e;j cz;ikia mwpayhk;' vd NfhngHdpf;f]; jdJ Ehypy; vOjpdhH.

tuyhw;wpy; xU epue;ju ,lj;ijg; gpbjJf; nfhz;l NfhngHdpf;f]; 1543 Mk; Mz;L Nk 24 ,y; fhykhdhH.

NfhngHdpf;f]; vOjpa Ehy; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; ,Ue;jjhy; mJ rhjhuz kf;fisr; nrd;wilatpy;iy. mJTk; xU tpjj;jpy; ey;yjhfg; Nghapw;W. fj;Njhypf;f jpUr;rigapd; new;wpf;fz; NfhgHdpf;f]; gf;fk; cldbahfj; jpUk;gtpy;iy. Mdhy;> fj;Njhypf;f rkaj;jtuhd NfhngHdpf;f]; vOjpa Ehy; Gul;l];jhd; rkaj;ij Njhw;Wtpj;j khl;bd; YhjH (Martin Luther ) njhkh]; Fd; (Thomas Khun ) kw;Wk; gpypg; nkyhr;njhd; (Philip Melachthon) Nghd;wtHfspd; new;wpf; fz;fisj; jpwf;f itj;jJ. 

"Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUtJ cz;ikahdhy;  tpz;kPd;fs; Kd;Dk; gpd;Dk; mira Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mg;gbahd miritf; fhz Kbatpy;iy. NkYk; Rw;Wk; G+kp rPuhf tPRk; fhw;iw cUthf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mg;gb vJTk; eilngwtpy;iy. gwitfs; kzpf;F 1>000 fy; Ntfj;jpy; gwe;jhy; kl;LNk NfhngHdpf;frpd; Rw;Wk; G+kpf;F <L nfhLf;f KbAk;. ,J xU gapj;jf;fhuj;jdkhd NahridahFk;."

"QhapW> re;jpud; cl;gl thDyfk; my;y Gtp  Rw;WfpwJ vd;W nrhy;fpd;w jpBH  NrhjplUf;Ff; fhJ nfhLf;Fk; kf;fs;………,e;jg; Ngad; (NfhngHdpf;f];) thdpay; gw;wpa mwpitj; jiyfPohf khw;w epidf;fpwhd;. Mdhy;> Gdpj Mfkq;fs; VNfhth (Joshua 10:13) Gtpia my;y QhapiwNa xU ,lj;jpy; epw;FkhW fl;lis ,l;lhH."

'rpy kdpjHfs;> xd;wpy; xU GJikf;fhf my;yJ jq;fs; tpj;Jtj;;ijf; fhl;lg;  Gtp mirfpwJ vd KbT fl;btpl;lhHfs;....... cz;ikapd;ik> gz;gpd;ik fhuzkhf mjidg; gfpuq;fkhfr; nrhy;fpwhHfs;. ,J nghy;yhg;ghdJ> ey;y kdJ cilatHfs; flTs; ntspf;fhl;ba cz;ikia Vw;Wf; nfhz;L mjd;gb elf;fNtz;Lk; ..................mz;lj;jpd; eLtpy;  Gtp ,y;yhtpl;lhy; mJ NtW vq;NfAk; ,Uf;f KbahJ." (njhkh]; Fd; - The Copernican Revolution, notes Luther's reaction to Copernicus)

'rpyH ngaH vLg;gjw;fhf me;jg; gpw\;\pad; thdpayhsH Nghy; igj;jpaf;fhuj;jdkhd Nfhl;ghLfis ( Gtp Rw;WfpwJ> QhapW epiyahf epw;fpwJ)  cUthf;FfpwhHfs;. mwpTs;s kd;dHfs; mg;gbg; gl;ltHfsJ kdij nky;y trg;gLj;jp mtHfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;." (Hermann Kesten - Copernicus and His World )  

'Yhjupd; rhjfk; Nahf rhjfkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W epidj;j nkyhr;njhd; Yhjupd; gpwe;j ehisAk; Neuj;ijAk; khw;wpdhH. mg;gb khw;wptpl;L YhjH mkhthir ehl;fspy; gazpf;ff; $lhJ vd;W kd;whl;lkhff; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.' (Nkw;gb Ehypy;)

'fy;tpd; Njhj;jpug; ghly;fspy; (Psalm 93:1) ,Ue;J xU tupia "cyfk; mirahjthW cWjpahdJ" vd;W nrhy;yptpl;Lf; Nfl;fpwhH 'nja;tPf Mtpapd; mjpfhuj;Jf;F Nkyhf ahH NfhngHdpf;fpd; Nfhl;ghl;il itf;fj; JzpthHfs;?' (Nkw;gb Ehypy; )

1945 ,y; NfhngHdpf;frpd; epidthf tl Nghye;jpy; kpfg; ngupa gy;fiyf; fofk; xd;W epWtg;gl;L ,aq;fp tUfpwJ. 

NfhngHdpf;f]; fhyk; njhl;Nl thdpay; Nrhjplk; ,uz;Lk; jdpj; jdpg; ghijapy; eilNghlj; njhlq;fpd. mtuJ QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghL Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpd; mbj;jsj;ijNa Ml;lk; fhz itj;jJ.

QhapW Nfhs; vd;w epiyapy; ,Ue;J tpz;kPd; vd;w ,lj;ijg; gpbj;jJ.  Gtp Vida Nfhs;fspy; xd;nwdf; fzpf;fg;gl;lJ. epyh Nfhs; my;y Gtpiar; Rw;Wk; cgNfhs; vdg; gjtp ,wf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

Nrhjplk; gpioahd mbj;jsj;jpy;

fl;bnaOg;gg; gl;Ls;s rhj;jpukhFk;. mjpy; Kjd;ikahdJ Gtpjhd; mz;lj;jpd; ikak;> mjidr; Rw;wpNa Nfhs;fs;> tpz;kPd;fs; kw;Wk; QhapW tyk; tUfpd;wd vd;gjhFk;. NfhngHdpf;fpd; QhapW-ikaf; Nfhl;ghL Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpd; Gtp-ikaf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; ek;gfj;jd;ikiaj; jfHj;njwpe;J mjidg; ngha;ahf;fpaJ.

Mdhy;> Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; mup];Njhl;ly;-njhykp ,UtuJk; Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il tplNt ,y;iy. ,d;Wtiu mjidf; Fuq;Fg;  gpbahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ. 

vd;d elf;FNkh? VJ epfONkh? vd;w epr;rakw;w vjpHfhyk; gyiug; gaKWj;JfpwJ. mJjhd; kdpjdJ ftiy kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G ,d;ik Nghd;wtw;wpd; Cw;whFk;. Nrhjplk; jq;fs; vjpHfhyk;gw;wp mwpa tpUk;GfpwtHfSf;F xU Nghij kUe;jhfj; njhopw;gL;fpwJ.

mz;lj;jpy; cs;s nghUl;fspilNa xU xw;Wik epyTfpwJ> mz;lj;jpd; ve;jg; gFjpAk; mjd; KOj; Njhw;wj;jpd; xU gFjpNa> kdpjd; ,e;j mz;lj;jpd; Ez;khjpupg; gbtkhd gpz;lNk> Nfhs; epiyfs; kdpjd; kPJ nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jfpd;wd> mJ kdpjdpy; vjpH tpisTfis cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd> mtw;wpd;   tpisT kdpjd; mz;lj;jpd; gfilf;fhahfr; nray;gLfpwhd;> mtdJ tpjp Kd;$l;bNa vOjg;gl;L tpLfpwJ> mjid ahuhYk; khw;wp vOj KbahJ> kdpjdJ Ngr;irAk; nraiyAk; Nfhs;fs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd> mtw;Wf;F mtd; nghWg;gy;y. ,g;gbahd gpw;Nghf;Fr; rpe;jid kdpjdplk; 'vy;yhk; Co;tpid' 'vy;yhk; tpjptrk;'  vd;w vz;zj;ij cUthf;FfpwJ.

Nrhjplk; xU kdpjdJ ntw;wpiaAk; Njhy;tpiaAk; thdj;jpy; cs;s Nfhs;fs; ,uhrpfs; el;rj;jpuq;fs; MfpadNt jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd> vdNt mtdJ jd;tpidf;F (freewill) my;yJ jd;Kaw;rpf;F (self-effort) ,lk; ,y;iy vd;fpwJ.

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk;  'etf;fpuf rhk;uh[;a gupghydj;jpy; #upaid murd; vd;Wk; re;jpuid murp vd;Wk; vz;zpr; #upaidr; rpk;k ,uhrpapy; epWj;jp> re;jpuidf; flf ,uhrpapy; epWj;jp> epUthfj;ij mur tifapy; xd;iwAk; murp tifapy; xd;iwAk; Mf ,U NtW epUthf mikg;ig Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd vdr; nrhy;fpwJ. xd;gJ Nfhs;fspy; QhapNw jiyikf; NfhshFk;. mJ Mj;kh> gpjpH fhufg; gyd;fis mspf;fpwJ.

NkYk; mbthdj;jpy; #upad; cjakhfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;w ,uhrp tPNl n[dd (capH) ,yf;fpdkhFk;. epyh epd;w ,uhrp tPNl n[dd (cly;) ,uhrpahFk;. n[dd ,uhrpiaf; nfhz;Nl ,uhrp gyd; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

Kg;gJ ghif my;yJ  9 ghjq;fs; mlq;fpAs;s xU ,uhrp ,y;yj;ij xt;nthU fpufKk; ntt;NtW Ntfj;jpy; fle;J nry;fpd;wd. #upad; xt;nthU ,uhrp tPl;ilAk; flf;f vLf;Fk; fhyk; xU jpq;fshFk;. gd;dpuz;L jpq;fspy; gd;dpuz;L ,uhrp tPLfis mJ fle;J tpLfpwJ.            

Nkw;$wpait G+kpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;Nf nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F epr;rak; nghUe;jp tuhJ. QhapW Gtpiar; Rw;Wtjpy;iy> mJ 220 kpy;ypad; fpkP ePsKs;s ghy; top kz;lyg; ghijia Rw;wp tUfpd;wJ. mg;gb xUKiw Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; fhyk; 240 kpy;ypad; Gtp Mz;Lfs; MFk;.

vdNt QhapWf;Fr; nrhy;yg;gLk; gyd;fs; ahTk; Kw;wpYk; gpioahdit MFk;. tpahod;> rdp Nghd;w Mz;Lf; Nfhs;fisAk;> nrt;tha; Nghd;w khjf; NfhisAk; #upad; jdJ ,iltplhj Xl;lj;jpdhy; fle;J nry;Yk; NghJ> #upad; mj;jifa Nfhs;fSf;F m];jq;f Njhrj;ij Vw;gLj;jptpLfpd;wJ. gpd;dH #upad; mf; Nfhs;fis tpl;L tpyFk; NghJ mj; Njhrk; eptHj;jpahfpwJ vd;W Nrhjplrhj;jpuk;  nrhy;tJ cz;ikf;Fg; Gwk;ghd fw;gid fye;j ngha; MFk;. #upad; Nrhjplk ;nrhy;YtJ Nghy; XLtJ fpilahJ. Gtpjhd; mg;gb XLfpwJ. mg;NghJ #upad; XLfpwJ Nghd;w khia (illusion) Vw;gLfpwJ.

"m];jq;fNjhrk;' vd;gJ ntg;gf; fjpHfis ms;sp tPRk; #upaDf;F mUfpy; Nfhs;fs; neUq;Fk; nghOJ (1-17 ghiff;Fs;) mf; fpufq;fs; jkJ nrhe;j rf;jpfis mwNt ,oe;J> #upa xspf;Fs;Sk; #upadJ vjpHg;Gr; rf;jpf;Fs;Sk; ma;f;fpakhfp mf; Nfhs;fis nray; ,of;fr; nra;J tpLfpd;wd” vdr; nrhy;tJ QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;by; mbNahL rhj;jpak; ,y;yhj xd;whFk;. mJ njd;id kuj;jpy; Njs; nfhl;l  gid kuj;jpy; newp Nghl;l fij Nghd;wJ.  

NfhngHdpf;fd; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpwF Nrhjplj;jpd; gy;Yg; gpLq;fg;gl;L mLj;j ,uz;L Ehw;whz;Lfs; nry;thf;F ,oe;J Vwf;Fiwaj; NjLthH mw;Wf;  fple;jJ.

 

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L

 

N[hrpaj;jhy; nfl;Nld;!

 (36)

,e;jf; fpoik 'N[hrpaj;jhy; nfl;Nld;' vdr; rpiwf; nfhl;bypy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L jiyapy;  ifitj;Jg; Gyk;Gk; xU njhopy; mjpgupd; cz;ikf; fijia nrhy;yg; NghfpNwd;. ,ijg; gbj;Jtpl;lhtJ Nrhjplk;> khe;jPupfk;> trpak; Nghd;w ke;jpu je;jpu ae;jpu %l ek;gpf;iffspy; ,Ue;J ,isa jiyKiwapduhtJ  tpLgLthHfs; vd vjpHghHf;fpNwd;.  jd;dk;gpf;if ,y;yhjtHfNs  vspjpy; %lek;gpf;iff;F Mshf tpLfpwhHfs;! 

nghJthf kdpjHfs; gpd; tUk; Ntisfspy; rhjfj;ijj; Jhf;fpf; nfhz;L Nrhjpliu ehb XLfpd;whHfs;.

    1)      njhopy; njhlq;Fk; NghJ mJ ntw;wp MFkh ,y;iyah vd;gij Kd;$l;b mwpe;J nfhs;s>

    2)      Neha;> Jd;gk;> ,og;G> ,lH te;J #Sk; NghJ gupfhuk; vd;d vd;gijf; Nfllwpe;J nfhs;s>

    3)      jpUkzg; Ngr;rpd; NghJ nghUj;jk; ghHf;f.

,tw;Wf;fhd VJ njupe;jNj. nghJNkdp kdpjHfs; jq;fs; tho;f;ifapy; Vw;gLk; ,d;gk; Jd;gk;> ed;ik jpd;ik> Vw;wk; ,wf;fk;> Neha; nehb> ,og;G ,lH  Mfpatw;Wf;Fj; jq;fsJ jd;tpid fhuzk; my;y thDyfpy; tyk; tUk; Nfhs;fSk; el;rj;jpuq;fSk; nghWg;G vd;W ek;Gfpd;whHfs;.   

jkpo;ehl;by; cs;s gpugy rutzgtd; cztfj;ijAk; mjd; cupikahsH ,uh[Nfhghy; mtHfisAk; Nfs;tpg; glhjtHfs; ,Uf;f KbahJ. vy;;NyhUk; mtiu mz;zhr;rp vd;W nry;ykhff; $g;gpLthHfs;. 

nuhwd;Nuhtpy; $l rutzgtd; cztff; fpis xd;W mz;ikapy; njhlf;fg;gl;L eilngw;W tUfpwJ. ,uh[Nfhghy; kz; Fbirapy; ,Ue;J khl khspiff;Ff; FbNawpatH. Nfhtzhz;bahf ,Ue;J NfhBRtuuhf caHe;jtH.  

jkpo;ehl;by; cztfj; njhopiyf; fd;dlHfs; jq;fs; gpbapy; itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. NjePHf; filfis kiyahspfs; jq;fs; Nkyhz;ikapy; itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. jdpahH kUj;Jt kidfisj; njYq;fHfs; jq;fs; iff;Fs; itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. jpiug;glj; JiwiaAk; tl;bf; filfisAk; khHthbfs; jq;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,g;gbj; jkpoHfisj; jtpu kw;w ,dj;jtH vy;NyhUNk jkpofj;jpy; njhopy; Jiwapy; nfhbfl;bg; gwf;fpd;whHfs;!

,e;jg; gpd;dzpapy; gr;irj; jkpouhd mz;zhr;rp cztfj; njhopypy; ntw;wp ngw;wJ nkr;rj;jf;f rhjidjhd;.

mJkl;Lky;y> jdf;Ff; fPo; Ntiy nra;Ak; RkhH 5>000 CopaHfsJ kUj;Jtr; nryT> mtHfsJ Foe;ijfspd; fy;tpr; nryT vy;yhtw;iwAk; mtNu nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;whH.

Mdhy;> mtuJ 'nghy;yhj fhyk;' mtH xU nfhiyf; Fw;wr;rhl;by; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L fle;j gy khjq;fshf rpiwf; nfhl;bypy; milf;fg;gLs;shH. gpizapy; ntspte;j mz;zhr;rp kPz;Lk; njUthy; Nghd rdpaid typag; Ngha; tpiyf;F thq;fpf; nfhz;L cs;Sf;Fs; ,Uf;fpd;whH.

rpiwf;Fs; ,Uf;Fk; mz;zhr;rp Xahky; xopahky; Gyk;gpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whH. vd;d Gyk;gy;? 'N[hrpaj;jhy; nfl;Nld;' vd;w Gyk;gy;! ,J mz;zhr;rpf;F Vw;gl;Ls;s jpBH QhNdhjakh? my;yJ Rliy Qhdkh? vd;w Nfs;tpfSf;Fg; Nghfg; Nghfj;jhd; gjpy; njupAk;!

mz;zhr;rp ngupa KUf gf;jH. new;wpapy; gspr;nrd;w tpG+jpg; gl;il> eLtpy; xU mzh msT Fq;Fkg; nghl;L> thapy; vg;NghJk; KUfh KUfh vd;w Ntz;ly;. jpUKUfhde;j thupahH capNuhL ,Ue;j NghJ jkpo;ehl;by; ftdpg;ghuw;Wr; rpjykile;J fple;j gy Nfhapy;fisj; jpUg;gzp nra;J FlKOf;Fk; ngupastpy; nra;J itj;jhH. thupahupd; Nfhapy; jpUg;gzpf;F thup toq;fpa njhopyjpgHfspy; mz;zhr;rp Kjd;ikahdtH.

mz;ikapy; thupahH vOjpa mtuJ jd; tuyhw;iwg; gbj;Jg; ghHj;Njd;. thupahH jdJ Neuj;ijAk; epidg;igAk; nghUisAk; Nfhapy; jpUg;gzp> FlKOf;F Mfpa ,uz;bYk; fiug;gijNa KO Neuj; njhopyhff; nfhz;bUe;jhH vd;gijj;  njupe;J nfhz;Nld;.

‘md;d rj;jpuk; Mapuk; itj;jy;
Myak; gjpdhwhapuk; ehl;ly;
md;dahtpDk; Gz;zpak; Nfhb
Mq;NfhH Viof;F vOj;jwp tpj;jy;
’

vdg; ghujpahH nrhd;d mKj thf;if thupahH gbf;ftpy;iy NghYk;. gbj;jpUe;jhy; gzj;ijj; jpUf;Nfhapy; jpUg;gzpapy; ghohf;fp ,Uf;fkhl;lhH! khwhf Viog; gps;isfs; gbf;fg; gs;spf;$lq;fisf; fl;bapUg;ghH.

nghJthf tzpfj;jpy; <LgLgtHfSf;Fj;jhd; kw;wtHfistplf; flTs; gf;jp mjpfk;. mjw;F tzpfj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ,lHtuTjhd; (risk) fhuzk;. epue;jukhd gzpapy; fpoik my;yJ khjr; rk;gsj;Jf;F Ntiy ghHg;gtHfSf;F ,lHtuT gw;wpa ftiy ngUk;ghYk; ,y;iy vdyhk;.

'thupahH kPJ mz;zhr;rpf;Fg; ngUk; kupahij cz;L. thupahiu tzq;fpdhNy vy;yhk; ey;ygbahf elf;Fk; vd;W ek;GgtH. ,d;W mtuJ me;j ek;gpf;if N[hrpaHfs; gf;fk; jhtptpl;lJ. N[hrpaHfs; nrhy;tJjhd; mz;zhr;rpiag; nghWj;jtiu Ntjthf;F. mjd; tpisthfNt jg;ghd ghijfspy; mtH Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpwhH...." vd;W tUj;jj;NjhL nrhy;fpd;whHfs; mz;zhr;rpapd; tpRthrpfs;.

mz;zhr;rp KUf gf;jH kl;Lky;y> me;j KUfidNa jdJ tho;f;iff;F Kd;khjpupahff; nfhz;ltH. mjhtJ mtidg; NghyNt ,tUf;Fk; ,U kidtpaH. Mdhy;> me;j KUfidAk; Ke;jpf; nfhz;L Vw;fdNt 'ts;sp-nja;tahid' vd ,U kidtpaH ,Uf;f Vw;fdNt jpUkzkhd xUtiu (,uz;lhtJ kidtp fpUj;jpfhTk; Vw;fdNt jpUkzkhdtH) %d;whtJ kidtpiaAk; tupj;Jf; nfhs;s Kaw;rpj;j NghJjhd; mz;zhr;rpf;F 'nts;spjpir' Ngha; 'rdp jpir' njhlq;fpaJ.

'mtid tpl;L tpl;L vd;NdhL te;J tpL. cd;idf; fpUj;jpfh Nghy khspifapy; Fb itg;Ngd;. mjpy; eP ,uhzp khjpup thoyhk;" vd mz;zhr;rp me;jg; ngz;Zf;F MirthHj;ijfs; %yk; Jhz;by; Nghl;lhH. gy ,yl;rk; ngWkjpahd gl;Lg; Glitfs;> jq;f eiffs;> itu %f;Fj;jpfs; vd thq;fpg; guprspj;jhH.

vy;yhtpjkhd kha ke;jpu je;jpu trpa tpj;ij nra;J ghHj;Jk; me;jg; ngz; mtH Nghl;l jq;fj; Jhz;biyf; ft;t kWj;jhs;. eakhfg; Ngrpg; ghHj;jhH>  mJ Kbahky; NghfNt gaKWj;jpg; ghHj;jhH. mjw;Fk; me;jg; ngz; krpatpy;iy.

mz;zhr;rp kdk; jsutpy;iy. gzj;ij ms;sp tPrpdhy; ahiuAk; tiyf;Fs; tPo;j;jyhk;> ahiuAk; tpiyf;F thq;fyhk;> vijAk; rhjpf;fyhk; vd;w jj;Jtj;jpy; mtUf;F msg;gupa ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. gzf;fhuHfSf;F ,Uf;Fk; gytPdq;fspy; ,JTk; xd;W.

Nkw;nfhz;L vd;d nra;ayhk; vd;W kz;iliag; gpa;j;Jf; nfhz;l mz;zhr;rp kiyahs NrhjplHfsplk; jQ;rk; GFe;jhH. Vw;fdNt mtUf;Fr; Nrhjplj;jpy; NgusT ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. vijr; nra;jhYk; NrhjplHfspd; MNyhridg;gbjhd; ele;J nfhs;thH.

mz;zhr;rp ngupa Gs;sp vd;W njupe;jJNk NrhjplHfs; jq;fSf;F nts;sp jpir njhlq;fptpl;ljhf epidj;Jf; nfhz;L mtiur; Ro;e;J nfhz;ldH. mz;zhr;rp  jq;fsplk; ,Ue;J vijf; Nfl;f tpUk;gpdhNuh mijg; gf;Ftkhf mtUf;Fr; nrhy;y Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,J mz;zhr;rpapd; cs;sj;jpy; Vw;fdNt vupe;J nfhz;bUe;j fhkj; jPf;F nea;A+w;wpaJ Nghyhfptpl;lJ.

“cq;fs; rhjfk; ,Uf;Nf….  ,J rhl;rhj; me;j fpU\;zgukhj;khtpd; rhjfk; Nghd;w Nahf rhjfk;! ,g;gbahd rhjfk; cyfpy; Nfhbapy; xd;Wjhd; ,Uf;Fk;! [PtN[hjp cq;fNshL uhrpahdJk; ghUq;fs;! cq;fs; njhopy; nropf;Fk; cq;fisg; gpbj;j gpur;rpidfnsy;yhk; fjputidf; fz;l gdpNghy; ePq;Fk;!" vd;W ehTf;Fg; gjkhfTk; tha;f;F ,jkhfTk; Ngrpr; NrhjplHfs; mz;zhr;rpapd; Mirf;Fj; Jhgk; Nghl;lhHfs;.  

'[PtNrhjpia jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhy; ,g;NghJ cs;sijtpl gyklq;F Ntfkhf cq;fSf;F tpahghu tpUj;jp cz;lhFk;" vd;W NrhjplHfs; Mir thHj;ijfis ms;sp ,iwj;J mz;zhr;rpf;F NkYk; cUNtw;wpdhHfs;.

jpy;yp> nrd;id> Jgha; vd;W gy;NtW ,lq;fspYk; mz;zhr;rp njhlq;fpa cztfq;fs; ey;y tUtha; <l;bj;ju 'N[hrpaf;fhuq;f nrhd;dJ rupjhk;gh... ghUq;f> [Pth vd;fpl;l te;Jl;lJk; vy;yhk; ey;yh elf;Fk;. gioa $l;lhspq;f fzgjpAk; uhkhD[Kk; $l vq;fpl;lNa te;JL thq;f>  Kiwr;Rf;fpl;L ,Ue;j vd; %j;j kfd; rptFkhH vd;fpl;l gioagb nuhk;g ghrkhg; goFthd;" vd;W jdf;F neUf;fkhdtHfsplk; nrhy;yp mz;zhr;rp Gsfhq;fpjk; mile;jhH.

'NfLtUk; gpd;Nd kjpnfl;L tUk; Kd;Nd'  vd;W nrhy;thHfNs? mz;zhr;rp me;jg; gonkhopf;F ,yf;fpakhdhH.

ez;Lrpg;gp Nta;fjyp ehrKWk; fhyj;jpy;
nfhz;l fUtspf;Fk; nfhs;ifNghy; -xz;nlhB
Nghjk; jdk; fy;tp nghd;wtUk; fhykay;
khjHNky; itg;ghH kdk;. 
                  (ey;top 35)

xsp tPRk; tisay;fis mzpe;j ngz;Nz!

ez;Lk; rpg;gpAk; %q;fpYk; thioAk; jhk; moptilAk; fhyj;jpNy jhq;nfhz;l fUf;fisg; ngWjiyg; Nghy>

kdpjHfs; mwpTk; nry;tKk; tpj;ijAk; mopa NeupLq; fhyj;jpNy> gpw ngz;fspd; Nky; kdj;ij itg;ghHfs;. 

fhjy; nja;tPfkhdJ> fhjy; nra;tJ jtwy;y. ghujpahH 'fhjypdhy; khDlHf;F fytpAz;lhk;> fytpapNy khDlHf;Ff; ftiy jPUk; .........Mjypdhy; fhjy; nra;tPH cyfj;jPNu" vdf; $tp miof;fpd;whH.  

Mdhy;> mz;zhr;rpapd; 'fhjy;' xUjiyf; fhkkhd iff;fpis my;yJ nghUe;jhf; fhkkhd ngUe;jpiz tifiar; NrHe;jJ!   

mz;zhr;rp mg;gbnahd;Wk; ,sik CQ;ryhLk; thypgd; my;y> ghHg;gjw;F kd;kjDk; my;y> taJ NghdtH> gzf;fhuHfSf;Nf tUfpw ePupopT Neha; NtW>  mjw;F xU ehspy; %d;W Kiw Crp Nghl;Lf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.   

Mdhy;> fhk Neha;f;F muDk; mupAk; ,e;jpuUk; re;jpuUk; ,UbfSk; KdptHfSk; ,iuahfp ,Uf;Fk; NghJ ,e;j mz;zhr;rp ve;j %iyf;F? mtUf;F vq;fpUe;Njh xU mrl;Lj; Jzpr;ry; gpwe;jJ. “NtYz;L tpid jPHf;f! kapYz;L  vidf; fhf;f!" vd;w ke;jpuj;ijj;  kdJf;Fs; nrgpj;Jf; nfhz;lhH. 

NtW topapy;iy> jdJ fhjYf;Fj; jilahf ,Uf;Fk; tpy;yidj; jPHj;Jf; fl;l mz;zhr;rp KbntLj;jhH. mtuplk; Vw;fdNt mbahl;fs; iftrk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. jpl;lk; jPl;lg;gl;lJ.

2001 xf;NjhgH 25 ,y; rhe;jFkhH> [PtNrhjp> [PtNrhjpapd; jhahH jtkzp KjypNahiu jpUney;Ntyp khtl;lk; ehq;FNeupapy; cs;s Ntg;gq;Fsk; vd;w CUf;F ,uz;L kfpOe;Jfspy; mz;zhr;rpAk; mtuJ mbahl;fSk; $l;br; nrd;whHfs;. mq;Fs;s nry;yk;khs; vd;w ngz; ke;jputhjp xUtuplk; Fwp Nfl;fg; NghtjhfTk; gug;ghbg; gf;fj;jpy; cs;s ,sq;Fsk; Ciur; NrHe;j ghz;bak;khsplk; kUe;J vLf;fg; NghtjhfTk; mtHfSf;Fr; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ.  

mtuJ fztd; rhe;jFkhH NtnwhU tz;bf;F khw;wg;gl;lhd;. rhe;jFkhiu jpUney;Ntypapy; ,Ue;J ghyk; vd;w fpuhkj;jpd; topahf kJiuf;F mioj;Jr; nrd;W xU N`hl;lypy; ,uT jq;f itj;jhHfs;. kWehs; lhlhRNkh tz;bapy; nfhilf;fhdy; nrd;whHfs;. topapy; tz;bf;Fs; itj;J mz;zhr;rpap;d; mbahl;fs; rhe;jFkhiug; gykhfj; jhf;fpdhHfs;. rhe;jFkhH %Hr;ir mile;jhd;. mtd; %Hr;ir njspe;jNghJ jahuhf itj;jpUe;j Yq;fpahy; rhe;jFkhupd; fOj;ij neupj;Jg;  gpwF mNj Yq;fpahy; mtdJ Kfj;jpy; mOj;jp %Hr;ir milar; nra;jhHfs;.

rhe;jFkhH ,we;Jtpl;lij cWjpg;gLj;jpa gpwF rlyj;ijf; nfhilf;fhdy; gf;fj;jpy; cs;s fhl;Lf;Fs; tPrp tpl;L nrd;idf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhHfs;. kWehs; me;j ,lj;Jf;Fr; nrd;W rlyj;ij ilfH Nrhoh vd;w ,lj;jpy; Fop Njhz;bg; Gijj;jhHfs;.

mz;zhr;rpapd; mbahl;fspy; xUtDk; nfhiyia Kd;dpd;W nra;jtDkhd lhdpay; vd;gtd; fhty;Jiwf;Ff; nfhLj;j thf;F%yj;jpy; ,e;jr; rq;fjpfs; ntspahfp ,Uf;fpd;wd.  

gy ehs; fopj;J rhe;jFkhiuf; fhztpy;iy vd;W [PtNrhjp fhty;Jiwaplk; Neupy; nrd;W Kiwg;ghL nra;jhH. mjidj; njhlHe;J fhty;Jiw tprhuiz njhlq;fpaJ. mz;zhr;rpapd; Ml;fspy; 3 Ngiu ifJ nra;J Kiwahf tprhupj;jNghJ mz;zhr;rp nrhy;yp rhe;jFkhiuf; nfhiy nra;jij mtHfs; xg;Gf; nfhz;lhHfs;. mjidj; njhlHe;J NkYk; xd;gJ NgH ntt;NtW ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ruz; mile;jhHfs;. ,uhrNfhghy; (mz;zhr;rp) fhQ;rpGuk; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ruz; mile;jhH.  

ruzile;jtHfs; nfhLj;j thf;F %yj;ij mLj;J rhe;jFkhupd; mOfpa rlyk; 2001 bnrk;gH 01 ,y; nfhilf;fhdy; fhl;by; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH mJ gpNuj tprhuizf;F mDg;gg;gl;lJ. mNj ehs; Njj;jhd;Fbapy; cs;s [PtNrhjpf;Fj; jfty; njuptpf;fg;gl;lJ. kWehs; [PtNrhjp> mtuJ je;ij ,uhkrhkp jha; jtkzp kw;Wk; jha;khkd; MfpNahH nfhilf;fhdYf;Fr; nrd;w NghJ mtHfsplk; rhe;jFkhupd; rlyj;jpd; glk;> mzpe;jpUe;j fhy;rl;il> rl;il> ngy;l; Mfpait fhl;lg;gl;ld.  

[PtNrhjp> jhahH jtkzp  nfhiy nra;ag;gLk; Kd;dH rhe;jFkhH mzpe;jpUe;j cil kw;Wk; mtdJ Gifg;glq;fis itj;Jr; rlyj;ij milahsk; fhl;bdhHfs;.

2001 xf;NjhgH 25 md;W jd;id tpl;Lj; jdJ fztH gpupe;jNghJ ,Nj cilfisj;jhd; mzpe;jpUe;jhH vd [PtNrhjp cWjpg;gLj;jpdhH.

mNjNghyf; fhty;Jiwahy; mioj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;l NrhjplH utp kw;Wk; ,uhrNfhghy; ,UtUk; rhe;jFkhH rlyj;ij milahsk; fhl;bdhHfs;.

[PtNrhjpapd; fztH gpupd;]; rhe;jFkhiu mz;zhr;rp rjpnra;J nfhiy nra;tpj;;jhH vd mtH kPJ nfhiyf; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;L nrd;id G+e;jky;yp mkHT ePjp kd;wj;jpy; tof;F tprhuiz ele;J tUfpwJ.  

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (37)

 

,we;J Nghdtiu capNuhL ,Uf;fpwhH vd;w NrhjplH!  

nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l gpupd;]; rhe;jFkhH [PtNrhjpapd; jk;gpf;Fg; ghlk; nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;f mkHj;jg;gl;ltH. jpiuf; fijfspy; tUk; fjhehafp NghyNt ghlk; vLf;f te;j rhe;jFkhuplk; [PtNrhjp kdijg; gwp nfhLj;jhH. rhe;jFkhH fpwpj;jt kjj;jtH> [PtNrhjp ,e;Jf; FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;jtH> vdNt tof;fk; Nghy; kjk; fhjypy; FWf;fpl;lJ. ,U tPl;bYk; vjpHg;Gf; fpsk;gpaJ. ahH vjpHj;j NghjpYk; ,Wjpapy; fhjy; ntd;wJ. ,UtUk; xU ,e;Jf; Nfhapypy; jhyp fl;b khiy khw;wpj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;j [PtNrhjpjhd; mz;zhr;rp jpUkzk; nra;a Kad;w %d;whtJ ngz;!  

mz;zhr;rpapd; fOFf; fz;fs; vg;NghJ [PtNrhjpapd; kPJ tpOe;jJ? ehif khtl;lk; Ntjhuz;ak; mUNf ,Uf;fpwJ Njj;jhf;Fb. ,Jjhd; [PtN[hjpapd; mk;khthd jtkzpf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd CH. mq;Nf [PtNrhjpapd; mg;gh ,uhkrhkp Ntshz;ik nra;J te;jhH. Ntshz;ik gLj;JtplNt mtHfSf;F ,Ue;j epyGyd;fis tpw;Wtpl;L nrd;idf;Ff; Fb ngaHe;jhHfs;. gps;isfis ed;F gbg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj mtHfsJ Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Ue;jJ. nrd;idf;F te;jJk; rutzgtd; ,uhrNfhghypd; mwpKfk; fpilj;jJ.  epyGyd;fis tpw;W Cupy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L te;j ,uz;L ,yl;rk; &gha;fisAk; ,uhkrhkp ,uhrNfhghyplk; tl;bf;Ff; nfhLj;jhH. me;j tl;bg; gzj;jpy; FLk;gk; tho;e;J te;jJ.

,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy;jhd; mz;zhr;rpf;F [PtNrhjp gw;wpj; njupa te;jJ. ,jdhy;  ,uhkrhkpf;F NkYk; mjpl;lk; mbj;jJ. mz;zhr;rp mNrhfhefupy; ,Ue;j rutzgtd; fpisapd; cjtp Kfhikahshuhf ,uhkrhkpia mkHj;jpdhH. [PtNrhjp FLk;gj;jpd; tPl;L thlifia mz;zhr;rpNa fl;bdhH. mjw;fg;Gwk; [PtNrhjp tPl;Lf;F mbf;fb Ngha;tuj; njhlq;fpdhH.  

jdJ xUjiyf; fhkj;Jf;Fj; jilf; fy;yhf ,Ue;j rhe;jFkhiu mz;zhr;rp mbahl;fisf; nfhz;L nfhiy nra;Jtpl;L ahUf;Fk; njupahky; nfhilf;fhdy; fhl;by; tPrpa nra;jpia Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;.   

rhe;jFkhH  nfhiy ,d;Dk; (xf;NjhgH 28> 2001) ntsptuhj epiyapy; mz;zhr;rp xd;Wk; njupahj mg;ghtp Nghy rhe;jFkhH capNuhL ,Uf;fpwhdh ,y;iyah vd mwpa [PtNrhjp FLk;gj;ij mg;NghJ nrd;id rguprhiyapy; cs;s xU khb tPl;by; FbapUe;j utp vd;w Nrhjpluplk; mDg;gp itj;jhH! ,e;j utpjhd; fle;j 10 Mz;Lfshf mz;zhr;rpapd; M];jhd Nrhjpluhf ,Ue;J tUgtH MthH.

utp Nrhjplupd; G+HtPfk; Nfusk;. xU fhyj;jpy; nrd;idapy; mtUf;F tPLfs; Njhl;lq;fs; vd Vuhskhd nrhj;Jf;fs; ,Ue;jd. vd;d fhuzj;jhNyh mtw;iw xd;wd; gpd; xd;whfj; njhiyj;Jtpl;Lr; Nrhrpak; ghHf;fr; nrd;w thbf;ifahsuJ tPl;L Nky;khbapy; FbNawpdhH. jw;NghJ mtH kbg;ghf;fk; Kj;J Kfk;kJ njUtpy; FbapUf;fpwhH. 

utp KONeu NrhjplH my;y> Guirthf;fk; mYtyfj;jpy; fyhy; cjtp Ma;thsuhf Ntiy ghHj;J tUfpd;whH. mjw;F Kd;dH rk;gtk; ele;j fhyj;jpy; kapyhg;G+H jpUty;ypf;Nfzp tUtha;j;Jiw mYtyfj;jpy; tUtha; Ma;thsuhfg; gzpahw;wpdhH.

'N[hjplk; ghHg;gJk; [hjfk; ghHj;Jr; nrhy;tJk; nghOJ Nghf;fhfr; nra;J tUfpNwd;.  ,jw;fhf thbf;ifahsHfs; gzk; nfhLj;jhy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Ntd;.  ehdhf tw;GWj;jpf; Nfl;f khl;Nld;. [hjfj;jpy; cs;sgb ey;yJ nfl;lJ ghHj;Jr; nrhy;Ntd;. fk;Ga+l;lH %yk; [hjfk; fzpj;Jr; nrhy;Ntd;.  

Xl;ly; mjpgH uh[Nfhghiyf; fle;j 10 Mz;Lfshf vdf;Fj; njupAk;.  Gjpjhf Xl;ly; fpis njhlq;fpdhy; K$Hj;jk; ghHff; Nfl;ghH> ehd; Fwpj;Jf; nfhLg;Ngd;> ehs; Neuk; fzpj;Jf; nfhLg;gjw;Fr; rd;khdkhfg; gzk; jUthH.  

,uh[Nfhghy; 2 my;yJ 3 Kiw vd; tPl;bw;F Neupy; te;jpUf;fpwhH. NghdpYk; NgrpapUf;fpwhH. 28-10-2001 md;W vdJ tPl;Lf;F [PtN[hjp> mtuJ jhahH jtkzp> mtuJ je;ij ,uhkrhkp MfpNahH te;jdH. rutzgtd; Xl;ly; [Pg;gpy;; mtHfisg; ngUkhs; mioj;J te;jhH. 

,uh[Nfhghy; mDg;gp itj;jjhfTk;> mtHfSf;Fr; N[hjplk; ghHj;Jr; nrhy;Yk; gbAk; ngUkhs; vd;dplk; njuptpj;jhH. 

[PtN[hjpapd; [hjfj;ijAk; mtuJ fztH rhe;jFkhupd; [hjfj;ijAk; vd;dplk; nfhLj;jhHfs;. [PtN[hjpapd; fztH fhzhky; Ngha; tpl;ljhfTk; mtH vg;NghJ tUthH vd;W [hjfj;ijg; ghHj;Jr; nrhy;Yk;gbAk; vd;dplk; Nfl;lhHfs;. 

ehd; [hjfj;ijg; ghHj;J "cd; fztUf;F kdepiy rupapy;yhky; CH Cuhfr; Rw;wpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhH> ,g;NghJ tukhl;lhH' vd;W $wpNdd;.  [PtN[hjp vd;dplk; "vd; fztH vg;NghJ tUthH?" vd;W Nfl;lhH. mjw;F ehd; ',d;Dk;; 3 tUlq;fSf;F Neuk; rupapy;iy> gpwFjhd; ey;y Neuk; tUk;> mg;NghJ cd;dplk; te;J NrUthH" vd;W mtuplk; nrhd;Ndd;.  

'vd;idj; Njb xt;nthU ehSk; 40 my;yJ 50 NgH gyd; Nfl;f tUfpd;whHfs;. ehd; ,t;tsT gzk; jhUq;fs; vd;W Nfl;gjpy;iy. nfhLj;jij thq;fpf; nfhs;Ntd;" vd ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;fwpQH Nfl;l Nfs;tpfSf;Fg; gjpy; nrhy;Yk; NghJ NrhjplH utp njuptpj;jhH.  

MSf;F  cUgh 30 vd;W itj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk; NrhjplH ehnshd;Wf;Ff; Fiwe;jJ cUgh 1>200 ciof;fpwhH! khjk; cUgh 36>000! xU IV]; mjpfhupapd; rk;gsk; ,jpy; ghjp $lj; NjwhJ vd epidf;fpNwd;!  

rhe;jFkhH nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l md;Nw NrhjplH tPl;Lf;Fg; gyd; Nfl;f [PtNrhjp FLk;gj;ij nfhiyapd; #j;jpujhupahd mz;zhr;rpNa mDg;gp itf;fpd;whH. rhe;jFkhH capNuhL ,y;iy vd;w cz;ik mz;zhr;rpf;Fj; njupAk;. utp NrhjplUf;Fj; njupahJ.  

rhe;jFkhH nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l ehs; xf;NjhgH 26> 2001> Gijf;fg;gl;l ehs; xf;NjhgH 27> 2001> utp NrhjplH rhe;jFkhH [PtNrhjp rhjfq;fisg; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhd;d ehs; xf;NjhgH 28> 2001. rlyk; Njhz;b vLf;fg;gl;l ehs; bnrk;gH 01> 2001> rlyj;ij [PtNrhjpAk; mtuJ jhahUk; milahsk; fhl;ba ehs; bnrk;gH 02> 2001> rlyj;ij kUj;Jt gupNrhjid nra;j ehs; bnrk;gH 04> 2001 MFk;.

Mdhy;> rhjfj;jpy; cs;s Nfhs;> ,uhrp> el;rj;jpuq;fspd; epiyfisf; fzpj;J mr;nrhl;lhfg; gyd; nrhy;Yk; gpugy kiyahs NrhjplH utp>  ,we;J Nghd rhe;jFkhH “kdepiy rupapy;yhky; CH Cuhfr; Rw;wpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhH> ,g;NghJ tukhl;lhH> ,d;Dk;; 3 tUlq;fSf;F Neuk;; rupapy;iy> gpwFjhd; ey;y Neuk; tUk;> mg;NghJ mtH cd;dplk; te;J NrUthH' vd;W gyd; nrhy;fpd;whH!

“rhe;jFkhupd; rhjfj;jpd; gb mtUf;F kuz rdp elf;fpwJ. vdNt mtH ,g;NghJ capNuhL ,y;iy> ,we;J tpl;lhH” vd;W gyd; nrhd;dhy; ehis my;yJ kWehs; my;yJ rpy fhyk; fopj;;J rhe;jFkhH capNuhL te;jhy; rhjfk; gpioj;J tpLk;! NrhjplH ifAk; nka;Akhfg; gpbgl;Lg; NghthH!

vdNt NrhjplH nfhQ;rk; Gj;jprhypj;jdkhf “rhe;jFkhH kdepiy rupapy;yhky; CH Cuhfr; Rw;wpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhH>  ,g;NghJ tukhl;lhH> ,d;Dk;; 3 tUlq;fSf;F Neuk;; rupapy;iy> gpwFjhd; ey;y Neuk; tUk;> mg;NghJ mtH cd;dplk; te;J NrUthH' vd;W gyd; nrhd;dhy;> mJ nfl;l nra;jpahfTk; ,Uf;fhJ ey;y nra;jpahfTk; ,Uf;fhJ. ,uz;Lk; nfl;lhd; epiyahf ,Uf;Fk;. rhjfj;ijf; nfhLj;Jg; gyd; Nfl;l [PtNrhjpf;F mg;Nghijf;Ff; nfhQ;rk; kdJf;F MWjyhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.  jpUk;gp tu 3 Mz;L nrd;whYk; fztd; capNuhL ,Uf;fpd;whH vd;w epk;kjp!

Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L vd;gjw;F ,ijtpl NtW vd;d rhd;W Ntz;Lk;? utp NrhjplH nrhd;d gyd; KOf;f KOf;f Cfj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; nrhd;dJjhNd?  

%lHfSk; %lj;jdKk; mwptpypfSk; mwpahikAk; ,Uf;Fk; tiu utp Nghd;w NrhjplHfs; tPl;by; gzkio nfhl;bf; nfhz;Ljhd; ,Uf;Fk;! mtupd; Nrhjplk; KOJk; ngha;> Vkhw;W> Va;g;G> jfpLjj;jk;> Gul;L vd;W njupe;j gpd;dUk; mtuplk; gyd; Nfl;fg; gbj;jtHfSk; gbahj ghkuHfSk; njhlHe;J Ngha;f; nfhz;Ljhd; ,Ug;ghHfs;! 

Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; utp NrhjplNu Vida NrhjplHfisf; fz;bf;fpd;whH. ,jw;Fj; njhopypy; Vw;gl;l Nghl;bAk; nghwhikAk;  (professional rivalry and jealousy ) fhuzk; vd;gijr; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy.

'ehd; Kjd; Kjypy; ghHj;j uh[Nfhgh ypd; Kfj;jpy; ,Ue;j mg;ghtpj;jdk; Ngha; rkPg fhykhf xU fuL Kulhd Njhw;wk; njupa Muk;gpj;jJ.  $lNt> N[hrpaj;ijg; gw;wp jg;Gk; jtWkhf mtNu vy;yhk; njupe;jJNghy; Ngr Muk;gpj;jhH. ,Nj nrd;idapy; kbg;ghf;fj;jpYk;> eq;fey;Y}upYk; tPl;Lf;F 5 N[hrpaHfs; fpsk;gp> uh[Nfhghy; khjpupahd egHfspd; %lg;gof;fq;fSf;F jPdp Nghl;L tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs.; mg;gbg;gl;ltHfs; jhd; mtUf;F jhaj;J> ke;jpuk;> nra;tpid vd;w Mgj;Jf;fis mwpKfg;gLj;jpapUg;ghHfs; Mdhy;>> ,J vJTNk gyd; juhJ tpjpf;fg;gl;lJjhd; elf;Fk;. ehk; nra;Ak; Gz;zpak;$l tpjpapypUe;J ek;ikf; fhg;ghw;whJ.

'ngaH khw;wk;> th];J vd;w  &gq;fspYk; nghJkf;fspd; ek;gpf;if nkhl;il mbf;fg;gLfpwJ. tajhd xU fjhehafDf;F ahfq;fs; elj;jpj; jhaj;Jf; fl;btpl;lhy; m[Pj; Nghy mtuhy; ^al; ghl KbAkh? ,Jtiu mtuhy; gl;lJ NghJk; ,dp mtuJ rq;fhj;jNk Ntzhk;>  mtH jpirf;Nf xU ngupa Fk;gpL!" vd;W mry; gFj;jwpTthjp Nghy; NrhjplH nghupe;J js;Sfpd;whH.  

,g;gbr; nrhy;Yk; NrhjplH mLj;j epkplNk 'Ntjk; gbj;j> epahak; kl;LNk njupe;j xU Nrhjpld; nrhy;Yk; vy;yhNk gypf;Fk;" vd;fpd;whH!

,tuJ Nrhjplk; gypf;ftpy;iy. mg;gbnad;why; ,tH 'Ntjk; gbj;j> epahak; kl;LNk njupe;j xU Nrhjpld;' my;y vd;gJjhNd  nghUs;?;

jd;idj;jhNd Gfo;e;J nfhs;Sk; NrhjplH utp rhe;jFkhH [PtNrhjp rhjfq;fisg; ghj;Jtpl;L 'rhe;jFkhH capNuhL ,y;iy. mtH ,we;J tpl;lhH' vd;W Vd; nrhy;ytpy;iy? me;j cz;ikiag; gr;irahfr; nrhy;y Kbahtpl;lhy; Rw;wp tisj;Jr; rhil khilahfr; nrhy;ypapUf;fyhk; my;yth? 

'ehd; rhjfj;ijg; ghHj;J 'rhe;jFkhUf;F kdepiy rupapy;iy. mtH ,g;NghJ tukhl;lhH" vd;W $wpNdd;. [PtNrhjp vd;dplk; 'vd; fztH vg;NghJ tUthH" vd;W Nfl;lhH. mjw;F ehd; ,d;Dk; 3 tUlq;fSf;F Neuk; rupapy;iy. gpwFjhd; ey;y Neuk; tUk;' vd;W mtuplk; nrhd;Ndd;" vd;W Vd; gL gpioahfg; gyd; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;?  

xU Nrhjpl gj;jpupifapd; Nfs;tp - gjpy; gFjpapy; 'vd;Dld; Ntiy ghHf;Fk; Mrpupiaia ehd; tpUk;GfpNwd;. Mdhy;> ,UtUNk fy;ahzk; MdtHfs;. ehq;fs; vd;d nra;tJ?" vd;w Nfs;tpf;F 'cq;fs; vz;zk; epr;rak; <NlWk; vd;id Neupy; re;jpAq;fs;' vd xU NrhjplH gjpy; nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhH. mtiu mz;zhr;rp Neupy; Ngha; re;jpj;jhH vd;fpwhHfs;. me;j Nrhjplupd; %ykhf xU urkzpkhiy> xU jhaj;J fapW kw;Wk; ke;jpupf;fg;gl;l tpG+jpia thq;fpdhuhk;. $lNt jdJ ,lJ fhypy; me;j NrhjplH nfhLj;j xU rpy ke;jpuf; fapWfisAk; fl;bf; nfhz;L [PtNrhjpiar; re;jpf;fg; NghdhH mz;zhr;rp.

'cq;fSf;F Neuk; rupapy;iy jpUes;shW rdP];tu gfthidj; juprdk; nrQ;rpl;L thq;fD' vd;W mNj NrhjplH nrhd;dijf; Nfl;L  jpUes;shWf;Fg; Gwg;gl;Lr; nrd;w gpd;dH jhd; mz;zhr;rpia me;jf; Nfhapypy; gJq;fp ,Ue;j rdp cz;ikahfNt gha;e;J gpbj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;!  

jpUes;shW rdP];tu gfthidf; Fk;gpl;L tpl;L mUfpy; ,Ue;j [PtNrhjpapd; CUf;F mbahl;fSld; nrd;W gzj;ijf; nfhLj;J mtiur; rupf;fl;lg; Ngha; jfuhW nra;j NghJjhd; kWgb mz;zhr;rp rl;lj;jpd; iffspy; khl;Lg;gl;lhH.

[PtN[hjpiaf; flj;j Kad;w Fw;wr; rhl;by; mz;zhr;rpia kPz;Lk; fhty;Jiw ifJ nra;J rpiwf;Fs; milj;J tpl;lJ. rpiwapy; ,Ue;J kWgbAk; gpizapy; ntsptu vLj;j Kaw;rp vy;yhk; if$ltpy;iy!

,e;j rk;gtk; njhlHghf ePjpkd;wj;jpy; [PtNrhjp nfhLj;j thf;F%yj;ij mg;gbNa jUfpNwd;.

“fle;j 2003 a+iy 15 Mk; Njjp ,uT 9 kzpf;F ehDk;> vdJ jhAk; Ntjhuz;ak; mLj;j Njj;jhf;Fb tPl;by; rhg;gpl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;Njhk;. mg;NghJ uh[Nfhghy;> mtuJ tf;fPy; uhN[e;jpud;> Rg;gpukzpad;> fNzrd;> juzpfuh[d; kw;Wk; mtuJ Ml;fs; tPl;bDs; GFe;jdH.

uh[Nfhghy; ifapy; fk;gpAk;> xU igAk; ,Ue;jJ. igapy; &. 6 ,yl;rk; gzk; cs;sJ ,ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;L jdf;F Mjuthf rhl;rp $wpdhy;> cdf;Fk; cd; FLk;gj;Jf;Fk; ey;yJ.  gzk; thq;ftpy;iy vd;why; rhe;jFkhiuf; nfhiy nra;jJ Nghy cd; FLk;gj;ijAk; mopj;J tpLNthk;' vd;whH.

mg;NghJ biutH juzpuh[d; fj;jpahy; Fj;j te;jhH. vd; jk;gp jLj;jjhy; tyJ ifapy; fhak; Vw;gl;lJ. cld; vdJ je;ij fj;jpia gpLq;fp vwpe;jhH. khkh jrkzp rj;jkpl;ljhy; kf;fs; $bdH. cld; uh[Nfhghy;> mtuJ Ml;fs; fhupy; jg;gpdH.”

mz;zhr;rp jg;gp tpl mtNuhL Njj;jhf;Fbf;Fr; nrd;w mtuJ tof;fwpQH khl;bf; nfhz;lhH. CHkf;fs; mtiu kuj;jpy; fl;bitj;J jHk mb nfhLj;jhHfs;!

“[PtN[hjp tptfhuj;jpy; fle;j Kiw ifjhdNghJ> nghyP]; fkp\duhf ,Ue;j Kj;Jf;fUg;gDk; ,d;];ngf;lHfs; ntq;flhryk; kw;Wk; fHzd; MfpNahUk; jd;id nuhk;gNt miyf;fopj;jhHfs;" vd;gjpy; mz;zhr;rpf;Fr; rpdk;. mtHfis vg;gbg; gop jPHg;gJ vd;W Nahrpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jtiu kbg;ghf;fk; NrhrpaH $l;lk; xd;W Kw;Wifapl;lJ. 

'me;j %d;W Ngupd; Gifg;glq;fisAk; itj;Jr; nra;tpid nra;jhy; mtHfSf;Fg; ghjpg;G epr;rak;" vd;W NrhjplHfs; mz;zhr;rpf;F Fisabj;jhHfs;. Rk;khNt MLk; Nga;f;F rhkpgpuhzp fhl;bdhy; vg;gb? mz;zhr;rp jiy Ml;l mjd;gbNa nra;tpidAk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.  

fhf;fha; cl;fhug; gdk;gok; tpOe;j fijahf ',e;j %tUNk Coy; tof;Ffspy; r];ngz;l; MfTk;> N[hrpaHfs; kw;Wk; khe;jpuPfHfs; kPJ mz;zhr;rpapd; ek;gpf;if mjpfkhfptpl;lJ' vd;fpd;whHfs; mtuJ neUq;fpa ez;gHfs;.  

,ijj; njhlHe;J 'jpUk;gTk; [PtN[hjpNahL gofZk;. NfhHl;y [PtN[hjp vdf;F vjpuh vJTk; Ngrf;$lhJ. ,Jf;Fk; VjhtJ g+i[ gz;zpj;jhq;f.." vd;W mz;zhr;rp Nfl;ljhfTk; clNd me;j kbg;ghf;fk; N[hrpaH FO> nrd;idf;F mUfpYs;s xU RLfhl;by; rpwg;Gg; G+ir elj;jp Kbj;jjhfTk; nra;jp ntspte;jJ.   

NrhjplH utp ,g;NghJ vd;d nrhy;fpd;whH? "mz;zhr;rpapd; rhjfg;gb bnrk;gupy; mtUf;F nts;sp jpir Muk;gkhfpwJ. mtH tUl KbTf;Fs; ntspapy; te;J tpLthH. Kd;dUk; mtH ntspapy; te;JtpLthH vd;W nrhd;Ndd;. ehd; nrhd;dgb mtH gpizapy; ntspapy; te;jhH' vd;fpd;whH.  

Mdhy;> G+e;jky;yp mkHT ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ,e;j tof;if tprhupj;j ePjpgjp nry;tFkhH Vg;upy; 27> 2002 md;W  ,uh[NfhghYf;F 10 Mz;L rpiwj;jz;lidAk; &gh 55 ,yl;rk; jz;lKk; tpjpj;J jPHg;gspj;jhH. me;jg; gzj;jpy; &gh 50 ,yl;rj;ij [PtN[hjpf;F ,og;gPlhfj; ju Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; ePjpgjp jdJ jPHg;gpy; $wpdhH.

,e;j cz;ikf; fij xUtuJ rhjfj;ij itj;J ,e;j ,e;j ,uhrp tPl;by; ,d;d ,d;d Nfhs;fs; el;rj;jpuq;fs;  epw;gjhy; rhjffhuUf;F ,d;d ,d;d gyd;fs; cz;L vdr; nrhy;y KbahJ vd;gij ma;aj;jpw;F ,lkpd;wp vz;gpf;fpwJ. ,uh[NfhghyJ Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;F 10 Mz;Lfshfg; gyd; nrhy;ypte;j NrhjplH utp mtH rpiwapy; fk;gp vz;z Ntz;b ,Uf;Fk; vd;W Vd; Kd;$l;bNa mtiu vr;rupf;ftpy;iy? 

Nrhjplj; njhopy; VsdkhfNt ghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. NrhjplHfs; rKjhaj;jpd; FUtpr;iffshfNt ghHf;fg; gLfpwhHfs;. “itj;jpad; ,wf;F kl;Lk; tplkhl;lhd;> gQ;rhq;ffhud; ,we;j gpd;Dk; tplkhl;lhd;” vd;w gonkhop mjw;F ey;y vLj;Jf; fhl;lhFk;.  

NrhjplHfSk; kdpjHfNs> mtHfsplk; epfo;e;jtw;iwNah epfog;Nghfpd;wtw;iwNah Kd;$l;b vjpHT$Wk; Mw;wy; ,y;iy. mg;gbr; nra;a KbAnkd;why; rhe;jp gupfhuk;> G+ir GdHf;fhuk; nra;J jq;fsJ nrhe;j tho;f;ifapy; ve;jr; rpf;fYk; Jd;gKk; ,y;yhky; XNfh vd;W tho;e;jpUg;ghHfs;. Mdhy;> ehk; fhZk; NrhjplHfs; ahUk; tho;f;ifapy; nfhb fl;bg; gwf;ftpy;iy. VidatHfisg; NghyNt mtHfSk; ruhrup tho;f;ifjhd; tho;fpwhHfs;.  

kdpj ,ay;Gfis mwpe;j NrhjplHfs; jkf;F epfo;fpd;wtw;iwNah my;yJ  gpwUf;F epfe;jtw;iwNah Nrhjplk; ghHg;NghUf;F epfo;e;jdthfNth> epfog; NghtdthfNth khl;Nlw;wpf; $WtH.  mq;qdk; $Wq;fhy;> FUl;Lg; g+id tpl;lj;jpy; gha;e;jJ Nghy; XupU epfo;r;rpfs; rupahf my;yJ xj;jpUe;JtpLk;. mij itj;Jf; nfhz;L Nrhjplk; nka; vd;W rpyH thjpLtH. Mdhy;> gFj;jwpT>  gl;lwpT> Muha;r;rp> mwptpay; Jiznfhz;L Moe;J Nehf;fpd;> Nrhjplk; Rj;jg; Gul;L vd;gJ tpsq;Fk;. rpy Nrhk;Ngwpfs;> clYiog;gpd;wp tho tFj;j topfspy; NrhjplKk; xd;whFk;.

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L

 

',aw;ifapd; %y tpjpia'f; fz;Lgpbj;j nfg;yH   

(38)

thdpay; gw;wpa mwpit NkYk; gy gb caHj;jpatH nld;khHf; ehl;ilr; NrHe;j ijNrh gpuhNf (Tycho Brahe) vd;gtuhtH. njhiyNehf;fp fz;L gpbf;f Kd;dH thDyfj;ij mtjhdpf;f gy El;gkhd fUtpfisf; fz;Lgpbj;j ngUik ,tiur; rhUk;.  

nld;khHf;Ff;Fk; ];tPlDf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;j Uraniborg vd;;w jPtpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl ijNrh gpuhNf (1546-1601) jdJ Ma;Tfis Nkw;nfhz;lhH. gpuhNf fz;L gpbj;j fUtpfs; Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis Kd; vg;NghJk; ,y;yhjthW jpUj;jkhfj; jPHkhdpf;f cjtpd. gpuhNf nrt;tha; gw;wp tpupthd juTfisj; njhFj;jhH. ,e;jj; juTfs; gpd;dH Nfhs;fspd; mirTfisg; gw;wpa tpjpfis Mf;Ftjw;Fk; nrt;thapd; Nfhs;tPjp (orbit) tl;l tbthf ,y;yhky; xU ePs;tl;lj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwnjd vz;gpf;ff; nfg;yUf;F (Kepler) NgUjtpahf ,Ue;jd.  

gpuhNf vy;yhtifapYk; xU Ntbf;ifahd kdpjH. ahH fzf;fpy; Gyp vd;gij vz;gpf;fj; jdJ khzhf;fH xUtiu ths; rz;ilf;F tUkhW miw$ty; tpLf;f vjpupapd; ths; mtuJ %f;fpd; xU gFjpiar; rPtpaJ. mjd;gpd; nts;sp kw;Wk; jq;fj;jpy; nra;ag;gl;l nraw;if %f;if gpuhNf nghUj;jpf; nfhz;L elkhbdhH. mjw;F mbf;fb vz;nza; G+rpf; nfhz;Nl ,Ug;ghuhk;.  

fpgp 1588 ,y; xU Gjpa murH nld;khHf; ehl;bd; Ml;rpf; fl;by; VwpaNghJ mtNuhL gpuhNf gpzf;Fg; gl;Lg; gpuhf; efUf;Ff; FbngaHe;jhH.  

,e;jf; Fbg;ngaHT tuyhw;W Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ. fhuzk; mq;Fjhd; mtH ghLgl;Lj; jpul;ba juTfs; KOJk; nfg;yuJ iff;Fg; Ngha;r; NrHe;jJ. nfg;yH gpuhf;Ff;Fr; nrd;W gpuhNfapd; cjtpahsuhfr; NrHe;J nfhz;lhH.  

gpuhNf %j;jpuf; Fohapy; Vw;gl;l njhw;W Neha; fhuzkhf ,we;J NghdhH. mtH gpuhf;fpy; cs;s xU gpuG mspj;j tpUe;Jf;Fg; Ngha; ,Ue;jNghJ ,aw;iff; fld; fopf;f Ntz;b ,Ue;Jk; tpUe;J mspj;jtH Nkiria tpl;Lg; NghFKd; jhd; vOk;GtJ Kiway;y vd;W epidj;jjhy; mtH mlf;fpf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;b ,Ue;jJNt mtuJ Neha;f;Ff; fhuzk; vd;fpd;whHfs;.    

gpuhN`apd; mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; Kd;ida thdpayhsHfsJ mtjhdpg;Gf;fis tpl MokhfTk; jpUj;jkhfTk; ,Ue;jd. Kd;ida thdpayhsHfs; xU Nfhspd; Rw;Wg; ghijiar; rpy jlitfs;  kl;Lk; mtjhdpj;jhHfs;.  Mdhy;> gpuhNf xU Nfhspd; Rw;Wg; ghijiaj; Mz;Lf;fzf;fhfj; njhlHr;rpahf mtjhdpj;J mjd; ngWNgWfisf; Fwpj;J itj;jhH. Nfhs;fspd; ,Ug;Gf;fis mtH kw;wtHfistpl VO klq;F jpUj;jkhf mse;jhH. mtuJ rpy mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; Kd;diu tpl ijNrh gpuhNf Kg;gJ klq;F jpUj;jkhf ,Ue;jd.  

gpuhNfapd; ,j;jifa jpUj;jkhd mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; fhuzkhfNt Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg; ghijfspy; fhzg;gl;l Kuz;ghLfisf; fisa Kbe;jJ. mJkl;Lky;yhky; mtuJ cjtpahsHfspy; xUtuhd nfg;yH thdpaypy; xU ngupa Gul;rpia cUthf;fTk; VJthapw;W.

gpuhNf 1609 Mk; Mz;L Astronomia Nova vd;w Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH. ,e;j Ehy; ,tUf;Fj; "jw;fhy mwptpaypd; je;ij" vd;w gl;lj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jJ. Kjy; Kiwahf ,e;j mwptpayhsH Ngnuz;zpf;ifapy; Fiwghlhd juTfis xOq;F gLj;jp ,aw;ifapd; mbg;gil tpjpiaf; (The  first time a scientist dealt with a multitude of imperfect data to arrive at a fundamental law of nature) fz;L gpbj;jhH.

thdpaYf;F gpuhNfapd; gq;fspg;gpd; RUf;fk; gpd;tUkhW:  

    1) njhiyNehf;fp fz;L gpbf;Fk; Kd;dH ,tHjhd; gy fUtpfisf; fz;L gpbj;Jj; jpUj;jkhd mtjhdpg;Gf;fspy; <Lgl;lhH.  

    2) Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis> Fwpg;ghf nrt;tha; gw;wp> mtH Nkw;nfhz;l mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; nfg;yH Nghd;w thdpayhsHfSf;Fj; jpUj;jkhd juTfisf; nfhLj;J cjtpaJ. ,J ,d;iwa QhapWika FLk;g mikg;ig cUthf;fg; NgUjtpahf ,Ue;jJ.  

    3) fpgp 1572 ,y; gpuhNf xU tpz;kPidf; fz;L gpbj;jhH.  ,e;j tpz;kPd;  thdj;jpy; jpBnudj; Njhd;wp RkhH 18 jpq;fs; ePbj;J epd;wJ. gpd; mJ kq;fp kq;fp kiwe;J tpl;lJ.  cz;ikapy; mtH fz;L gpbj;j  el;rj;jpuk; GJ el;rj;jpuk; my;y. mJ ntbj;Jr; rpjwpa xU el;rj;jpuk; (Supernova) MFk;.

                                                                                                      (Supernova)  

    4) fpgp 1577 ,y; gpuhNf xU thy;kPid (Comet) mtjhdpj;jhH. mjd; ,lkhW Njhw;wf; Nfhzj;ij (parallax) mse;J mjd; njhiyT  epyhit tpl mjpfkhdJ vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. ,e;jf; fz;Lgpbg;G thy;nts;spfs; thdj;jpy; vupAk; thA vd;w mup];Njhl;lypd; KbTf;F Kuzhf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; thdk; khWtjpy;iy vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il ,e;j thy;nts;sp  khw;wptpl;lJ.

,lkhw;Wj; Njhw;wf; Nfhzj;ij xU rpd;dr; Nrhjid %yk; fz;L gpbj;J tplyhk;. ePq;fs; ,lJ fz;iz xU ifahy; %bf; nfhz;L ePl;ba tyJ ifg; ngUtpuiyAk; mjd; gpd;Gyj;jpy;; ,Uf;Fk; xU kuj;ijAk; ghUq;fs;. ,g;NghJ tyJ fz;iz %bf; nfhz;L mNj ngUtpuiyAk; kuj;ijAk; ghUq;fs;. mJ ,lk; khwpj; Njhd;Wk;. fhuzk; cq;fs; ,lJfz; tyJfz; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,ilntsp ,Ug;gjhy; mit ntt;NtW Nfhzj;jpy; cq;fs; tpuiyg; ghHf;fpd;wd. njhiytpy;  ,Uf;Fk; kuKk; ,lk;khwpj; Njhd;Wk;. Mdhy;> me;jf; Nfhzk; rpwpjhf ,Uf;Fk;. cq;fs; ,uz;L fz;fSf;F ,ilapyhd Jhuj;ijj; njupe;J nfhz;lhy; Kf;Nfhzf;fzpjj;ijg; (Trigonometry)  gad;gLj;jp cq;fs; tpuypd; Jhuj;ijf; fzpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. ,J ,lkhW Njhw;wf; Nfhzk; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jf; fUj;JUit itj;Nj thdpayhsHfs; gy Mapuk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; ,Uf;Fk; tpz;kPd;fspd; rupahd Jhuj;ijf; fzf;fpLfpd;whHfs;. ,e;jf; fz;L gpbg;G 150 Mz;LfSf;F Ke;jpa thdpaypd; Njhw;wj;ijNa khw;wp tpl;lJ. njhiytpy; cs;s tpz;kPd;fs; mz;l ntspapy; Xbf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpd;wd. Mdhy;> mit kpf kpfj; njhiytpy; ,Ug;gjhy; mtw;wpd; Njhw;wf; Nfhzk; vq;fs; fz;Zf;Fg; Gyg;Ltjpy;iy.

    5) ,lkhW Njhw;wf; Nfhzj;ij mJtiu ahUk; nra;jpuhjthW mtH fzf;fpl;lhH. tpz;kPd;fSf;F  ,lkhhW Njhw;wf; Nfhzk; ,y;iy vd;gijr; rupahfj; njupe;J nfhz;l gpuhNf gpd;tUk; KbTfSf;F te;jhH-

m) mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpYs;s  Gtp mirtw;wJ> my;yJ

M) tpz;kPd;fs; ntF njhiytpy; ,Ug;gjhy; mtw;wpd; ,lkhW Njhw;wf; Nfhzk;  msf;f KbahjthW kpfr; rpwpaJ.

Mdhy;> ,t;thW rpe;jpj;j gpuhNf el;rj;jpuq;fs; ntF njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij ek;g kWj;jhH. mjdhy; mtH Gtpjhd; mz;lj;jpd; ikak; vd;Wk; mg;gbay;y vd;W nrhd;d NfhngHdpf;f]; gpio tpl;Ltpl;lhH vdTk; epidj;jhH.

    6) gpuhNf mz;lk;gw;wpa NtnwhU khjpupg;gbtj;ij (Model) cUthf;fpdhH. mJ mup];Njhl;lypd; khjpupg;gbtj;jpw;Fk; NfhngHdpf;rpd; khjpupg;gbtj;jpw;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l xd;whFk;. mjhtJ Gtp mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ  Vida Nfhs;fs; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpd;wd vd;gjhFk;.

,jdhy; gpuhNfapd; mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; kpfj; jpUj;jkhf ,Ue;Jk; mjd; mbg;gilapy; mtH cUthf;fpa Nfhl;ghLfs; gpioahf ,Ue;jd. NtW tpjkhfr; nrhd;dhy; mtjhdpg;gpy; mtH xU tpz;zuhf tpsq;fpdhH> Mdhy;> mjd; mbg;gilapy; cUthf;fpa Nfhl;ghLfspy; rf;fl;ilahf ,Ue;jhH.   

gpuhNfia mLj;J thdpay; Jiwapy; ngupa Gul;rpia nra;jtH NfhngHdpf;fd; MthH. QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F capH nfhLj;j Kk;%Hj;jpfspy; xUtH vd miof;fg;gLk; Nahfhd;]; nfg;yH (Johannes Kepler- fpgp 1571-1630) MthH.

nfg;yH ,d;iwa n[Hkdp ehl;bd; (md;iwa Gdpj cNuhk NguuR) Tl;njk;NgHf; (Wurttemburg) efupy; 1571 bnrk;gH 27 ,y; gpwe;jhH. twpa FLk;gj;jpy; gpwe;j ,tH ,sikapy; kpfTk; NehQ;ryhff; fhzg;gl;lhH. Mdhy;> gbg;gpy; kpfTk; Rl;;bahf ,Ue;jjhy; Jgpd;n[d; (Tubingen)  gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; gbf;fg; Gyikg; guprpy; ngw;whH. mq;F mtH NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gbf;f tha;g;G Vw;gl;lJ. mjd; gydhf me;jf; Nfhl;ghl;il Mjupj;Jg; NgrTk;  vOjTk; njhlq;fpdhH.

nfg;yH gpuhf; efuj;jpy; tho;e;j Gfo;ngw;w mur fzpjtpw;gduhd upNrh gpuhNf ,lk; nrd;W mtuJ cjtpahsuhfr; NrHe;J nfhz;lhH.  

Mdhy;> nfg;yUk; gpuhNfAk; xUtNuhL xUtH xj;Jg; Nghf Kbatpy;iy. vq;Nf kpfTk; Gj;jprhypahd jdJ cjtpahsH jd;id Nktp tpLthNuh vd;w mr;rk; gpuhNff;F ,Ue;jJ. mjdhy; jd;dplk; ,Ue;j KOj; juTfspy; xU gFjpia kl;Lk; nfg;yUf;Ff; fhl;bdhH. nrt;thapd; Rw;Wg; ghijiaj; njupe;J nfhs;Sk; gzpia gpuhNf nfg;yuplk; nfhLj;jhH. mJ nfg;yUf;F vspjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

gpuhNf me;jg; gzpiaf; nfg;yUf;Ff; nfhLj;jjd; Nehf;fNk mJ rpf;fyhdJ vd;gjhy; nfg;yH mNjhL ky;Yg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fj; jhd; mz;lj;ijg; gw;wpa Ma;tpy; ftdk; nrYj;jyhk; vd;w vz;zNk.  

,jpy; cs;s Kuz;eifr;Rit (irony) vd;dntd;why; nfg;yH Nfhs;fsJ mirTfs; gw;wpa rupahd tpjpfis tFg;gjw;Fr; nrt;tha; gw;wpa gpuhNfapd; juTfs;jhd; mtUf;Ff; ifnfhLj;J vd;gJjhd;. ,jdhy; thdpaiy Kd;ndLg;gjpy; nfg;yH gpuhNfia Ke;jpf; nfhz;L mitapd; Kd; tupirapy; ,lk; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lhH.   

      Nahfhd;];  nfg;gyH      gpuhNf Nghyy;yhJ nfg;yH NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Kw;whf ek;gpdhH. NfhngHdpf;f]; Qhapiw mz;lj;jpd; ikaj;jpy; rupahf itj;jhH. Mdhy;> Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg;ghij tl;l tbtkhdJ vd;W mDkhdpj;jjpy; NfhngHdpf;f]; gpio tpl;Ltpl;lhH. mjdhy; NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;by; Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis tpupthf tpsf;f rpW tl;lq;fspd; (epicycles) Njit Vw;gl;lJ.

,e;jg; Gjpupd; filrp Kbr;ir mtpo;g;gjpy; nfg;yH ntw;wp fz;lhH. Mdhy;> mijj; jtpHg;gjw;F mtH gy ehs; NghuhbdhH.

Kbtpy; Nfhs;fspd; Rw;Wg;ghij tl;ltbtkhdJ vd njhykp epidj;jJ NghyNth mjid XusT Vw;Wf;nfhz;l NfhngHdpf;irg; NghyNth my;yhJ mJ jl;ilahd ePs;tl;lkhf ,Uf;fpwJ vd nfg;yH nrhd;dhH.

Kd;dH $wpathW gpuhNf nrt;tha;f; Nfhsj;ijg;gw;wpf; nfhLj;j juTfisf; nfhz;Nl nfg;yH ,e;j KbTf;F te;jhH. nrt;tha;f; Nfhspd; XLghijNa kw;iwa Nfhs;fistpl ePs;tl;lkhf (ellipse) mike;jpUf;fpwJ.

gpuhNf 1601 ,y; ,we;jNghJ mtuJ ,lj;Jf;Ff; nfg;yH epakpf;fg;gl;lhH. mjd; gydhf gpuhNf Nrfupj;J itj;jpUe;j juTfs; midj;Jk; nfg;yuJ iff;F khwpaJ. gpuNfapd; FLk;gj;jpdH me;jj; juTfisf; nfhLj;Jg; gzk; Njl vLj;j Kaw;rp ntw;wp ngwtpy;iy. nfg;yH mjidr; rl;lg;gb ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhH vd;Wk; nrhy;y KbahJ. vJ vg;gbNah gpuhNf jpul;b itj;jpUe;j juTfs; nfg;yH Nfhs;fspd; mirTfisg;gw;wp tFj;j %d;W tpjpfis cUthf;fg; ngUksT cjtpaJ.

nfg;yH nkhj;jk; %d;W tpjpfisf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. 1621 Mk; Mz;L VO njhFjpfisf; nfhz;l thdpaypd; RUf;fk; (Epitome Astronoiae )  vd;w Ehiy ntspapl;lhH. ,tHjhd; Kjd; Kjypy; fzpg;GfSf;F klf;ifiag; (Logarithm) gad;gLj;jp Nfhs;fspd; nrd;w fhy my;yJ tUq;fhy epiyfisj; Jy;ypakhff; fz;Lnfhs;s toptFj;jhH.

Gjd; kw;Wk; nts;spf; Nfhs;fs; xNu NeHf; Nfhl;by; tUtij ,tH Kd;$l;bNa fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy;> me;j epfo;T ,lk;ngWk; Kd; 1630 Mk; Mz;L mtH ,aw;if va;jpdhH. nfg;yH gy fz;Lgpbg;Gfspd; je;ij MthH. mtw;;wpy; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f rpy:

 (1) Nfhs;fspd; mirTfis Kjd; Kjyhfr; rupahff; fzf;fpl;L tpsf;fpajd; %yk; thDyf El;gq;fSf;Fk; ,aw;if tpjpfSf;Fk; ( natural laws) mtH fhy;Nfhs; ,l;lhH. ,aw;if tpjpfs; vd;gJ vq;Fk; epiwthdJ> rupahdJ> Nrhjid nra;J ghHf;ff; $baJ.

 (2) ,tH vOjpa Stereometrica Doliorum vd;w Ehy; xUKidg;gLj;jg; gl;l fy;fpA+yRf;F (integral calculus) mbg;gilahf mike;jJ.

 (3) fly; nghq;Ftjw;fhd fhuzk; re;jpuDk; QhapWk; vd Kjd; Kjypy; $wpaJ.  ,jw;fhff; fypypNah mtiuf; fz;bj;jhH.

 (4) QhapW jdJ mr;rpy; Roy;fpwJ vd Kjypy; nrhd;dJ.

 (5) fpwpj;J ehjupd; gpwe;j ehisr; rupahff; fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhd;dJ. mJ ,d;W cyfk; KOJk; gpd;gw;wg;gLfpwJ.

 (6) njhiyNehf;fp vg;gb ,aq;FfpwJ vd;gij Kjd; Kjypy; tpsf;fpaJ.

 (7) tpz;kPd;fspd; Jhuj;ijf; fzf;fpl Gtpapd; Row;rpahy; Vw;gLfpw stellar parallax iag; gad; gLj;jpaJ.

 

 

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L

 

tpz;iz 'Qhdf;' fz;zhy; ghHj;j fypypNah!   

(39) 

epyhtpd; njhiyitf; fpl;lj;jl;l rupahff; fzf;fpl;L mwpe;j fpNuf;fHfspd; thdpay; rhjidfs; mj;NjhL Njq;fp tpl;ld. mjw;F Nky; mz;lj;jpd; ePs> mfy> cauq;fs; gw;wp mtHfs; nra;j Ma;Tfs; jpUj;jkhf mikatpy;iy. mup];jhHf;f]; Qhapwpd; njhiyitf; fz;L gpbf;f Kad;whH. mtH ifahz;l fzpjKiw rupahdJjhd;> Mdhy;> QhapW ngUe;njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpw fhuzj;jhy; mtH mstpl Ntz;ba Nfhz NtWghLfs; kpfTk; rpwpaitahf ,Ue;jd. mjdhy; mtUf;Fr; rupahd tpil fpilf;fhky; Ngha;tpl;lJ. ,tw;iw ,w;iwf;F ,Uf;fpw jw;fhy fUtpfshy; kl;LNk mstpl KbAk;.

,Ue;Jk; fpK 3 Mk; Ehw;whz;L njhlq;fp 17Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu mz;lk; gw;wpa rpe;jid ngUk;ghYk; fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfspd; Nfhl;ghLfis xl;bajhfNt ,Ue;jJ. mt;tg;NghJ fzpjtpay; mbg;gilapy; nrg;gk; nra;ag;gl;lNjnahopa Gjpjhfg; nghJf; Nfhl;ghL vJTk; cUthf;fg;gltpy;iy. gjpd; %d;whk; Ehw;whz;bd; eLg;gFjpapy; fpNuf;fHfs; thdpay; gw;wp vOjpitj;j ifnaOj;Jg; gbfs; Gjpjhf ma;Nuhg;ghtpy; njhlq;fg;gl;l gy;fiyf; fofq;fshy; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; nkhopngaHg;G nra;ag;gl;ld. mjid mLj;J thdpay; gw;wpa mwpT mq;F gutj; njhlq;fpaJ.

.mLj;j ,uz;L Ehw;whz;Lfs; ,Uz;l fhyj;jpd;; (Dark Age) gpd; Njhd;wpa kWkyHr;rpf; (Renaissance) fhyk; vd tHzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. kj;jpa fhy rpe;jidapy; rkak; rhHe;j rpe;jidapd; Nkyhz;ik KbTf;Ff; nfhz;Ltug;gl;L xU gue;Jgl;l mwpTj; jpwdha;T njhlf;fp itf;fg;gl;lJ. kWkyHr;rp mwptpayhsHfs; Gtpia xU rlg; nghUshfg; ghHf;Fk; xU Gjpa Copiaj; (era) njhlf;fp itj;jhHfs;. mjd; %yk; mwptpay; jsj;jpy; mwptpay; mbg;gilahd rpe;jid> ghHit ,uz;bYk; ghupa khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;jpdhHfs;.

thdpay; Nkk;ghl;Lf;F nfg;yupd; gq;fspg;G fzprkhdJ vd;gijg; ghHj;Njhk;. mtiu mLj;J thdpaypd; tsHr;rpf;F fypypNah fypyp (1564-1642) Mw;wpa gq;fspg;G kpfTk; ghupaJ.

fypypNah fz;Lgpbj;j njhiyNehf;fp thdpay; tsHr;rpapy; xU iky; fy;yhFk;. cz;ikapy; fypypNah njhiyNehf;fpiaf; fz;L gpbf;ftpy;iy. mijf; fz;L gpbj;jtH xy;yhe;J ehl;ilr; NrHe;j nyapld; (Leyden) MthH.

fypypNah gprh efuj;jpy; 1564 ngg;utup 15 ,y; gpwe;jhH. ,sikapypUe;Nj ,aw;if kPJk; mwptpay; kPJk; kpfTk; MHtk; nfhz;bUe;jhH. vdNt ,aw;if epfo;Tfis mwptpay; fz;nfhz;Nl ghHj;jhH. fypypNahtpd; je;ijahH tpd;nrd;Nrh fypyp xU Gul;rpfu ,irf; fiyQH. Njthyaq;fspy; ,irf;fg;gLk; ,ir ftHr;rpaw;wJ vdf; fUjpa mtH fpNuf;f ghly;fs; kw;Wk; Guhzq;fis mbg;gilahf itj;Jj; jw;fhy ,ir tbtq;fis mikj;jhH. ,tuJ Kaw;rpNa gpd;dH ,j;jhypehl;bd; Gfo;ngw;;w Xnguh (Opera) vd;w ,ir ehlfkhf cUg; ngw;wJ.

fypypNah jdJ 17tJ mfitapy; gprh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; NrHe;J gbf;fj; njhlq;fpdhH. mtuJ je;ijahupd; mwpTiug;gb mq;F kUj;Jtk; gbj;jhH.  gpd;dH mjidf; iftpl;Lf; fzf;fpay; gbf;fj; njhlq;fpdhH. mg;NghJ kpfTk; GfOld; tpsq;fpa jpf;rp (Ricci) vd;gtuplk; fypypNah fzpjj;jpy; ghlk; Nfl;f mtuJ je;ijahH xOq;F nra;jhH.

fzpj ghlj;jpy; fypypNah kpfTk; nfl;bf;fhuuhf tpsq;fpdhH. fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjp MHf;fpkpB]; (fpK 287-212) fz;Lgpbj;j KbTfSf;F Nkyhfr; rpytw;iwf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. mtuJ 25 MtJ mfitapy; mNj gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; fzf;fpay; gPlj;Jf;Fj; jiytuhf epakdk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

Gprhtpy; ,Ue;J ntdp]; FbauRf;Fr; nrd;whH. jiyefukhd ntdprpd; md;iwa kf;fs; njhif 150>000 Mf ,Ue;jJ> Mdhy;> me;j efu kf;fs; Mz;by; 44 kpy;ypad; (4.4 Nfhb) Nghj;jy; itidf; fhyp gz;zpdhHfshk;!

1599 Mk; Mz;L fypypNah kupdh fk;gh (Maria Gamba) vd;w 21 taJ epiwe;j ngz;izj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. mtHfSf;F %d;W Foe;ijfs; gpwe;jd.

ntdprpy; gy ngUq;Fb kf;fspd; (Nobles) el;G fypypNahtpw;Ff; fpilj;jJ. mjpy; xUtH ntdp]; Fbaurpd; mur rkathjpahd gpuh ghXyh rHg;gp (Fra Paola Sarpi) MthH.  

1604 Mk; Mz;L ma;Nuhg;gh fz;lj;J thdpayhsHfs; kj;jpapy;; thdj;jpy; Njhd;wpa thy;nts;sp xd;W ngupa jpifg;igAk; MHtj;ijAk; cz;lhf;fpaJ. Nfhs;fs; ePq;fyhf mz;lntsp khw;wj;Jf;F Mshfhj epue;ju fhl;rp vd;W ek;gg;gl;lJ. ,g;NghJ thdj;jpy; xU thy;nts;sp jpBnudj; Njhd;wpaJ mz;lntsp gw;wpa MHtj;ij mjpfupj;jJ.

1609 Mk; Mz;L fypypNahtpw;F xU nra;jp vl;baJ. mJ mtupd; tho;f;ifapy; Kf;fpa jpUg;G Kidahf mike;jJ.

xy;yhe;J ehl;by; tho;e;j nyapld; (Leyden) vd;gtH Kjd; Kjyhff; fz; ghHit Fiwe;NjhuJ ghtidf;F %f;Ff; fz;zhb xd;wpidf; fz;L gpbj;jjhff; fypypNah Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. mJ gw;wpa jftiy mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;F mtH xy;yhe;J ehl;Lf;F nryT Nkw;nfhz;lhH. mq;F nrd;w mtH mjd; nra;Kiwiaf; fw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. njhlf;fg; gpd;dilTf;Fg; gpd;dH gbg;gbahf xU nghUis 20 klq;F ngupjhff; fhl;Lk; 60x njhiyNehf;fpia cUthf;fpdhH. mjd; cjtpNahL (1610) thd;ntspiag; mtH mz;zhe;J ghHj;jNghJ jw;fhy thdpay; gpwe;jJ!

mNj rkak; flTs; gilg;Gg; gw;wpa fj;Njhypf;f kjj;jpd; ek;gpf;iffs;> Nfhl;ghLfs; nghbg; nghbahfj; jfHe;J nfhl;Lz;L Nghapd!

Qhapwpy; fWg;Gg; nghl;Lf;fs; ,Ug;gijf; fypypNah njhiyNehf;fp %yk; fz;lwpe;jhH. me;jf; fz;Lgpbg;G QhapW khRkWtw;w tpz;kPd; vd;w kj ek;gpf;ifiar; rpijj;jJ.  ,jdhy; fypypNahtpw;Fk; NaR rigapdUf;Fk; ,ilapy; Nkhjy; vOe;jJ.

,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; fpwpj;jt jpUr;rigapd; xU gpuptpduhd nlhkpdpf;fd;]; (Dominicans) NfhngHdpf;fd; mz;lNfhsf; Nfhl;ghL gw;wpj; njupe;J nfhz;L mjw;F vjpuhfg; gug;Giu nra;aj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;.  ma;e;jhtJ Nghg;ghz;ltH Nghy; (Pope Paul V) NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;ilj; jhd; Gwe;js;spa nra;jpia fypypNahtpw;Fj; njuptpf;FkhW ngyhkpidf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH.  Nkw; nfhz;L fypypNah  Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;Wfpwnjd;w                                   fypypNah fypyp     Nfhl;ghl;il itj;Jf; nfhs;sNth mjid Mjupj;Jg; NgrNth my;yJ kw;wtHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpf;fNth$lhJ                                                

vdTk; fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. fypypNah vOjpa  Gtp tyk; tUfpwJ vd;w Ehy; jilnra;ag;gl;l Ehy;fspd; gl;baypy; NrHf;fg;gl;lJ.  

 

1618 Mk; Mz;L ,iyAjpH fhyj;jpy; thdj;jpy; 3 thy;nts;spfs; Njhd;wpd. me;j              

thy;nts;spfs; Nfhs;fspd; ghijfSf;F mz;ikahf tyk; tUtjhf NaRrigiar; NrHe;j xU Kf;fpa kjNghjfH vOjpdhH. Mdhy;> fypypNah me;j thy;nts;spfs; ngUksT NeHf;  Nfhl;by; Rw;wptUtjhfr; nrhd;dhH. ,jdhy; mtUf;Fk; NaRrigapdUf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s gifik NkYk; tYj;jJ.  

1623 Mk; Mz;L 8 MtJ Nghg; VHgd; (Pope Urban  V111) gjtpf;F te;jhH. Gjpa Nghg;ghz;ltH jd;id xU fy;tpkhdhff; fUjpdhH. fypypNahtpd; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; Nghw;wpdhH. Gjpa Nghg;ghz;ltupd; tUiff;Fg; gpd;dH NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghL vq;Fk; gutpaJ. 1632 Mk; Mz;L flw;ngUf;Fg; gw;wpa ciuahly; (Dialogue on Tides) vd;w Ehiy fypypNah ntspapl epidj;jhH. Mdhy;> mjd; jiyg;G  Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUfpwJ vd;w fUj;ijf; nfhLg;gjhf ,Ue;jjhy; mjid khw;WkhW mtH vr;rupf;fg;gl;lhH. vdNt mtH mjd; ngaiu njhykp kw;Wk; NfhngHdpf;fd; ,UtuJ cyFgw;wpa ,U Kf;fpa Kiwikfs; gw;wpa ciuahly; (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief systems of the World-Ptolemaic and Copernican) vd khw;wpdhH.  

fypypNahtpd; Ehy; ntspahdJk; mjid clNd epWj;JkhW cNuhk; efu kjtprhuiz kd;wk; (Inquisition) Miz gpwg;gpj;jJ. mWgj;njhd;gJ mfit epuk;gpa fypypNah nfhw nfhwntd ,Oj;Jtug;gl;L  ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg; gl;lhH. mtuJ if fhy;fs; eLq;fpd> cjL cyHe;J NghapUe;jJ. ePjpkd;wj;jpy; NfhngHdpf;fd; Nfhl;ghl;il ntspapy; nrhy;yf;$lhJ vd;W ahUk; gzpj;jjhfj;; jdf;F epidT ,y;iy vd;W fypypNah thjhbdhH. ePjpkd;w tprhuiz Ehypy; nrhy;yg;gl;l mwptpay;gw;wp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. fypypNah Nghg;ghz;ltupd; gzpKiwf; fl;lisia kPwpdhuh ,y;iyah vd;gJ gw;wpNa tprhuiz ,Ue;jJ.

Ehypy; $wg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fs; gpio vd;W fypypNah xj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Fiwe;j jz;lid nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;W mtUf;F vLj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. mjid xj;Jf; nfhz;l fypypNah jhNd jdJ thjj;jpdhy; ms;Sg;gl;Lg; Nghdjhff; $wpdhH. mtUf;F Kjypy; fhytiuaw;w rpiwj; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. Ngr;R thHj;ijf;Fg; gpd;dH mtuJ rpiwj; jz;lid tPl;Lf; fhtyhf khw;wg;gl;lJ. jdJ %g;Gf; fhyj;jpy; fypypNah jhd; vOjpa Ehypy; jdJ ifg;glg; gpd;tUkhW vOjpdhH:   

"kjthjpfNs! ePq;fs; QhapW - Gtpgw;wpf; nfhz;Ls;s ek;gpf;if xU fhyj;jpy; Gtp epiyahf ,Uf;fpwJ QhapW mijr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gtHfis ek;gpf;if<dHfs; vdg; ngaH #l;l itj;JtpLk;. mg;NghJ Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;WfpwJ vd;w cz;ik rlg;nghUs; kw;Wk; Vuz (logic) mbg;gilapy; vz;gpf;fg;gLk; vd ehd; epidf;fpNwd;."

rpiwapy; fz;ghHit ,oe;j fypypNah 1642 Mk; Mz;L rdtupj; jpq;fs; ,t;Tyf tho;it ePj;jhH.    

  


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (40)

 

jpUr;rigahy; capUld; vupf;fg;gl;l GWhNdh!   

rptg;Gf; Nfhsk; vd miof;fg;gLk; nrt;tha;f; NfhSf;F f[f];jhd; ehl;by; cs;s igfhD}H tpz;ntsp Ma;Tj; jsj;jpypUe;J NrhA]; gpupfhl; VTfiz (Soyuz-Fregat rocket )  %yk; nrt;tha; fLfjp ( Mars Express ) vd;Dk; tpz;fyk; xd;iwf; fle;j A+d;  2 Mk; ehs; thDf;Fr; nrYj;jpdhHfs; vd Kd;dH (mj;jpahak; 9)  vOjpapUe;Njd;. mNj Nghy; mnkupf;f thdpayhsHfs;  Cape Canaveral Air Force Station ,y; ,Ue;J  xU Nwhtiu (Rover) A+d; 12Yk; ,uz;lhtJ Nwhtiu A+d; 25Yk; mDg;g ,Uf;fpd;whHfs; vd;Wk; mtw;wpd; ngaH KiwNa Spirit (vOr;rp)  kw;Wk; Opportunity (tha;g;G) vd;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;Njd;.

,tw;wpy; ma;Nuhg;gpa xd;wpak; mDg;gpa nrt;tha;f; fLfjp tpz;fyk; fle;j ej;jhH ehspy; gpupj;jhdpah cUthf;fpa gPfps; 2 ( Beagle 2 ) vd;w Ma;T $lj;ij thd;Fil %yk; nrt;thapy; jiu ,wf;fpaJ. Mdhy;> gPf;fps; 2 ,y; ,Ue;J ve;jtpj rkpf;ifAk; ,Jtiu fpilf;ftpy;iy. ma;Nuhg;gpa thdpayhsHfSf;F ,J ngupa Vkhw;wj;ijf; nfhLj;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;gjpy; ma;akpy;iy.

Mdhy;> ehrh  Delta II  7925 vd;w tpz;fyk; %yk; A+d; 10> 2003 ,y; mDg;gpa vOr;rp vd;w Nwhngl; NwhtH (,ae;jpu kdpjd;) fle;j rdtup 3 ,y; ( EST, Saturday, Jan. 3, 2004) gj;jpukhfg; gYhd; %yk; (50 mb my;yJ 15 kPl;lH cauj;jpy;) nrt;thapy; jiuapwf;fg;gl;lJ.  nrt;tha;f; Nfhisf; fupkythAg; glyk; #o;e;Js;sJ. ,q;F gdpf;fl;b tbtpy; jz;zPH 18 tpOf;fhL cs;sJ. nrt;thapy; xU ehs; vd;gJ 24 kzp 38 kzpj;JspahFk;. nrt;thapy; NwhtH 90 ehl;fs; Ma;Tg; gzpia Nkw;nfhs;Sk;.

,ij vOJk; NghJ vOr;rp mq;fpUe;J Gtpf;F tpaj;jF 3b tz;zg; glq;fis 170.2 kpy;ypad; fpkP (105.7 kpy;ypad; fy;) JhuKs;s thd;ntsp Clhf ehrhTf;F mDg;gpf;  nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ,g;NghJ NwhtH mjd; $z;il tpl;Lr; nrt;tha;j; jiuapy; 10 mb njhiyT  efHe;Js;sJ. mJ nrt;thapy; jz;zPH ,Ue;jpUf;fpwjh vd;gJ gw;wp Ma;T nra;Ak;.  

,e;j Nwhtiu fhtpr; nrd;w tpz;fyk; nkhj;jk; 287 kpy;ypad; fpkP neLe;njhiyT nra;Js;sJ. mJ jiuapwq;fpa ,lj;Jf;Fk; jiuapwq;f Ntz;ba ,lj;Jf;Fk; RkhH 200 kPl;lH njhiyNt NtWghL ,Ue;jJ.  ,e;j tpz;fyj;ij mDg;g Mfpa nryT 820 kpy;ypad; m. nlhyHfs; MFk;. vOr;rpapd; vil 175 fpNyh (384 ,whj;jy;) MFk;. tpz;fyj;jpd; Ntfk; kzpj;jpahyk; 19>200 fpkP (12>000 fy;) MFk;. .Gtpf;Fk; nrt;tha;f;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s nghJNkdp njhiyT  56 kpy;ypad; fpkP njhiyTjhNd gpd; vjw;fhf 287 kpy;ypad;  fpkP njhiyT  tpz;fyk; nryT nra;jJ? vd;W rpyUf;Ff; Nfl;fj; Njhd;Wk;. cz;ik vd;dntd;why; nrt;tha; thd;ntspapy; Qhapiw tyk; te;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. mt;thNw GtpAk; Qhapiw tyk; te;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. vdNt NwhtH Xbf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; nrt;thia Juj;jpg; gpbf;f Ntz;b ,Ue;jjhy; mjpf njhiyT nry;y Ntz;b ,Ue;jJ!

nrt;tha; Nfhs; kl;Lky;y tpz;zpy; ehk; fhZk; tpz;kPd;fs;> thy;kPd;fs;> ghy;kz;lyq;fs; vy;yhNk vy;iyaw;w mz;lj;jpy; fLfjp Ntfj;jpy; Xbf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpd;wd!

nrt;tha;f;F mDg;gg;gl;l vOr;rp apd; Nrhbahd tha;g;G (Opportunity) ,e;j khjk; 24 Mk; ehs; nrt;thapy; jiuapwq;f ,Uf;fpwJ.

ntw;wpfukhf vOr;rp  nrt;thapy; jiuapwf;fg;gl;lij mLj;J ehrh tpz;ntsp thdpayhsHfs; kfpo;r;rpf; flypy; %o;fpdhHfs;. tuyhw;wpy; Kd; vg;nghOJk; ghHj;jpuhj tz;zk; vOr;rp nrt;tha;j; jiuiag; glk; gpbj;J mDg;Gk; glq;fs; nrt;thapd; rptg;G epwj; jiuiaAk; mbthdj;ijAk; (horizon) Jy;ypakhff; fhl;Lfpd;wd. Gtpapd; Nkw;gug;igg; Nghd;Nw nrt;thapd; jiuapy; rpwpaJk; ngupaJkhd fw;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

gy Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G nrt;tha;f; Nfhspy; ,uhl;rj MWfs; XbapUf;ff; $Lk; vd;W thdpayhsHfs; ek;Gfpd;wdH. mg;gbg;gl;l xU Mw;Wg;gLf;ifg; gs;sj;jpy; jhd; vOr;rp jw;NghJ jiuapwq;fp cs;sJ.

,jw;F Kd;dH nrt;tha;f;F mDg;gg;gl;l 3 tpz;fyq;fs; elj;jpa Ma;tpy; me;jf; Nfhspy; jz;zPH cUthfj; Njitahd nfkijll; (hematite) vd;w %yfk;  (element) ,Ug;gjhf mwptpayhsHfs; fz;lwpe;J cs;sdH.

vOr;rp ];gpwpw; NwhtH Kjy; 3 fpoikfSf;F nfkijl; %yk; Fwpj;J Muha;r;rp elj;JfpwJ. njhlHe;J me;jf; Nfhsj;jpd; g+Nfhs mikg;Gf; Fwpj;J Ma;Tfs; elj;jg;gl cs;sd. nrt;tha;g; ghiwfisf; File;J Ma;T elj;jTk; ];gpwpw; NuhNghtpy; ve;jpuq;fs; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;sd.

,J Fwpj;J New;W nra;jpahsHfsplk; Ngrpa ehrh mwptpayhsHfs;> ',e;j ehs; kpfTk; kfpo;r;rpfukhd ehs;. nrt;thapy; jiuapwq;fp cs;s vOr;rp  ey;y epiyapy; ,aq;FfpwJ.  vq;fs; ghHitapy; kdpjd; capH thoj; Njitahd midj;Jf; $WfSk; nrt;tha;f; Nfhspy; ,Ug;gjhfNt Njhd;WfpwJ' vdf; $wpdhHfs;.

mwptpayhsHfspd; $w;W cz;ikahFkh? vd;gJ vOr;rp kw;Wk;  tha;g;G NwhtHfspd; Ma;T Kbtpy; njhpatUk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ehSf;F ehs; nrt;tha;f; Nfhs; Ma;tpy; tpaj;jF Kd;Ndw;wk; epfo;e;J tUtJ kdpj Fyj;ij kfpo;r;rpailar; nra;Js;sJ. ehrh 2030 Mz;lstpy; kdpjid nrt;tha;f; Nfhsj;jpy; ,wf;fj; jpl;lkpl;Ls;sJ.

vOr;rp ntw;wpf; fspg;gpy; kpjf;Fk; mnkupf;fh mLj;J nrt;thapy; kdpjid ,wf;f vz;ZfpwJ. mJTk; vg;gb? Kjypy; epyhtpy; kdpjid ,wf;fp mg;Gwk; mq;fpUe;J nrt;tha;f;Fr; nryT!

,t;thW thdpayhsHfs; kz;izAk; tpz;izAk; mz;lj;ijAk; Ma;T nra;Ak;NghJ NrhjplHfs; nrt;tha; xU ght fpufk; vd;fpd;whHfs;. nrt;tha;f; Fw;wk; cs;stHfs; jpUkzk; nra;af; $lhJ> kPwpr; nra;tjhdhy; nrt;tha;f; Fw;wk; cs;stHfis kl;Lk; kzk; Kbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;fpd;whHfs;. nrt;thAk; nts;spAk; nrt;thAk; QhapWk; xd;whf ,Uf;ff; $lhjhk;. nrt;tha;f;Fg; Gjd; gif (rj;JU)  Mdhy;> QhapWk; tpahoDk; el;Gf; (kpj;JU) Nfhs;fs;!  vg;gb vd;W Nfl;lhy; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpy; mg;gbj;jhd;  vOjp itf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;W fpspg;gps;is khjpupr; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;. ,g;gbg; ghkukf;fis kl;Lky;y gbj;jtHfisAk; NrhjplHfs; Vkhw;Wfpd;whHfs;.

,e;jpa Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; fle;j 1>500 Mz;Lfshf mjpy; ve;j khw;wKk; Vw;gltpy;iy. Gjpjhff; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l A+Nwd];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh Nfhs;fis ,e;jpa NrhjplHfs; fz;L nfhs;sNt ,y;iy. tpahod; nrt;tha; ,tw;wpd; Jizf; Nfhs;fisAk; mtHfs; fzf;fpy; vLf;ftpy;iy.

thdpay; gw;wpa mwpT 17Mk; Ehw;whz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dH kjthjpfspd; gyj;j vjpHg;Gf;F kj;jpapy; gbg;gbahf tsHr;rp mile;J te;jpUg;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;.

thdpay;j; Jiwapy; Vw;gl;l tsHr;rp> Kd;Ndw;wk; vspjpy; Vw;gl;lit my;y. ,iltplhj> njhlHr;rpahd vz;zpy; mlq;fh mtjhdpg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; fLikahd fzf;fpay; Ma;T %yk; Vw;gl;litahFk;.

QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;itj;j NfhngHdpf;f]; mr;RWj;jg;gl;lhH. mjid cWjpg;gLj;jpa fypypNah rpiw itf;fg;gl;lhH.  GWhNdh vd;w fpwpj;jt Jwtp fk;gj;jpy; fl;b itj;J capNuhL nfhSj;jg;gl;lhH.

gpypg;Ngh ([pNahlhNdh) GWhNdh (Filippo Giordano Bruno-1548-1600) ,j;jhyp ehl;by; cs;s Nehyh (Nola) vd;w efupy; 1548 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;jtH. GWhNdh xU thdpayhsH my;y. mtH xU nlhkpdpf;fd; Jwtp. mtuJ je;ijahH xU ,uhZt tPuH. GWhNdh 1561 Mk; Mz;L Gdpj nlhkpdpf;Nfh rigapy; NrHf;fg;gl;lhH. ,q;Nfjhd; njhkh]; mf;Fdh]; gbj;jtH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. nlhkpdpf;fd; xU Jwtpahf ntspNawpaNghJ jdJ ngaiu [pNahlhNdh vd khw;wpf; nfhz;lhH.

flTs; xUtNu vy;iyapy;yhj guk;nghUshf ,Uf;f KbAk;> mz;lk; mg;gb ,Uf;f KbahJ> ,t;thW ,ilf;fhy mwpQHfs; vz;zpdhHfs;. NfhngHdpf;firtpl GWhNdhjhd; ngU ntspapy; vz;zpwe;j Nfhbf;fzf;fhd QhapWfs; ek;gKbahj neLe;njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;W nrhd;d Kjy; kdpjH MthH.

GWhNdh Ez;khz; EioGyk;  gilj;j jj;Jtthjpahf tpsq;fpdhH. mNj rkak; tprpj;jpukhd kdpjH vd;w ngaUk; vLj;jhH. GWhNdh 1576 ,y; nlhkpdpf;fd; rigapy; ,Ue;J tpyfpdhH. mjd;gpd; mtH xU elkhLk; jj;Jtthjpahf ehLfisr; Rw;wpte;J gy gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; gbg;gpj;jhH. GWhNdh epidthw;wiy tsHf;Fk; fiyiaf;  fz;Lgpbj;J mjid khztHfSf;Fg; gbg;gpj;jhH.  gpd;dH epidthw;wiy tsHf;Fk;  கiy (The  Art of Memory )  vd;w Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH. ,d;Wk; me;j Ehy; Nkw;Fyfg; fy;tpf;$lq;fspy; fw;gpj;Jf; nfhLf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Ehy; mtiu cyfj;Jf;F mwpKfk; nra;J itj;jJ. gpuhd;]; ehl;il Mz;l 3tJ nfd;wp murd; kw;Wk; ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;il Mz;l KjyhtJ vyprngj; kfhuzp Nghd;NwhH mtiu mwpe;jpUe;jdH.   

NfhngHdpf;fd; QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gbj;j GWhNdhtpd; rpe;jid rpwfbj;Jg; gwe;jJ.  

'Gtp mz;lj;jpd; eLtpy; ,y;yhtpl;lhy;> ,utpy; thdj;jpy; fhZk; tpz;kPd;fs; cz;ikapy; QhapWfs; vd;why;> Gtpiag; NghyNt mz;lj;jpy; vz;zpwe;j cyfq;fSk; capupdq;fSk; thoNtz;Lk;' vd mstpay; (logic) mbg;gilapy; mDkhdpj;jhH. NkYk;; mz;lj;Jf;F eLTk; ,y;iy> tpl;lKk; ,y;iy Rw;wsTk; ,y;iy vd;whH.  

mz;lk; gw;wpa GWhNdhtpd; fUj;J jpUr;rigf;Fg; gpbj;jkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Ke;jpa  Ehw;whz;L Nghyy;yhJ ,g;nghOJ jpUr;rig fpwpj;jt Ntjhfkj;Jf;F vjpuhd fUj;Jf;fisr; rfpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; kdepiyia ,oe;jpUe;jJ. kjtprhuiz kd;wKiw (Inquisition) vq;Fk; gutp ,Ue;jJ.  

'fpwpj;jt kjj;jpy; NaRehjNu eL ehafuhtH. vdNt NaRehjH mtjupj;Jg; gpd;dH kupj;J capHj;j ,e;jg; GtpNa mz;lj;jpd; ikakhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;' ,e;jf; fUj;jpaYf;F cld;glhjtHfs; fLikahd xLf;FKiwf;F MshdhHfs;.  

GWhNdh 1584 ,y; Kbtw;w> mz;lk; kw;Wk; cyfk; gw;wpa ( Of infinnity, Universe and the  World)  gpwpnjhU Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH. ,ay;ghf mtH xU thdpayhsuhf ,y;yhky; jj;Jtthjpahf ,Ue;jjhy; ahH ghHitAk; mtH gf;fk; jpUk;gtpy;iy. mjw;fhd Kfhe;jpuKk; ,Ue;jpUf;fhJ. Mdhy;> GWhNdh vOjpa  Ehy; gyuJ ftdj;ijf; ftHe;jJ. mJ Kjy; mtuJ njhy;iyfs; ngUfpd.  

fpwpj;jt jpUr;rig GWhNdhTf;Fg; gjtp nfhLf;fpw rhl;by; cNuhk; efUf;F tutioj;jJ. GWhNdh mq;F NghdJk; cldbahf mtH ifJ nra;ag;gl;L kjtprhuiz kd;wj;jplk; xg;gilf;fg; gl;lhH. ek;gpf;ifaPdf; (Heresy) Fw;wr; rhl;L mtH kPJ Rkj;jg;gl;lJ.  mLj;j vl;L Mz;L fhyk; GWhNdh rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;Lj; njhlHr;rpahfr; rpj;jputij nra;ag;gl;lhH. jz;l ePjpkd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;L tprhuiz nra;ag; gl;lNghJ mtH Fw;wj;ij xg;Gf;nfhs;s kWj;Jtpl;lhH.  

GWhNdh ePjpgjpiag; ghHj;J nfhQ;rKk; mr;rkpd;wpr; nrhd;dhH 'ehd; vdJ nfhs;ifiaf; iftpl khl;Nld;. iftpl Ntz;bajw;fhd Kfhe;jpuKk; ,y;iy.'

nfhiyj; jz;lid tpjpj;j gpd;dUk; mtH jdJ nfhs;ifia khw;wpf; nfhs;stpy;iy. 'vdf;F ePq;fs; nfhiyj; jz;;lid tpjpg;gjhfr; nrhy;Yk;NghJ mijf; Nfl;fpw vd;id tpl cq;fsJ gae;jhd; mjpfkhdJ!' vdf; fk;gPukhd Fuypy; GWhNdh ePjpaurHfisg; ghHj;J ieahz;b NgrpdhH.

nfhiyj; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lTld; GWhNdhtpd; jhil ,Uk;Gj; jz;bdhy; G+l;lg;gl;lJ. mtuJ ehf;fpy; ,Uk;G Mzp xd;W miwag;gl;lJ.  ,d;ndhU Mzp Nky;thapy; mbf;fg;gl;lJ.  

1600 ngg;utup 10 Mk; ehs; GWhNdh Milfise;j epiyapy; mk;kzkhf cNuhk; efupd; tPjptopahf ,Oj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;lhH. gpd;dH xU fk;gj;jpy; fl;b capNuhL vupf;fg;gl;lhH.  

'xU fd;dj;jpy; mbj;jhy; kW fd;dj;ijf; fhl;L' 'cd;idg; Nghy; cd; mayhid Nerp' vd;W Nghjpj;j mikjpapd; ,sturH NaRehjupd; mbahHfs; mz;lk; vy;iyaw;wJ ngUntspapy; fhzg;gLk; tpz;kPd;fs; cz;ikapy; xt;nthU QhapW vd;w cz;ikiar; nrhd;d GWhNdhTf;F mspj;j 'gupR' rhT!

fpwpj;jt kjj;jpd; ePz;l tuyhw;wpy; GWhNdhtpd; nfhiy Nghy; gy Mapuk; nfhiyfs; flTspd; ngaupYk; NaRehjupd; ngaupYk; fpwpj;jt jpUr;rigahy; elj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. midj;J kjq;fSk; md;ig> mUis> mwidg; Nghjpj;jhYk; mtw;iw mit eilKiwapy; gpd;gw;Wtjpy;iy vd;gJjhd; tuyhwhf ,Uf;fpwJ.