Nrhjplg; Gul;L (16)

 

NrhjplUf;Fg; gjpy; kUj;Jtiu ehLq;fs;! 

 

fUj;jupf;f ,ayhikf;Fupa fhuz fhupaq;fis kUj;JtH nr.MidKfd; jhk; vOjpa kfg;NgWk; kfspH kUj;JtKk; vd;w Ehypy; tpupthf (fUj;jupf;f ,ayhik mjpfhuk; 44) vspa jkpopy; vOjpAs;shH. mjid thq;fpg; gbj;Jg; ghHf;fTk;. ,J kfg;NgW kw;Wk; kfspH kUj;Jtk; gw;wpj; jkpopy; ntspte;j %d;whtJ Ehy;. ,jpypUe;J ehq;fs; mwptpay;

jkpopy; vt;tsT Jhuk; gpd;jq;fp ,Uf;fpNwhk; vd;gJ njupAk;! 

 

ngupahH kUj;Jtkid rhHgpy; ngupahH jplypy;  ngg;utup 28> 2003 md;W ,e;jpar; rpWePufj;Jiw epGzH NguhrpupaH lhf;lH v. ,uh[Nrfud; mtHfs; Mz;ik ,d;ikAk; Mz; kyl;Lj; jd;ikAk; vd;w jiyg;gpy; ciu Mw;wpdhH. mjpy; ,Ue;J Kf;fpa gFjpfs;.

 

'kyl;Lj;jd;ik vd;gJ  xU jdp kdpjDila rpf;fy; kl;Lky;y mJ xU FLk;gj;jpd; rpf;fy;. xU r%fj;jpd; rpf;fy;.  rpWePufj;Jiwapy; Mz; ngz; ,U ghyhUf;Fk; cs;s rpf;fy;fis mwpe;jtHfs; ehq;fs;.  mfpy ,e;jpa rpWePufj;Jiw jiytuhf ehd; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;Nwd;. 1>500 lhf;lHfs; ,Uf;ff; $ba xU ngupa rq;fj;jpd; jiytuhf ehd; ,Ue;jpUf;fpNwd;. 

 

Foe;ij gpwf;ftpy;iy vd;why;> mjw;Fupa fhuz fhupaj;ij kf;fs; kUj;Jtuplk; te;J Nfl;lwptij tpl;L tpl;Lf; Nfhapy;> Fsk;> Nrhrpak; Nghd;wtw;wpy; ek;gpf;if itj;J nghUisAk; Neuj;ijAk; ghohf;Ffpd;whHfs;.

 

Foe;ij gpwf;ftpy;iy vd;why; ngz;fs;jhd; VJ vd;W rKjhaj;jpy; mtHfisf; nfhLikg;gLj;jpa tpjk; nfhQ;rk; eQ;rky;y. ngz;fs; ve;j msTf;Ff; fhuzNkh> Mz;fSk; me;j msTf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;W kUj;Jtj;Jiw fz;Lgpbj;jpUf;fpd;wJ. 

 

xUtH khtPudhf ,Uf;fpd;whH. ,d;ndhUtH  ky;Aj;jj;jpy; rpwe;j tPuuhf ,Uf;fpd;whH.   ,tHfSf;Ff; Foe;ij ,y;yhky; ,Uf;Fk;.  ,d;ndhUtHNehQ;rhdhf ,Ug;ghH Mdhy;> ghHj;jPHfNsahdhy; mtUf;Fg; 4 Foe;ijfs; ,Uf;Fk;. mjdhy; clypDila cUtj;ijg; nghWj;jJ my;y ,e;jr; rpf;fy;. mNjkhjpupg; ngupa Mshf ,Ug;ghHfs;. ngupa nry;te;jHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs;. mtHfSf;Ff; Foe;ijfs; ,Uf;fhJ. 

 

'vijAk; ek;gpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;shNj! vjpYk; cd;Dila mwpitr; nrYj;J’’ vd;W   nrhd;dtH je;ij ngupahH.  mwpTf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;J mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; vijAk;  rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhd;dtH mtH. me;j tpjj;jpYk; ,e;jr; nrhw;nghopT je;ij ngupahH mtHfSf;Ff; fhzpf;if. 

 

je;ij ngupahH mtHfs; ,we;jJ 1973 ,y; MFk;.  ,e;j mwptpay; cyfpNy Nrhjidf; Foha;f; Foe;ij fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ 1978 ,y; MFk;. 

 

ngz;fSf;Ff; Foe;ij gpwg;gjpy; Fiwfs; ,Ue;jhy;$l> Foe;ij ngwyhk; vd;w mwptpay; tsHr;rp Vw;gl;lJ 1978 ,y;.jhd;. 

 

1978 Mk; Mz;L ngz;Zila fUg;igapypUe;J fUKl;ilia vLj;J> MzpDila tpe;jZf;fisAk; NrHj;J xU Fohapy; itj;Jr; Nrhjidf; Foha;f; Foe;ij gpwe;jpUf;fpd;wJ. Vuhskhd NgH ,g;gbf; Foe;ij ngw;Wtpl;lhHfs;. 

 

1993 ,y; ngy;[paj;jpy; xU ngupa mwptpay; tsHr;rp Vw;gl;lJ. mtHfs;jhd; Foe;ij ngWtjw;F epiwa mZf;fs; ntspNa tu Ntz;bajpy;iy vd;gijf; fz;Lgpbj;jhHfs;. tpijapy; XH mZ ,Ue;jhNy NghJkhdJ vd;gijf; fz;Lgpbj;jhHfs;. 

 

ekJ clypy; XLfpd;w ,uj;jk; vy;yh ,lq;fSf;Fk; guTfpwJ.  rpWePufj;jpy; euk;Gfs; rupahf ,Uf;fpd;wjh? vd;W ghHg;gjw;Fr; Nrhjid ,Uf;fpwJ. 

 

mjhtJ xU jz;zPHj; njhl;bapy; xU gf;fk; jz;zPH epug;GkhW nra;Jnfhz;L mNj  njhl;bapy; ,d;ndhU Foha; topahfj; jz;zPiuj; jpwe;Jtpl;lhy; njhl;bapy; vg;gbj; jz;zPH epiwAk;? 

 

mNjkhjpupjhd; ,J.  cs;Ns Nghfpw ,uj;jk; clNd ntspNa frpe;jhy; mJ vg;gbr; rupahf  ,Uf;Fk;? 

 

mwptpay; tsHr;rpapy; mZf;fs; ,y;iy vd;why;$l  Foe;ij ngw KbAk;. ngz;fSf;Ff;  fUf;Foha; milgl;lhy; $l mtHfs; Foe;ij ngw KbAk;. ekJ tpLjiy MrpupaH mtHfs; $lr; nrhd;dhHfs;.  ehk; re;jpf;fpwtHfsplk; Kjy; Nfs;tp Foe;ij ,Uf;fpwjh? vj;jid Foe;ijfs;? vd;W Nfl;ghHfs;.”

 

,Njh lhf;lH tp. [Kdh> FLk;g kUj;JtH Foe;ijapd;ikapd;  fhuz fhupaq;fisf; FKjk; fpoik Vl;bw;Ff; nfhLj;j NeHfhzypy; gl;bay; Nghl;Lf; fhl;Lfpd;whH.

 

'fy;ahzkhfp ehY Mz;Lfshr;R! cdf;Fj;jhd; xU Foe;ijiag; ngj;Jj;ju tha;g;gpy;iyNa? vd; kfDf;F ,d;ndhU fy;ahzk; gz;zyhk;D ,Uf;Nfhk;!' vd;W ,d;dKk; $lg; gy FLk;gq;fspy; ngz;zg; ghHj;Jj;jhd; Kjy; <l;b gha;r;rg;gLfpwJ!

 

Foe;ij ,y;iy vd;why; clNd ngz;fs;jhd; mjw;Ff; fhuzk; vd;w Nghf;F gbf;fhj ghkuHfs; kj;jpapy;jhd; vd;wpy;iy> gbj;jtHfs; kj;jpapy; $l ,e;j vz;zk; rl;nld;W ePf;f Kbahj mstpy; Mog;gjpe;J NghapUf;fpwJ.

 

,Utupy; ahH Ntz;LkhdhYk; ,e;jf; Fiwf;Ff; fhuzkhf ,Uf;f KbAk; vd;w tplaNk ,uz;lhtJ rpe;jidahfj;jhd; Vw;gLfpwJ. mJTk; $l XusT gbj;j> tplaq;fs; Gupe;j rpyUf;Fj;jhd; Foe;ijg;NgW tha;f;fg; ngwhjjw;Ff; fhuzkhd rpf;fy;fs; Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; ghjpf;Fg; ghjp vd;W Vw;nfdNt kUj;Jt cyfk; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.

mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy; ,e;j tpOf;fhL Mz;fSf;Fg; ngz;fistplf; fpl;lj;jl;l gj;J tpOf;fhL mjpfkhfp ,Ug;gjhfj; jdJ kUj;Jt mDgtq;fspd; %yk; njuptpf;fpd;whH lhf;lH tp. [Kdh.

 

'cz;ikjhd;> ,e;jr; rpf;fy; ,g;Nghjy;y fle;j gj;Jg; gjpide;J  Mz;LfshfNt kpf mjpfupj;J tUfpwJ> fhuzk;  khwptUk; ekJ tho;f;if Kiwjhd;!” vd;fpd;whH mtH.

 

'xU tplak; njupAkh? cz;ikapy; xU fztdpd; rpf;fyhy;  mtd; kidtp ghjpf;fg;gl;l  rk;gtj;jhy;jhd; ehd; Foe;ijapd;ikf; Fiwghl;Lf;F kl;Lk; kUj;Jtk; nra;Ak; kUj;Jtuhf khwpNdd;.

 

mg;NghJ ehd; ,e;jpa kUj;Jtk; gbj;Jtpl;L vd; je;ij lhf;lH MQ;rNeaYTf;Fj; Jizahf mdfhGj;Jhupy; nghJkUj;Jtk; nra;J  nfhz;bUe;Njd;. mg;NghJ fpzw;wpy; tpOe;j xU ngz;izg; gjw;wj;Jld; Jhf;fpf;nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. me;jg; ngz;Zf;F rpfpr;ir mspj;J mtisr; rupg;gLj;jpa gpd;dH 'Vd; ,g;gbnahU tpguPj Kbit vLj;jha;?” vd;W cupikNahL jpl;bNdd;.

 

mt;tsTjhd;> kSf;nfd;W mtH mo Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lhH. me;jg; ngz;  'ehd; Vd; crpNuhl  ,Uf;fZk;? vd; fztDf;F ,uz;lhtJ fy;ahzk; elf;fg;NghFJ. vdf;Ff; Foe;ijapy;Nyd;D  vd;idj; js;sp tr;rpl;lhq;f!” vd;W mOjhH. Nfhgkhfptpl;lJ vdf;F. kidtpiag; ghHg;gjw;fhf kWehs; fztd; te;jhH.  fztuplk; Ngrp rkhjhdg;gLj;jp ,UtiuAk; Nrhjidfs;  vLf;fr; nrhd;Ndd;.  filrpapy; ghHj;jhy; fztUf;Fj;jhd; Fiw ,Ue;jJ.  kidtp MNuhf;fpakhf ,Ue;jhH. 'ePq;fs; ,uz;lhtJ jpUkzk; kl;Lky;y ,d;Dk; ,UgJ jpUkzk; nra;jhYk; Foe;ij gpwf;fhJ.  cq;fs; Fiwiar; rupg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lhy;jhd; gpwf;Fk;' vd;W  ehd; njuptpj;jTld; me;jg; ngz; vd; fhypy; tpOe;Jtpl;lhH!

 

'ePq;fs;jhd; vq;fSf;Ff; Foe;ijg; NgWf;F rpfpr;ir mspf;f Ntz;Lk;>  ,y;iynadpy; ngupatHfs; kWgb jpUkz Vw;ghl;ilr; nra;J tpLthHfs;” vd;W fz;zPHtpl> vg;gbahtJ ehd; me;jj; jk;gjpaHf;Ff; Foe;ijg; ghf;fpaj;ijj; juNtz;Lk; vd;w ituhf;fpaj;jpy;jhd; Foe;ijapd;ikf;fhd rpfpr;iria Muk;gpj;Njd;.  me;jj; jk;gjpf;F mLj;j  tUlj;jpNyNa  Foe;ij gpwe;jJ.  mg;Gwk;jhd; Mz;> ngz; Fiwfisg; Nghf;Fk; ,e;j rpfpr;irapy;  KOf; ftdKk; nrYj;j Muk;gpj;Njd;” vd;fpd;whH lhf;lH [Kdh.

 

',njy;yhk; Mz;fs; rpf;fy; vd;W ntspNa njupahjjw;Ff; fhuzNk rpy ngz;fs;jhd;.  Fiw jq;fs; fztuplk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij ntspg;gLj;j mtHfs; jaq;Ffpd;whHfs;' vd;gJ ,tuJ fUj;J.

 

'fztUf;Ff; FiwapUe;jhy;$l vq;f FLk;gj;jpy; NtNw ahUf;Fk; ,J njupa Ntz;lhk;' vd;W ngz;fNs epidf;fpd;whHfs;.  fztHfs; ,e;j tplaj;jpy; f\;lg;glf; $lhnjd;W kidtpfs; ,ul;ilf; f\;lg;gLtijg; ghHf;Fk; NghJ Mr;rHakhfTk; NtjidahfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ' vd;W nrhy;fpwhH ,tH.

 

Crpfs;> ,uj;jNkh ,y;yhj ,tUila rpj;jkUj;Jt rpfpr;irapdhy; ,Jtiug;  gpwe;j Foe;ijfs; fpl;lj;jl;l %thapuj;J vz;Z}W NgH. jkpofj;jpy; kl;Lky;y. ghfp];jhd;> <uhf;> kNyrpah> rpq;fg;g+H  vd;W cyfk; KOf;f ,e;jf; Foe;ijfs; ,Uf;fpd;whHfshk;.” 

mJ rup. Foe;ijapd;ikf;fhd Mz;fspd; Fiw Vd; mjpfkhfpf; nfhz;L NghfpwJ?

 

'Kjypy; Mz;fSf;F vd;ndd;d Fiwfshy; Foe;ijg;NgW fpilg;gjpy;iy vd;w mbg;gil tplaj;ijj; njupe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;. mg;NghJjhd; ek; tho;f;if Kiwapy; (life style)  ehk; Gjpjhff; filg;gpbf;Fk; tplaq;fs; Mz;fSf;F ve;jf; Fiwia mjpfkhf;Ffpd;wd vd;W Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;” vd;W ,ug;gH> NgdhNthL tpsf;f Muk;gpj;jhH mtH.

 

'nghJthf  Mz;fSf;F ,Uf;ff;$ba Fiw vd;gJ capuZf;fspd; vz;zpf;iff; FiwTjhd;. xU MZf;F capuZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if nkhj;jkhf Ik;gJ kpy;ypad; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; Jbg;NghL ,Uf;Fk; capuZf;fspd;  vz;zpf;if vOgJ tpOf;fhL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJjhd; xU Mzhy; xU ngz;Zf;Ff; Foe;ij ju KbAk;!

 

XUNtis capuZf;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfk; ,Ug;gjhfr; Nrhjidfs; nrhd;dhYk; $l mjd; tPupak; mjhtJ ePe;Jk; jd;ikiag; nghWj;Jj;jhd; Foe;ij cUthfpwJ. capuZf;fspd; tPupaj;ij itj;J> mirahj jd;ikAs;s capuZf;fs;> thy; kl;Lk; mirf;Fk; capuZf;fs;> Ntfkw;w capuZf;fs;> Ntfkhd capuZf;fs; vd;W ehd;F tifahf mtw;iwg; gpupf;fyhk;. ,e;j ehd;fpYk; Kjy; ,uz;L tif nfhz;ltHfshy; jd; kidtpf;Ff; Foe;ij ju KbahJ. (rpfpr;irf;Fg; gpd;Ng KbAk;) %d;whtJ tif rpwpJ tpy;yfk;. ehd;fhtJ tifjhd; njhl;lJk; gw;wpf; nfhs;Sk;!' vd;W njspTg;gLj;fpd;whH lhf;lH [Kdh.

 

,ijj; njhlHe;J Foe;ijapd;ikf;F Mz;fsplk; fhzg;gLk; FiwfSf;fhd fhuzq;fis tpsf;Ffpd;whH. ',g;Nghnjy;yhk; ghd;> [Hjh NghLk; ,isQHfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfkhfptpl;lJ. Gifj;jy;> kJghdk;> nraw;iff; FspHghdk; mUe;Jjy;> ghd; NghLjy; Mfpad Gw;W Neha; Nghd;w cly;eyf; Nfl;Lf;F kl;Lky;y Mz; FiwfSf;Fk; fhuzkhf ,Uf;fpwJ.  ,jdhy; capuZf;fs; cw;gj;jp  ,Ugj;jp %d;W tpOf;fhL FiwfpwJ. capuZtpd; tPupak; (ePe;Jfpw jd;ik) gjpd;%d;W tpOf;fhL FiwfpwJ. Vd;> rpy rkak; capuZf;fspd; tbtk;$lr; rpije;J Nghtjhf Muha;r;rp KbTfs; nrhy;fpd;wd.'

 

,lkpd;ik fhuzkhf lhf;lH [Kdh je;j KOj; juTfisAk; nfhLf;f Kbahjjw;F tUe;JfpNwd;.

 

,g;NghJ ,d;ndhU nra;jp te;jpUf;fpwJ. khw;W mWitr; rpfpr;ir %yk; fUg;ig ,y;yhj ngz;fSf;Fg; Gjpa fUg;ig nghUj;jyhk;!

 

gps;is ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; tha;g;G ,y;yhjgb> fHg;gg;ig ,y;yhj ngz;fSf;F khw;W mWitr; rpfpr;ir %yk; NtW ngz;fsplk; ,Ue;J fHg;gg;igia vLj;Jg; nghUj;j KbAk; vd;W mwptpayhsHfs; mz;ikapy; fz;Lgpbj;J cs;sdH. gpwtpapNyNa tapw;wpy; fUg;ig ,y;yhky; gpwe;j ngz;fSf;Fk; fUg;igapy; fl;b Nghd;w NfhshW fhuzkhf me;jf; fUg;ig  mfw;wg;gl;l ngz;fSf;Fk; Foe;ij gpwg;gJ ,y;iy.

vt;tsTjhd; Nfhapy;> Fsk; vd;W Rw;wp te;J ve;jf; flTisf; Fk;gpl;lhYk; ,j;jifa ngz;fSf;F ,aw;ifahd Kiwapy; Foe;ijNa gpwf;fhJ! mjdhy; ftiyapy; %o;Fk; ,tHfSf;F mwptpay; mwpQHfshy; kl;LNk tpbay; Vw;gl KbAk; vd;fpw nra;jp ntspahfp cs;sJ.

 

RtPld; ehl;L mwptpay; mwpQHfs; khw;W mWitr; rpfpr;ir %yk; Gjpa fUg;igiag; nghUj;j KbAk; vd;W fz;Lgpbj;J ,Uf;fpd;wdH.

 

Nfhld;gHf; efupy; cs;s \hfpy; fpnud;];fh gy;fiyf; fofj;ijr; NrHe;j NguhrpupaH Nkl;]; gpuhd;];lhHk; ,J gw;wpj; njuptpj;jjhtJ:

 

"ahUf;Ff; fHg;gg;ig NjitNah me;jg; ngz;zpd; mf;fhs; my;yJ jq;if my;yJ jhahNuh jd; fHg;gg;igiaf; nfhilahf toq;fyhk;. fUg;ig khw;W mWitr; rpfpr;irf;F taJj; jil fpilahJ. xU ngz; ve;jf; fUg;igapy; gpwe;jhNsh mNj fUg;igapd; %yk; mtSf;Fk; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk;gb nra;ayhk;.

 

nfhilahfg; ngwg;gLk; fUg;igia ahUila clypy; nghUj;j ,Uf;fpNwhNkh mtuJ  clYf;Fg; nghUe;jp tuNtz;Lk;. vdNt FUjpj; njhlHG cs;s cwtpdHfspd; fUg;igjhd; ,e;j khw;W mWitr; rpfpr;irf;Fr; rpwe;jJ."

 

ehd; ,e;j kUj;Jtj; juTfis Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b vOJtjw;Ff; fhuzk; rhjfg; nghUj;jj;jpw;Fk; Foe;ij gpwg;gjw;Fk; my;yJ gpwf;fhky; ,Ug;gjw;Fk; ve;jj; njhlHGk; ,y;iy vd;gij ve;j ma;aj;Jf;Fk; ,lk; ,y;yhky; vz;gpf;fNt MFk;!

 

kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk; cz;L vd;W NrhjplH nrhy;ypj; jpUkzk; nra;jtHfs; Foe;ij ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. ,jdhy; Nfhs;fs;>  ,uhrpfs;> tpz;kPd;fs; ,tw;Wf;Fk; Foe;ijg; NgW my;yJ Foe;ijapd;ik ,uz;Lf;Fk; ve;j tifapYk; njhlHG ,y;iy. mg;gb epidg;gJk; ek;GtJk;  %lj;jdk.;

 

Nrhjpluplk; rhjfj;ijf; fhl;Ltjw;Fg; gjpy; xU kfg;NgW kUj;Jtuplk; kzk;nra;J nfhs;s ,Uf;Fk; MizAk; ngz;izAk; fhl;b ,UghyhuplKk; kUj;Jt mbg;gilapy; Fiwfs; vJTk; ,y;iy vd;gij cWjp nra;J mjd; gpd;dH mtHfisj; jpUkzj;jpy; ,izg;gJjhd; mwpthHe;j nray;.   

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (17)

 

Foe;ij Mzh? ngz;zh? vd;gJ Nfhs;fspy; ,y;iy!

 

,Njh FKjk; Nrhjplg; gFjpapy; Nfl;fg;gl;l  Nfs;tpAk; mjw;Ff; nfhLf;fg;gl;l Nrhjplupd; gjpYk;.

 

rp.vd; RFkhH> tpOg;Guk;.

 

Nfs;tp:  vq;fSf;Fj; jpUkzkhfp .5 Mz;L;fshfpd;wd. ,Jtiu Foe;ijg; ghf;fpak; Vw;gltpy;iy. vg;NghJ vq;fs; tPl;by; Nfl;Fk; ,dpa koiy xyp?

 

gjpy;: jq;fs; rhjfj;jpy; rpwpa Njhrk; cs;sJ.  xUKiw =uq;fk; cq;fs; kidtpAld; nrd;W muq;fehjg; ngUkhidj; juprpj;Jtpl;L tuTk;.

mjd; gpd; cq;fs; Njhrk; ePq;Fk;.

 

gpwnfd;d? Foe;ij ,y;iy vd;why; xU Kiw =uq;fk; muq;fehjH my;yJ jpUg;gjp Ntq;fNlRtuH> rgupkiy Iag;gd;> kJiu kPdhl;rp> fhQ;rp fhkhl;rp> fhrp tprhyhl;rp> nry;yr;rd;djp KUfd;> fjpHfhkf; fe;jd; ,tHfsplk; Ngha;  topgl;L te;jhy; Njhrk;  ePq;fp tPl;by; mLj;j Mz;Nl 'Fth Fth" rj;jk; Nfl;Fk;!

 

clw;;$W gw;wpa xU cskhHe;j Nfs;tpf;F NrhjplH vt;tsT myl;rpakhf> nghWg;gpy;yhky;> Gj;jpapy;yhky; gjpy; nrhy;fpwhH! mtiu nehe;J gad ;,y;iy. mtH gbj;jpUe;jhy; my;yth mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; gjpy; $w KbAk;! 

 

FLk;gj;jpy; ,d;ndhU rpf;fy;. Foe;ijNa ,y;iy vd;gjy;y Mz; thupR ,y;iy vd;w Fiw! 

 

jkpo; ehl;by; ngz; Foe;ijfis ghtg; gpwg;Gf;fshf ghHf;Fk; nfhba tof;fk; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. ,jw;Fg; nghUshjhuk;> rPjdf; nfhLik> nfhs;sp itf;f Mz;gps;is Ntz;Lk; vd;w rka ek;gpf;if fhuzkhFk;. ngUk;ghYk; ,J gbahj tWikapy; thLk; ghku kf;fspilNa mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

 

gpwe;jJ ngz; Foe;ij vd;why; mjw;Fr; rPjdk; rPHtupir nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd mQ;rp mjd; fOj;ijj; jpUfpf; nfhd;WtpLk; ngw;NwhHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

 

,e;jf; nfhLikiag; Nghf;f jkpo;ehl;by; njhl;by; Foe;ijj; jpl;lk; eilKiwapy; ,Uf;fpwJ. muNr ,jid Kd;dpd;W elj;JfpwJ. gj;Jkhjk; Rke;J ngw;w ngz; Foe;ij Ntz;lhk; vd;why; Cupy; nghJ ,lj;jpy; fl;b itj;jpUf;Fk; njhl;bypy; Nghl;L tplyhk;. Foe;ijia muR ghuk; vLj;J tsHf;fpwJ.

 

Foe;ijapd;ik NghyNt gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij MzhfNth ngz;zhfhNt ,Ug;gjw;F ngz; fhuzk; my;y. MNz mjw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;. mwptpay mbg;gilapy; mjid  tpsq;fpf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

kdpj kugZj;njhFjpapy; (genome) 23 Nrhb my;yJ 46 epwg;Gupfs; (chromosomes) mike;jpUf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; 44 jd;GupfSk; (autosomes) 2 ghy;GupfSk; (sex chrosomes) ,Uf;fpd;wd. gpd;dJ   X kw;Wk; Y  vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wd.  xU ngz;zplk;  XX (2X) ,Uf;fpd;wd. 

xU Mzplk; XY  ,Uf;fpd;wd.  ngz;zpd; Kl;ilapy; X epwg;Gupfs; kl;LNk cz;L. Mdhy;> Mzpd; tpe;jpy; xd;wpy; X my;yJ Y  ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jpy; ve;j (Mzpd;) tpe;jZ  ngz;zpd;  Kl;ilapy;  cs;s rpid mZNthL NrHfpwNjh mJNt Foe;ijapd; ghiyj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ.

 

mjhtJ X k; X k; NrUk;NghJ ngz; Foe;ijAk; X k; Y k; NrUk;NghJ Mz; Foe;ijAk; gpwf;fpwJ.

 

Foe;ijapd;ikf;Fk; Nfhs;fSf;Fk;; njhlHNg ,y;iy. mJNghyNt Foe;ij Mzh? ngz;zh? vd;gJk; Nfhs;fspy; ,y;iy.

 

,d;iwa kUj;Jt mwptpay; Fwpg;gpl;l jha; je;ijaH Kd;$l;bNa Mz; Foe;ijah ngz; Foe;ijah Ntz;Lk; vd;gij njupT nra;Ak; topKiwfisf; fz;Lgpbj;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

,e;j rq;fjpfs; vy;yhk; Nrhjpl Ehy;fs; vOjpdtHfSf;Fj; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. vq;fSila Nfhapy; mHr;rfHfs;> G+rhupfs;> gupahupfs; Nghd;NwhUf;Fk; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy.

 

,d;WNghy; goq;fhyj;J kdpjDf;F cyfj;ijg;gw;wpa mwpT> mz;lq;fs;gw;wpa Qhdk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf ghujehl;ltHfSf;F (,e;jpaHfSf;F) ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

Gtpapd; cUtKk; mz;lj;jpy; mjd; ,Ug;Gk; kdpjidj; jiyKiw jiyKiwahff; <Hj;J te;Js;sJ. mtDila fw;gidfSk; kjf; fUj;Jf;fSk; g+kpf;F tpjk;tpjkhd cUtpid mspj;jd. gz;ila ghgpNyhdpaHfs; g+kpapid rk kl;lkhd jfl;bw;F xg;gpl;ldH. NtW rpy ehl;ltH mJ rw;Nw tise;j jl;L vd;wdH. Mdhy;> gz;ila fpNuf;fH kl;Lk; mJ XH cUz;iliag; NghyTs;sJ vd;W czHe;jpUe;jhHfs; vd;W vz;z KbfpwJ.

 

flTs;fisAk; Ntjq;fisAk; rpU\;bj;j rkathjpfs;> nkhj;jk; gjpdhd;F cyfq;fs; ,Ug;gjhfTk; mjpy; g+Nyhfk;> Gtp;Nyhfk; RtHf;fNyhfk;> kfhNyhfk;> [NdhNyhfk;> jNghNyhfk;> rj;jpa Nyhfk; Mfpa NkNyO cyfq;fs; vdTk;> mjy> tpjy> Rjy> juhjy> kfhjy> urhjy> ghjhsk;  fPNoO cyfq;fs; vdTk; vOjp itj;Js;shHfs;. cyfk; jl;ilahdJ. mjid Mapuk; jiyAila MjpNrld; jhq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ my;yJ mjid ehd;F ngupa ahidfs; jiyfshy; xU Mikapd; KJfpy; epd;Wnfhz;L jhq;Ffpd;wd vd epidj;jhHfs;.

 

NkYk; mz;lk; xU Kl;ilapy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wpaJ. mjd; mfit 26>425>456>204>132 Mz;Lfs;.  ,Ugj;NjO el;rj;jpuq;fSk; re;jpudpd; gps;isfs;. #upa gfthd; fhiyapy; VO Fjpiufs; G+l;ba Njupy; Gwg;gLfpwhH. #upaidAk; re;jpuidAk; fpufz fhyj;jpy; ,uhF NfJ vd;w ,uz;L ghk;Gfs; tpOq;Ffpd;wd vd ek;gpdhHfs;.

 

,tw;iw mtHfs; fw;gpj;njOjpa Ntjq;fs;> Guhzq;fs;> ,jpfhrq;fs; %ykha; njupe;J nfhs;syhk;. Ntjq;fspy; nrhy;yg;gl;bUf;fpwgb ,e;jpa Njrj;jpYs;s NkUkiy (,kakiy) jhd; ifyhrk;. mq;Nfjhd; rptngUkhd; ckhNjtpNahL tPw;wpUf;fpwhH. jpUghw; flypy; jpUkhy; gs;sp nfhs;fpwhH. NjtNyhfj;jpy; Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs;> gjpndl;Lf; fzq;fs; (mkuH> rpj;jH> mRuH> ijj;jpaH> fUlH> fpd;duH> epUjH> fpk;GUlH> fe;jHtH> af;fH> tpQ;QhaH> G++jH> gprhrH> me;juH> KdptH> cufH> Mfhathrpfs;> Nghf G+kpaH) tho;fpwhHfs;.

 

,e;jpahtpYs;s ejpfshfpa> fq;if> fhNtup KjypaitfSk; Fw;whyk; ghgehrk; Kjypa mUtpfNs Gz;zpa jPHj;jq;fs;> ,e;jpahtpYs;s fhrp> fhQ;rp> mNahj;jp> kJiu> rpjk;guk; =uq;fk; Kjypa Mapuf;fzf;fhd jyq;fs; jhd; jpUg;gjpfs; (Gz;zpa N\j;jpuq;fs;). ,e;jpahTf;F ntspNa Gz;zpa jyq;fSk; ejpfSk; ,Ug;gjhff; $wg;glhjjhy; Ntjfhyj;J ,e;jpaHfSf;F ntspNa (,yq;if jtpu) NtW fz;lq;fs; ,Ug;gJ njupahjpUe;jJ.

 

,e;jpahtpd; fpof;F Nkw;F njw;Fg; ghHj;j Ntjfhyj;jtUf;F flNy fz;Zf;Fj; Njhd;wpajdhy; Mop#o; cyF> fly; #o;e;j itak; vd;W E}y;fspy; vOjp itj;Js;shHfs;.

 

,J ahid ghHj;j FUlHfs; fij Nghd;wJ.

 

,e;jf; flYf;F rhfuk; vd;gJ GuhzpfHfs; itj;j ngaH MFk;. Vnddpd; gpukd; cyfj;ijg; gilf;Fk; NghJ fliyg; gilf;ftpy;iyahk;. rhfu KdptUila Gj;jpuHfs; mWgjpdhapuk; NgUk; fgpy KdptUila Fjpiuiaj; Njbg; ghjhsj;Jf;Fg; Nghtjw;F Njhz;bnaLj;j ngUq;FopNa flyhf (rhfukhf) mike;jJ.

 

,e;jpahntd;Dk; cyfj;ijg; gilj;j fUj;jh MjpapNyNa fq;if> fhNtup ejpfisr; rpU\;bf;ftpy;iy. khgypr;rf;futHj;jpiaf; nfhy;yg; NgUU (tp];tUgk;) vLj;j tp\;Ztpd; ghjj;ijg; gpukd; jd; fkz;ly [yj;jhy; fOtpdhd;. me;jj; jz;zPNu fq;ifahfg; ngUfptu> gfPujd; Ntz;LNfhspd;gb rptd; jd; jiyapy; mij Vw;Wr; rpwpJ rpwpjha; xOf tpl;lhd;. mt;nthOf;f ePHjhd; fq;if ejpahf tope;Njhbf; flyhfg; ngUfpaJ.

 

fhNtup ejpAk; mf];jpaH rptdhH jpUkz fhyj;jpy; njd;wpirf;F te;jNghJ #ugd;kDf;Fg; gae;J xspe;jpUe;j ,e;jpuDila ee;jtdj;Jf;F kioapy;yhkw;Nghf tpehafH fhf;if AUf;nfhz;L gwe;J te;J mf];jpaUila fkz;ly [yj;ijf; ftpo;j;jjdhy; cz;lhfpa ePNuhl;lNkahFk;.

 

,f; fhNtupapd; tuyhw;iwf; Fwpj;j NtW tuyhWfSk; cs;sd. Ntjrh];jpug;gb fq;if rptd; jiyapy; cw;gj;jpahfpwJ.

 

NkUkiy g+kpapd; ikaj;jpy; mike;Js;sjhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. mJ Gdpjk; epiwe;jjhy; kfhNkU vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. mjd; cauk; 84 Mapuk; Nahrid my;yJ 10>92 Mapuk; iky;fshFk;. mjpy;  16 Mapuk; Nahrid G+kpf;F mbapy; ,Uf;fpwjhf vOjp itj;Js;shHfs;. xU Nahrid vd;gJ 13 iky;fs; Jhuk;.

 

,e;jpahtpYs;s kiyfspy; kpf caHe;jJ vtnu];l; rpfuk; MFk;. mjd; cauk; 29>002 mb kl;LNk vd ,d;iwa epyEhNyhHfs; $WfpwhHfs;!

 

NkNyO cyfKk; fPNoO cyfKk; ,Ug;gjhfTk; cg;Gf;fly;> fUk;Gr; rhw;Wf;fly;> kJf;fly;> NkhHf;fly;> ghw;fly; Kjypa VO fly;fs; ,Ug;gjhfg; gz;ilf; fhyj;jtH ek;gpdhHfs;.

 

g+kpiag;gw;wp Ntj rh];jpuq;fs; ,g;gbj; jhWkhwhfTk; mwptPdkhfTk; $Wkhdhy;> mz;lk; gw;wpAk; flTs; gw;wpAk; 'Kf;fhyKk;" czHe;j Ntjfhy up\pfspdhy; Gide;j Ntj rhj;jpuq;fs; ,d;Dk; jhWkhwhfTk; mwptPdkhfTk; $wpapUf;Fk; vd;gijr; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy!

 

Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tho;e;j jpU%yH ngupa rpj;juhfg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH. mtH vOjpa jpUke;jpuk; jkpopy; vOjg;gl;l Kjy; jj;Jt EhyhFk;. jkpo; ke;jpuk; %thapuk;> jkpo; Mfkk; vdr; rpwg;gpf;fg;gl;L gd;dpU jpUKiwfspy; 10tJ jpUKiwahf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  

 

xd;Nw FyKk; xUtNd NjtDk;
ed;Nw epidkpd; ekd; ,y;iy ehSNk! 

 

md;Gk; rptKk; ,uz;L vd;ghH mwptpyhH
md;Ng rptkhtJ ahUk; mwpfpyhH!

 

Mir mWkpd;fs; Mir mWkpd;fs;
<rNdh lhapDk; Mir mWkpd;fs;!  

 

NgHnfhz;l ghHg;ghd; gpuhd;jd;id mHr;rpj;jhy;
NghHnfhz;l Nte;jHf;Fk; nghy;yh tpahjpahk;!

 

clk;ghH mopapy; capuhH moptH
jplk;gl nka;Q;Qhdk; NruTk; khl;lhH! 

clk;ig tsHf;Fk; cghak; mwpe;Njd;
clk;ig tsHj;Njd; capHtsHj; NjNd!

 

cs;sk; ngUq;Nfhapy; CDlk;G Myak;
ts;sy; gpuhdhHf;F tha; NghGuthry;!

 

elkhlf; Nfhapy; ek;gHf;Fxd;W <apd;
glkhlf; Nfhapy; gftw;FmJ MNk! 

 

vd;id ed;whf ,iwtd; gilj;jdd;
jd;id ed;whfj; jkpo; nra;AkhNw!

 

vdg; Gul;rpfukhd rka> r%f> nka;apay; rpe;jidfisj; jpU%yH Kd; itj;jtH. ,Ue;Jk; mtuhy; $wg;gl;lit rpy ,d;iwa mwptpaYf;F xj;jjhf ,y;iy.  

 

Mz; Foe;ij vg;NghJ gpwf;fpwJ? ngz; Foe;ij vg;NghJ gpwf;fpwJ? vd;gjw;Fj; jpU%yH jUk; tpsf;fk; eifg;ig tutiof;fpwJ. ,jdhy; mtiuf; Fiw $Wtjhf ahUk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ.  

 

,d;iwa fhy mwptpay; tsHr;rpNahL mtuJ fhyj;J mwptpaiy xg;gpl KbahJ. mg;gb Xg;gpLtJ jtW. ,d;W mwptpay; ,kak; Nghy; caHe;J kpd;dy; Ntfj;jpy; tsHe;J tUfpwJ.  

 

jpU%yH xU Foe;ij Mzh ngz;zh vd;gij clYwT fhyj;jpy; Mz;kfdplk; Vw;gLk; gpuhz ,af;fj;jpw;Nfw;gf; Foe;ij MzhfTk; ngz;zhfTk; gpwf;Fk; vdf; $Wfpd;whH. 

 

FotpAk; Mzhk; tyj;jJ thfpy;
FotpAk;  ngz;zhk; ,lj;jJ thfpy;  (jpUke;jpuk; 482) 

 

clYwT fhyj;jpy; Mzplk; gpuhzd; #upa fiyapy; mjhtJ tyJ ehrpapy; ,aq;Fkhapd; Mz; Foe;ij vd;Wk; re;jpufiyapy; mjhtJ ,lJ ehrpapy; ,aq;Fkhapd; ngz; Foe;ij vd;Wk; nfhs;sg;gLk;. 

 

,JNghyNt 'tpe;jhfpa Rf;fpyj;ij nrYj;Jk; gpuhzthAit> mghdd; vd;Dk; kyf;fhw;W vjpHj;jhy; tpe;J rpije;J ,ul;ilf; Foe;ijfs; gpwf;Fk;” vd;fpd;whH. NkYk; clYwtpd; NghJ ,UtUf;Fk; gpuhzthA jLkhwpdhy; ngz;zpw;Ff; fU cz;lhtjw;F tha;g;G ,y;iy vd;fpd;whH.  

 

,ul;ilf; Foe;ijfs; gpwg;gjw;fhd mwptpay; fhuzpfs; vit vd;gJ vy;NyhUf;Fk; njupAk;. ,uz;L tifapy;jhd; ,ul;ilaH gpwf;f KbAk;.  

 

xd;W rpid Vw;gl;l rpy ehs;fspy; Kl;il ,uz;lhfg; gpuptJ. ,g;gbg; gpwf;Fk; ,ul;ilaH xj;j my;yJ cld;gpwg;G (Identical or fraternal twins) Mf ,Ug;gH. kw;wJ ,uz;L Kl;ilfs; rkfhyj;jpy; ntspNaw;wg;gl;L ntt;NtW tpe;jZf;fshy; rpidg;gLj;jg; gLtJ. ,g;gbg; gpwf;Fk; ,ul;ilaH xj;jpyhj cld;gpwg;Gf;fs; (Non-identical twins) Mf ,Ug;gH. 

 

Foe;ij Mzh - ngz;zh vd;gjw;F MNz nghWg;ghFk;. Mdhy;> Mz; Foe;ij gpwf;fhtpl;lhy; gop ngz;zpd; jiykPNj Rkj;jg;gLfpwJ. mJ kl;Lky;y> me;jg; ngz; Foe;ijAk; gyp vLf;;fg;gLfpwJ. mz;ikapy; xU fpoik Vl;by; N[hjplj;jpd; tpguPjk; Foe;ijiaf; nfhd;w je;ij vd;w jiyg;gpy; (A+iy 21>2003) te;j ,e;jr; nra;jpiag; gbAq;fs;. 

 

Jhj;Jf;Fb khtl;lk; jpUitFz;lk; mUNf fUq;Fsj;ij NrHe;jtH Jsrpkzp.  ,tuJ kidtp fz;zk;khs;. Jsrpkzp (32) fle;j rpy Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G ,yl;Rkp vd;gtiu ,uz;lhe;jhukhfj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. ,yl;Rkpf;F ,uz;L Foe;ijfs; ,Ue;jd.  ,e;epiyapy; iff; Foe;ijahd ngz; Foe;ijiaj; njhl;bypy; Jhq;f itj;Jtpl;L ,yl;Rkp filf;Fr; nrd;wpUe;jhH. mtH jpUk;gp te;J ghHj;jNghJ njhl;bypNyNa Foe;ij ,we;J fple;jJ.  

 

,J Fwpj;Jj; Jsrpkzp jpUitFz;lk; fhty;Jiwapy; Kiwg;ghL nra;jhH. fhty;Jiw mjpfhup Nkup NahH[; tof;Fg; gjpT nra;J tprhuiz elj;jpdhH. tprhuizapy;  Kiwg;ghL nra;j je;ij Jsrpkzpjhd; Foe;ijiaf; nfhiy nra;jhH vd;gJ njupate;jJ. ,JFwpj;Jf; fhty;Jiw jug;gpy; $wpajhtJ>                         

 

'fle;j 7 Mk; ehs; ,yl;Rkp jdJ Foe;ijiaj; njhl;bypy; Jhq;f  itj;Jtpl;Lf; filf;Fr; nrd;wpUe;jhuhk;.  mg;NghJ Jsrpkzp jdf;F ,uz;lhtjhfg; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij ngz;Foe;ijahf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ vd;W NrhjplH xUtH nrhd;dijf; Nfl;L> njhl;bypy; fple;j Foe;ijiaf; fapw;wpdhy; fOj;ij neupj;Jf; nfhiy nra;jhH. gpd;G tof;fk; Nghy; tPl;bd; ntspNa vJTk; mwpahjJ Nghy; ,Ue;J tpl;lhH. gpd;G fhty;Jiwapy; ,tNu Kiwg;ghL nfhLj;J tpl;lhuhk;. fhty;Jiw tprhuizapy; je;ijNa jdJ Foe;ijiar; Nrhjplj;jpd; kPJ itj;j ek;gpf;ifapdhy; nfhiy nra;jJ njupa te;jJ. Jsrpkzpaplk; fhty; JiwapdH njhlHe;J tprhuiz elj;jp tUfpd;wdH.'  

 

,J Nghd;w fz;zPHf; fijfs; ehs; NjhWk; jkpo;ehl;Lr; nra;jp VLfspy; ntsptUfpd;wd. ngz; Foe;ijfs; ghtg; gpwtpfshfg;  ghHf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;. gbg;gwptpy;yhj ghkukf;fs; NrhjplHfspd; thf;ifj; nja;t thf;fhf; fUjpg; gj;J khjk; tapW Rke;J ngw;w Foe;ijfisf; nfhiy $lr; nra;fpd;whHfs;.

 

,Njh Mz; Foe;ij  gpwf;fhjjhy; fztdhy; nfhLikg;gLj;jg;gl;L ma;aj;Jf;F Mshd ,sk;ngz;zpd; [hjff;  Foe;ij vd;w cz;ikf; fij. ,jpYk; NrhjplNu tpy;ydhf tUfpd;whH.   

“vy;yhg; ngz;fSf;Fk; Nghyj;jhd; vdf;Fk; jpUkzk; ele;jJ.  

 

mg;NghJjhd; fy;Y}upg; gbg;G Kbe;J Ntiyf;Fg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;Njd;. mg;gh vdf;F khg;gps;is ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhH.

 

kJiuapypUe;J xU rk;ge;jk; te;jJ. vd; [hjfj;ij thq;fpg; ghHj;jhHfs;. gj;jpy; VO nghUj;jk; nghUe;jpaJ vd;whHfs;.  ngz; ghHf;f te;jtHfs; gpw tplaq;fisg; NgrpdhHfs;. ehq;fs; eLj;juf; FLk;gk;. ma;e;J gTz; eif> &.5 Mapuk; nuhf;fk; vd;W Ngrp Kbj;J K$Hj;j ehs; Fwpj;jhHfs;. jpUkzKk; rpwg;ghf ele;jJ.  

 

mtd; ngaH… Mkhk;> 'mtd;jhd; ….” mtd; vd;W nrhy;YtNj mjpfk;. Vndd;why;> mtd; kdpjdy;y kpUfk;.  mJ mg;NghJ nrd;id Nfhl;ilapy; Ntiy ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. vdf;F mz;zhrhiyapy; xU epWtdj;jpy; Ntiy.  vdNt nrd;idapy; jdpf; Fbj;jdk; itj;jhHfs;.   

 

Mirf; fdTfSld; mJf;Ff; fOj;ij ePl;bNdd;. mJ fl;baJ jhyp my;y> “Jhf;Ff; fapW” vd;gJ gpwFjhd; njupe;jJ.  

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (18)

 

,J cdf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ij my;y!

 

ef;fPud;

 

vd;idr; rPz;br; rPz;b tpisahbdhd;. Neuk; fhyk; fpilahJ.  tPl;bypUf;Fk; ehs;fspy; 'khl;dp fhl;rp" $l cz;L.  GJg; glk; ntspahFk; NghJ ehY fhl;rp elf;Fk; my;yth?  mJ Nghy ehY fhl;rpAk; elg;gJ cz;L. mJf;F vd;kPJ mt;tsT Mir vd;W epidj;J ehd; g+upj;Njd;. 

 

ehshf ehshfj;jhd; mjd; Ra&gk; njupe;jJ.  "mq;Nf vd;d ghHit? ahiug; ghHf;fpwha;? mtd; cd;$lg; gbj;jtdh? mtd;$l cdf;F Vw;fdNt gof;fk; cz;lh? cd; $lNtiy ghHf;fpwtdh?” vd;nwy;yhk; Nfl;lhd;. Nfs;tpay;y Fj;jy;.  tpdh my;y tp\k;.  #l;Lf; Nfhyhy; vd;idr; Rl;lhd;. 

 

vd; ,jak; fdj;jJ. ,ikfisj; jhz;bf; fz;zPH tbe;jJ. MdhYk;> vdf;F ehNd MWjy; $wpf;nfhz;Nld;. ehd; ey;y epwk;. fy;Y}upj; Njhopfs; vd;id 'fpspNahghl;uh' vd;ghHfs;.  vdNt> mJ re;Njfg;gLfpwJ vd;W epidj;Njd;. 'rpy Mz;fSf;Nf ,e;jf; Fzk; cz;L" vd;W vdf;Fs; vz;zpf;nfhz;Nld;. 

 

ehk;jhd; vr;rupf;ifahf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W KbT vLj;Njd;. $batiu ntspapy; NghtJ ,y;iy. mYtyfj;jpypUe;J $l tpsf;F itf;FKd; tPl;Lf;F te;JtpLNtd;. gid kuj;jbapypUe;J ghy; Fbg;ghNdd;? gopr; nrhy;Yf;F MshthNdd;? 

 

vd;djhd; vd;kPJ re;Njfk; ,Ue;jhYk; vd; clk;G mJf;Fj; Njitg;gl;lJ. ehDk; Ke;jhid tpupj;Njd;. ,y;iynad;why;> "vtd; $lb Ngha;tpl;L te;jha;?” vd;W Nfl;ff; $lhNj! 

 

me;jr; re;Njfg; NgAld; vg;gbNah ma;e;jhz;L tho;e;Jtpl;Nld;. ,uz;L Foe;ijAk; ngw;Wtpl;Nld;.  ,uz;Lk; ngz; Foe;ijfs;. 

 

vdf;F vd;dNth NtWghL njupatpy;iy. ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; Mz; vd;d? ngz; vd;d? ,uz;Lk; tPjpapy; miyaj;jhd; nra;fpwJ.  nrhd;dhy;jhd; ngz; gps;is vd;W njupfpwJ.  nfhs;sp itf;f Mz; gps;is Ntz;Lkhk;. ngz; gps;is itj;jhy; nfhs;spf;Flk; cilahjh? Mz; gps;isjhd; thuprhk;!

 

      ,uhrp tl;lk;

vd; FLk;gk; ghz;bag; NguuR ,y;iyNa! Mz; gps;isjhd; filrpf; fhyj;jpy; fQ;rp Cw;Wthdhk;! me;jf; fhye;jhd; kiyNawptpl;lNj! ,wf;if Kisj;jJk; mtdtd; gwe;JtpLfpwhd;! 

 

vdf;F kfpo;r;rpjhd;. vd;whYk; mJf;F kdJf;Fs; ftiy ,Ue;jJ. 'xU Mz; gps;is Ntz;Lk;” vd;W mbf;fb nrhy;Yk;.

 

've;jf; Nfhl;ilia Ms?” vd;W ehd; rpupg;Ngd;!

 

“,uz;L ngz; Foe;ijfisAk; rpwg;ghf tsHj;J> ed;whfg; gbf;f itj;J> ey;y ,lj;jpy; fl;bf; nfhLj;jhNy NghJk;” vd;Ngd;. 

 

mLj;j Foe;ij Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; ehd; Mirg;gltpy;iy. 'Ntz;lhk;” vd;Wk; epidf;ftpy;iy.  Mdhy; mLj;jJk; ngz;zhfg; Ngha;tplf; $lhNj vd;w mr;rk; ,Ue;jJ. vd;idtpl mJf;F ,e;j mr;rk; mjpfk;.              vdNt> vd;id mjpfkhf neUq;FtJ $l ,y;iy.  

                    

,uz;L Foe;ij ngw;Wk; vd; moF Fiwatpy;iy. ,ijg; ghHj;J mJ nghwhikg;gl;lJ. 'cd;idg; ghHj;jhy;> ,uz;L gps;is ngw;wts; vd;W nrhy;yNt KbahJ!” vd;W $Wk;. 

 

,J Gfo;r;rp vd;W ehd; epidj;Njd;. Mdhy;> nghwhik vd;W gpwFjhd; njupe;jJ. xU ehs; mYtyfj;jpypUe;J fpsk;g Neukhfptpl> Ml;Nlh gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L tPl;Lf;F Xb te;Njd.;

 

"vq;fb Ngha; tpl;L tUfpwha;?” vd;W mJ Nfl;f> ehd; xUKiw Kiwj;Jtpl;L cs;Ns Ngha;tpl;Nld;. 

 

mNjhl ez;gUf;Ff; Foe;ij gpwe;jpUe;jJ. Mz; Foe;ij. njhl;by; NghLk; tpohTf;F ,UtUk; Ngha; te;Njhk;. te;jJ Kjy; Mz; Foe;ij Mir Mykukhfg; glHe;Jtpl;lJ. 

 

mJ [hjfj;ij vLj;Jf;nfhz;L xU Nrhjpluplk; Nghapw;W. NrhjplH [hjfj;ijg; ghHj;J tpl;L "mLj;j Foe;ij cdf;F Mz; Foe;ijjhd;” vd;W mbj;Jr; nrhd;dhH. 

 

thnay;yhk; gy;yhf nyhs;Stpl;Lf; nfhz;L mJ tPl;Lf;Fj; jpUk;gpaJ. my;thTk;> ky;ypifg; g+Tk; thq;fp te;jpUe;jJ. md;wpuT kPz;Lk; xU KjypuT NghypUe;jJ. 

 

Kjy; ,U Foe;ijfisj; jpl;lkpl;Lg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. #g;gpg;Nghl;l khq;nfhl;il Kisg;gJ Nghyg; gpwe;jitjhd;. Mdhy;> mLj;j Foe;ijf;Fj; jpl;lkpl;Nlhk;. %d;whk; khjNk ehd; Foe;ij cz;lhNdd;. 

 

mJf;Ff; nfhs;is kfpo;r;rp. vd;idj; jhq;F jhq;F vd;W jhq;fpw;W. "ek;k tPl;Lf;F xU jk;gpg; ghg;gh tug;NghfpwJ” vd;W ngz; Foe;ijfsplk; ngUik mbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. 

 

"epr;rak; ,J Mz; Foe;ijjhd; - NrhjplH mbj;Jr; nrhy;yptpl;lhH” vd;W jk;gl;lk; mbj;jJ. 

                                                                                                                           

vd; khkpahH khkdhH te;J ghHj;J tpl;Lg; NghdhHfs;. "ehq;fs; kJiuapy; xU Nrhjpluplk; Nfl;Nlhk;. mtUk; Ngud;jhd;  gpwg;ghd; vd;W nrhd;dhH”  vd;W $wptpl;Lg; NghdhHfs;. 

 

vdf;Nf$l neQ;Rf;Fs; ,d;gk; Rue;jJ. mJ vd;dNth Mz; Foe;ij vd;why; Mirahfj;jhd; ,Uf;fpwJ!  ekJ FUjpapy; mg;gbNa mJ Cwpg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.                  

 

khjq;fs; Xbd...kfpo;r;rpAld;.

 

gj;jhtJ khjk;.

 

,Lg;G typ. 

 

mJ xU kUj;Jt kidf;F vd;id mioj;Jf;nfhz;L Nghapw;W. 

 

Ngha;r; NrHe;j md;W ,uNt Foe;ij gpwe;jJ. 

 

xU ,yf;fpdk; jtwpg; Ngha;tpl;lJ - ngz; Foe;ij! 

 

ngupjhf Cjpa gY}d; 'glhH” vd;W ntbj;jJ NghypUe;jJ! 

 

vdf;Nf Kfk; nrj;J tpl;lJ vd;why; mJf;F vg;gb ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;? epiwa rhf;nyl;L> tif tifahd rhf;nyl;L thq;fp itj;jpUe;jJ. mtw;iw mg;gbNa nfhz;LNgha;f; Fg;igj; njhl;bapy; Nghl;Ltpl;Lf; FYq;fpf; FYq;fp mOjJ!                                              njd;dpe;jpa rhjfk;

 

vd;idAk; Foe;ijiaAk; ghHf;f miwf;Fs; mJ tutpy;iy. mNjhl mk;kh> mg;ghTk; tutpy;iy. ,oT tPL Nghy ,Ue;jJ. %d;whk; ehs; Njhop xUj;jpapd; cjtpAld; ehd; tPl;Lf;F te;Njd;. 

 

vd; Foe;ijkPJ vy;NyhUk; ghuhKfkhf ,Ue;jhHfs;. ehshf ehshff; Foe;ijapd; kPJ ntWg;Gg; ngUfpaJ. mtHfspd; ntWg;G vdJ tpUg;ghf khwpaJ.

 

Kjy; Foe;ij ngw;wJNghy kfpo;r;rpahf ,Ue;Njd;. Foe;ijia thupnaLj;Jf; nfhQ;rpNdd;. kw;wf; Foe;ijfisg; Nghy ,e;jf; Foe;ijiaAk; vd; khHNghL mizj;Jg; ghy; nfhLj;Njd;. 

 

tPl;Lf;F te;j gpd;Dk; mJ vd; Kfj;jpy; tpopf;ftpy;iy. Foe;ijiaAk; ghHf;ftpy;iy. 

 

"ehd; vd;d jg;G nra;Njd;?” ehd;jhd; Nfl;Nld;. gjpy; ,y;iy. 

 

"mLj;j Foe;ij epr;rak; Mz; Foe;ijjhd; vd;W Nrhjpld; nrhd;dhd; vd;W ePq;fs;jhd;  nrhd;dPHfs;. mij ek;gpj;jhd; ehDk; %d;whtJ Foe;ij ngw;Wf;nfhs;s xg;Gf;nfhz;Nld;” vd;W eakhfr; nrhd;Ndd;. 

 

mJ vdf;Fg; gjpy; nrhy;yhky; myl;rpag; gLj;jptpl;Lg; Nghapw;W. vd;id xU Fw;wthspiag; Nghyg; ghHj;jJ> elj;jpaJ> ez;gHfs; Nfyp nra;jJ NtW mjd; kdijg; Gz;gLj;jpaJ. 

 

me;jf; Nfhgj;jpy; [hjfj;ij ghHj;Jr; nrhd;d N[hjpluplk; MNtrkhfg; Nghapw;W.

 

"ePnay;yhk; xU Nrhjpldh?” vd;W rz;il Nghl;bUe;jJ. 

 

'nfhL [hjfj;ij” vd;W NrhjplH thq;fpapUf;fpd;whH. thq;fpg; ghHj;Jtpl;L 'ehd; nrhd;dJ rupjhd;” vd;W xU ekl;Lr; rpupg;Gr; rpupj;jpUf;fpd;whH.

 

"vd;d rup? Mz; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; vd;W nrhd;dPH. ngz; Foe;ij my;yth gpwe;jpUf;fpwJ' vd;W ,J Nfhgkhff; fj;jpapUf;fpwJ. 

 

"nghW jk;gp' vd;whH NrhjplH.  "cdf;F Mz; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; vd;WjhNd nrhd;Ndd;? ,e;jf; Foe;ij cdf;Fg; gpwe;jpUe;jhy; Mz; Foe;ijahf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;!" 

 

,J jpifj;Jg; Ngha; tpl;lJ.

 

"mg;gbnad;why;...?” 

 

",J cdf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ij my;y!  CUf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ij!”  nfhQ;rk; $lg; gakpy;yhky; Nrhjpld; nrhd;dhd;. 

 

,J Rk;khNt re;Njfg; Nga;! Rk;khNt MLk; Nga; cLf;F mbj;jhy; vd;d Ml;lk; MLk;! vupfpw jPapy; vz;nza; thHj;jJNghy Mapw;W!

 

,jd; epidT gj;J khjj;Jf;F Kd; XbapUf;fpwJ. mg;NghJ tPl;Lf;F ahuhtJ te;jpUe;jhHfsh? mNjhl khkh xU Ntiyahf te;jpUe;jhH. vq;fs; tPl;by; ehiye;J ehs; jq;fpdhH. mtuh ,Uf;FNkh? 

 

mYtyfj;jpy; ahH$lthtJ cwT Vw;gl;L ,Uf;FNkh? 

 

ehd; tPl;by; ,y;yhj NghJ xU ez;gd; Njb te;jhNd.. mtdhf ,Uf;FNkh? 

 

,g;gb Mapuk; re;Njfq;fSld; me;jg; Nga; tPl;Lf;Fj; jpUk;gpaJ. 

 

mjd; Kfk; Ngabj;jJ Nghy ,Ue;jJ. 

 

'vd;d tp\ak;?” vd;W Nfl;Nld;.

 

"xd;Wkpy;iy”   vd;W kOg;gpaJ.

 

gpd;dhy;jhd; ,njy;yhk; vdf;Fj; njupate;jJ. 

 

ehiye;J ehs; fopj;J vd; [hjfj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;L Nrhjpluplk; XbaJ.

 

'vd; elj;ij vg;gb?” vd;W ghHj;Jr; nrhy;Yk;gb Nfl;bUf;fpwJ. mtd; fpy;yhb Nrhjpld;!

 

',ts; elj;ij nfl;ltshf ,Ug;ghs;” vd;W nrhy;yp tpl;lhd;! 

 

tPl;Lf;F te;jJ. vjw;F vLj;jhYk; rl;bapy; Nghl;l fLFNghy glglntd;W ntbj;jJ.  vd;idj; jpl;baJ> 'vd; Kfj;jpy; tpopf;fhNj> Ngh” vd;W tpul;baJ. ngz; Foe;ij gpwe;j Vkhw;wk; NghypUf;fpwJ vd;W ehDk; Rk;kh ,Ue;Jtpl;Nld;. 

 

NgWfhy tpLg;G Kbe;J mYtyfj;Jf;Ff; fpsk;gpNdd;. 

 

"Ntiyf;Fg; Nghf Ntz;lhk; Ntiyia uh[pdhkh nra;JtpL” vd;W mJ nrhy;ypw;W.

 

vdf;F xNu mjpHr;rp.

 

"Vd;?” 

 

"%d;W Foe;ij Mfptpl;lNj! tPl;bypUe;J Foe;ijfisg; ghHj;Jf; nfhs;” vd;W mJ nrhy;ypw;W. 

 

"Mkhq;f %d;W Foe;ij Mfptpl;lJ. ,dpj;jhd; ehd; fl;lhak; Ntiyf;Fg; Ngha; rk;ghjpf;fNtz;Lk;” vd;W nrhd;Ndd;. 

 

"Ntiyf;Fg; Nghf Ntz;lhk;” vd;W mJ nrhy;y..> 

 

"jaT nra;J vd;idj; jLf;fhjPHfs;” vd;W ehd; nfQ;r.. 

 

"Vd;> fs;sg; GUridg; ghHf;ff; fl;lhak; NghfNtz;Lkh?” vd;W mJ Nfl;f... 

 

"vd;d.. vd;d nrhd;dPq;f..” vd;W ehd; gjw... 

 

"vdf;F vy;yhk; njupAk;b” vd;W mJ vfj;jhskhfg; Ngr... 

 

"vd;d njupAk;?” vd;W ehd; fj;j... 

 

"N[hrpaf;fhud; vy;yhk; nrhy;yptpl;lhd;. ,e;jf; Foe;ijNa vdf;Fg; gpwe;jpUe;jhy; Mz; Foe;ijahf ,Ue;jpUf;FNk! fs;sg; GUrDf;Fg; gpwe;jpUf;fpwJ> mJjhd; ngz; Foe;ijahfg; gpwe;Jtpl;lJ!” vd;W mJ nrhy;y...

 

neUg;ig ms;sp vd; jiyapy; nfhl;baJ NghypUe;jJ!

 

"vtd;b me;jf; fs;sg; GUrd;?” vd;W mJ Nfl;f> 

 

"eP Mz; gps;isahf ele;Jnfhz;lhy;> ehd; Vd; mLj;jtdplk; NghfpNwd;!” vd;W ehd; Mj;jpuj;jpy; $w... 

 

"mt;tsT Mfptpl;ljh? cdf;F ,dp ,e;j tPl;by; ,lkpy;iy. ,dp eP vd; kidtpAkpy;iy” vd;W if ePl;b vd; fOj;jpy; fple;j jhypia ntLf;nfd;W mWj;Jf; nfhz;lhd;. 

 

xU re;Njfg; NgAld; tho;tijtplj; jdpj;J thOtJ re;Njhrk; vd;W ehd; epidj;Njd;. 

 

gr;ir kz;izf; ifapy; vLj;Jf;nfhz;L> kw;w ,U Foe;ijfisAk; mioj;Jf;nfhz;L> fl;ba NriyAld; ehd; fpsk;gpNdd;. 

 

“vd; Foe;ijfis vd;dplk; nfhL!”  ngupa Foe;ijfs; ,UtiuAk; mtd; gpbj;J ,Oj;jhd;. ehd; tpltpy;iy. Foe;ijfisf; nfl;bahfg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;Nld;. 

 

"vJlh cd; Foe;ij? ,g;NghJ nrhy;YfpNwd;>  ,e;jf; Foe;ijfSk; cdf;Fg; gpwe;jit my;y CUf;Fg; gpwe;jit!" 

 

mJ jpifj;J epd;wJ. 

 

"njhl;Lj; jhyp fl;ba ngz;lhl;bia ek;ghj cdf;Fg; gps;isfs; Ntz;Lkh? Jh!” vd;W mjd; Kfj;jpy; fhwpj; Jg;gpNdd;. 

 

vd; gps;isfisf; Nfhopf; FQ;Rfs;Nghy mutizj;Jf; nfhz;L ntspNawpNdd;. 

 

,g;NghJ ehd; jdp tPl;by; trpf;fpNwd;> rk;ghjpf;fpNwd;> vd; gps;isfis uh[hj;jpfs; Nghy tsHf;fpNwd;. 

 

mtHfs; ngz;gps;isfs;> ehis mtHfSf;Fj; jpUkzk;> jpUtpoh vd;W elf;Fk;. mg;NghJ 'mg;gh ahH” vd;W Nfl;ghHfNs? 

 

Nfl;fj;jhd; nra;thHfs;! mg;gbg;gl;l NfL nfl;l rKjhaj;jpy;jhNd ehk; tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;! (uhzp thu ,jo; - 29. 04. 2001) 

 

,e;jf; fij fw;gidf; fijay;y. cz;ikf; fij. gj;Jg; nghUj;jq;fspy; 7 nghUe;jq;fs; nghUj;jk; vdr; NrhjplH rhjfq;fisg; ghHj;Jg; gr;irf; nfhb fhl;ba gpd;dH ele;j jpUkzk;. ,t;thW kdg; nghUj;jk; ghuhJ Nfhs;> el;rj;jpug; nghUj;jq;fs; ghHj;Jj; jpUkzk; nra;J itg;gjhy; Kwpe;J Nghd FLk;gq;fs; Vuhsk;. 

 

     


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (19)

 

Nrhjplk; ,Ul;L miwapy; fWg;Gg; G+idiaj; NjLk; FUld; fij!  

 

NrhjplHfs; xw;iw ,ul;il ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;yptpl;L mJ gpiof;Fk;NghJ nfhQ;rk;$l kdr;rhl;rpf;Fg; gag;glhky; rhJupakhf NkYk; xU ngha;iar; nrhy;yp mjid cz;ikg;gLj;j vj;jdpf;Fk; nfhLikia [hjff; Foe;ij vd;w cz;ikf; fij glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;LfpwJ.  

 

gpwf;fg; NghFk; Foe;ij Mzh ngz;zh vd;W ve;jr; NrhjpldhYk; nrhy;y KbahJ. xw;iw ,ul;il gpbf;fyhk;> Mdhy; Kd;$l;bg; gyd; nrhy;y KbahJ! 

 

gbahjtHfs; kl;Lky;y nkj;jg; gbj;jtHfSk; jpUkzk; vd;W tUk;NghJ NrhjplHfisj; Njb miye;J mtHfs; nrhy;tijj; Njt thf;fhff; nfhs;tjhy; gy jpUkzq;fs; ,ilapy; Fok;gp tpLfpd;wd.  

 

vdJ ez;gH xUtH kUj;Jtuhfg; gzpGupAk;  jdJ xNu kfSf;Fg; gbj;j khg;gps;isiaj; jpUkzk; NgrpdhH. ,U tPl;lhUf;Fk; xUtiu xUtH gpbj;Jg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. vdJ ez;gUf;F rhjfj;jpy; ek;gpf;if ,y;iy. Mdhy;> khg;gps;is tPl;lhH rhjfk;  ghHf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;gpdhHfs;.

 

rhjfk; ghHj;jNghJ>  NrhjplH rhjfj;jpy; “jhypg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy” vd;W nrhy;yp mjidj; js;sptpl;lhH. 

 

vdJ ez;gH jdf;Fj; njupe;j ,d;ndhU Nrhjpluplk; me;jr; rhjfq;fisf; fhl;bdhH. mtH ghHj;Jtpl;Lg; 'nghUj;jk; ,Uf;fpwJ. jpUkzk; nra;ayhk;!” vdg; gr;irf; nfhb fhl;bdhH. 

 

,d;ndhU nrhe;jf;fhuH nrhd;dhH. nrt;tha;f; Fw;wKs;s khg;gps;isf;Fr; nrt;tha;f; Fw;wKs;s ngz;iz kpfTk; tpy;yq;fg;gl;Lr; nrhe;je;Jf;Fs;NsNa Njbf; fz;L gpbj;jhHfshk;. tPl;by; nfl;b Nksk; nfhl;lg; NghfpwJ vd;W vy;NyhH kdjpYk; kfpo;r;rp $j;jhbaJ.  ,U tPl;lhUf;Fk; ngupa epk;kjp. Mdhy;> me;j epk;kjp ePz;l ehs;fs; ePbf;ftpy;iy.

 

ngz;  tPl;lhH rhjfq;fisr; Nrhjpluplk;  fhl;baNghJ 'rhjffhuHfSf;F kNfe;jpug; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy” vd;W js;sp tpl;;lhH. 

 

,be;JNghd khg;gps;is tPl;lhH kWgbAk; tpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J nrt;tha;f; Fw;wk; cs;s ngz;izj; NjLk; Ntl;ilapy; ,wq;fpAs;shHfs;! 

 

vg;gb Neha; gw;wp xU kUj;JtH nrhy;tJ rupah gpioah vd;gij ,d;ndhU kUj;Jtuplk; Nfl;L cWjp nra;J nfhs;tJ Gj;jprhypj;jdNkh mJ Nghy xU NrhjplH nrhy;tij kl;Lk; mg;gbNa ek;gptplhky; ,d;ndhU NrhjpluplKk; rhjfq;fisf; fhl;LtJ ey;yJ.  ngUk;ghYk; ,uz;lhtJ NrhjplH 'nghUj;jk;” ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;yf; $Lk;! my;yJ nghUj;jk; kj;jpkk;> vjw;Fk; Nfhs;fSf;F Njhrk; ePq;f mUr;rid mgpNrfk; nra;J tpl;Lj; jpUkzj;ij itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;W mtH nrhy;yf; $Lk;! 

 

,g;gbr; nrhy;tij itj;Jf;nfhz;L jpUkzk; nra;J itg;gjw;F Kd; rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gij ehd; Mjupg;gjhfg; nghUs; nfhs;sf;$lhJ. rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ %lek;gpf;if. mjpy; ,uz;L fUj;Jf; fpilahJ. rhjfk; ghHj;Jg; nghUj;jk; ,Ue;jhy; kl;Lk; jpUkzk; vd;W mOq;Fg; gpb gpbf;Fk; ngw;NwhHfSf;Nf rhjfj;ij ,uz;lhtJ Nrhjpluplk; fhl;LkhW Nahrid nrhd;Ndd;.

 

xNu rhjfq;fisg; ghHj;Jtpl;L NrhjplHfs; kzg; nghUj;jk;gw;wp NeH vjpHkhwhd gyd;fs; nrhy;tJ xd;Wk; Gjpdk; ,y;iy. ,J ehs; NjhWk; CH NjhWk; elf;fpwJ.    

 

xNu rhjfq;fs;>  ntt;NtW NrhjplHfs;> NeH vjpHkhwhd gyd;fs;! Vd; ,g;gb?  vy;yhk; fz; ghHit njupahjtd; kidtpia mbj;j fijjhd;! my;yJ ,Ul;liwapy; fWg;Gg; G+idiaj; Njba fijjhd;!  

 

xU rhjfj;ij vOjf; $l;lj; njupe;j vy;NyhUk; fzpf;fyhk;.

 

Gtp jd;idj;jhNd Rw;Wtjhy; ,uT gfy; cz;lhfpwJ. Gtp jd;idj;jhNd xU Kiw Rw;wptu 24 kzp NeukhfpwJ. ,e;j 24 kzp Neuj;jpy; (60 ehspif)  ,g; Gtpiar; Rw;wpYk; fpof;F Nkw;fhf NkYk; fPOkhfg; glHe;Js;s 12 ,uhrp tPLfSk; Vwj;jho 2 kzpj;jpahyj;Jf;F xUKiw xd;wd; gpd; xd;whf fpof;fpy; fhypj;J Nkw;fpy; kiwfpd;wd.  

 

,uhrptl;lj;ij (Zodiac) 12 rk gq;fhfg; gpupj;J Nkl ,uhrp njhlf;fk; kPd ,uhrp ,Wjpahf xt;nthU ,uhrp tPl;bw;Fk;> xt;nthU ngaH #l;b> mg; ngaUf;fhd rpd;dj;ijAk; mj;jifa ,uhrp tPl;bw;F mspj;Js;sdH. gd;dpuz;L ,uhrp tPLfspy; VjhtJ xU ,uhrp tPL kl;Lk; capH ,yf;fpdk; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpd;w n[dd ,yf;fpdk; MFk;.

 

md;whlk; QhapW fhypf;Fk; (#upa cjak;) NghJ me;j QhapWld; fhypf;Fk; Kjy; cjauhrpNa me;j QhapW md;iwa ehs; ,lk;ngw;Ws;s ,uhrpahFk;. ,t;tpjk; mikAk; cja ,uhrpf;F mLj;Jf; fhypf;Fk; (cjakhFk;) 2 tJ ,uhrp md;iwa ehs; QhapW epd;w ,uhrpf;F mL;j;Js;s ,uz;lhtJ ,uhrp ,y;yNkahFk;.  mjw;F mLj;Jf; fhypf;Fk; ,uhrp vJ vd;why; QhapW epd;w ,uhrpf;F 3 tJ ,y;ykhFk;. ,t;thW 12 ,uhrpfs; 24 kzp Neuj;jpy; fhypj;J kiwfpd;wd.

 

QhapW jdJ mr;rpy; Nkw;Ff; fpof;fhfr; Rw;Wtjhy; ,uhrpfs; fpof;F Nkw;fhff; fhypj;J kiwtJNghy; vq;fs; fz;fSf;Fj; njupfpwJ. mjhtJ Nklk;> ,lgk;> kpJdk;> flfk;> rpk;kk;> fd;dp> Jyhk;> tpUr;rpfk;> jDR> kfuk;> Fk;gk;> kPdk; vd;w tupirapy; ,uhrpfs; Njhd;wp kiwfpd;wd.   

 

XH Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; Ntisapy; fpof;Fj; jpirapy; mbthdj;jpy; fhypj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpw ,uhrp tPNl n[dd ,yf;fpdk; MFk;. ,uhrpr; rf;fuj;jpy; ,JNt Kjy; tPL MFk;.

 

gpwg;Gf; fhyj;jpy;> re;jpud; epd;w ,uhrp tPNl cly; ,yf;fpdk; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpd;w n[dd ,uhrp MFk;. NrhjplHfs; ,e;j ,uhrpiaf; nfhz;Nl tho;ehs; KOtJk; xUtuJ ,uhrp gyd;ffisf; Nfhrhu Kiwapy; fz;lwpayhk; vdr; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;. Nfhr;rhu Kiw vd;gJ rhjfj;jpy; cs;s Nfhs; epiyiaAk; rhjfk; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;Yk; nghOJs;s Nfhs; epiyiaAk; NrHj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gLk; gydhFk;.

 

rpj;jpiu khjk; 10 Mk; ehs; QhapW fhypf;Fk; NghJ me;j QhapW ,lk; ngw;Ws;s Nkl ,uhrpNa md;iwa cjauhrpahf ,lk; ngw;wpUf;Fk;. kWehs; Nkl ,uhrpapy; xU ghif js;sp #upad; cjakhfpwJ. ,t;thW 30 ghif nfhz;l Nkl ,uhrpiaf; flf;f 30 ehs;fs; vLf;fpd;wd. ,jdhy; rpj;jpiu khjj;jpy; gpwe;jtHfsJ rhjfj;jpy; QhapW Nkl ,uhrpapy; fhzg;gLk;. ghif> kzpj;Jsp> tpehb kl;Lk; NtWgLk;. itfhrpapy; gpwe;jtHfsJ rhjfj;jpy; Nklj;Jf;F mLj;j ,lg ,uhrpapy; QhapW fhzg;gLk;.

 

fhHj;jpif 27 Mk; ehs; QhapW fhypf;Fk; NghJ me;j QhapW ,lk; ngw;Ws;s tpUr;rpf ,uhrpNa md;iwa ehs; cjauhrpahf ,lk; ngw;wpUf;Fk;.

 

NkNy $wpathW Gtpjhd; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ. Mdhy;> vkJ fz;fSf;Fg; Gtp my;y QhapW ,uhrp tl;lj;ijr; (,uhrpr; rf;fuj;ij) Rw;wptUtJ Nghy; Njhw;wkspf;fpwJ. xt;nthU ,uhrpapYk; QhapW nrytpLk; fhyk; ,yf;fp;dk; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Xt;nthU 2 kzpj;jpahyKk; ,yf;fpdk; khWfpwJ> Mdhy;> mg;gb khWk; fhyk; khjq;fisg; nghWj;J $bAk; Fiwe;Jk; fhzg;gLk;. 

 

,Nj Nghd;W ,uhrptl;lk; 27 el;rj;jpuq;fshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j 27 el;rj;jpuq;fspy; ehs;  xU el;rj;jpukhf efHe;J nfhz;Nl re;jpud; 27¼  ehs;fspy;> 27 el;rj;jpuq;fisAk;   xUKiw Rw;wp te;J tpLfpwJ. xt;nthU el;rj;jpu kz;lyKk; fhy;> mb> tapW> Nky;tapW> jiy vd;W ehd;F ghfq;fshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

,e;jg; ghfq;fs; xt;nthd;Wk; xU ghjk; vd;Wk;> Kjyhk; fhy;> ,uz;lhk; fhy;> %d;whk; fhy;> ehd;fhk; fhy; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wd. vdNt 13 ghif 20 kzpj;Jsp nfhz;l xU ,uhrp tPl;ilr; re;jpud; 2¼ ehs;fspy; fle;J tpLfpwJ.

 

Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ghHf;Fk; NghJ QhapW kw;Wk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs; fpof;fpy; cjpj;J Nkw;fpy; kiwtJ Nghyf; fhl;rp mspf;fpd;wd. ,J Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; jd;idj;jhNd tyk; ,Ue;J ,lkhfr; Roy;tjhy; ( rotates counter-clockwise) Vw;gLfpwJ. Gtp ,Nj tyk; ,lkhfNt QhapiwAk; Rw;wp tUfpwJ. Gtp ,t;thW jd;idj;jhNd Rw;WtjhNyNa gfy;-,uT Vw;gLfpwJ.

 

cz;ikapy; QhapW kw;Wk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs; ,Ue;j ,lj;jpNyNa xsp ckpo;e;J nfhz;L ,lk; tpl;L ,lk; ngauhky; xspHfpd;wd. Gtp eLtpy; ,Uf;Fk; QhapiwAk; gpd;Gyj;jpy; cs;s el;rj;juq;fisAk; Rw;wp tUfpwJ. Mdhy;> vq;fs; fz;fSf;F QhapWk; el;rj;jpuq;fSk; Gtpiar; Rw;WtJ Nghy; Njhw;wkspf;fpwJ. ,J xU khaj; (illusion) Njhw;wkhFk;.

 

xU tpz;ntspf; fg;gy; Gtpiar; Rw;wptu 90 kzpj;Jsp vLj;jhy; mjpy; nryT (gazk;) nra;Ak; tpz;ntsp tPud; vl;L QhapW  fhypg;GfisAk; mNj vz;zpf;ifasT  QhapW kiwTfisAk; ghHf;f KbAk;! 

 

rhjfk; fzpg;gjpy; rpf;fy; ,y;iy. Vw;fdNt nrhy;ypathW Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; rkaj;jpy;> mbthdj;jpy; fhypj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;w ,uhrp tPNl 'capH ,yf;fpdk;” vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; n[d;k ,yf;fpdkhFk;. n[dd fhyj;jpy; re;jpud; epd;w ,uhrp tPL 'cly; ,yf;fpdk;” vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpd;w n[dd ,uhrpahFk;.

 

gQ;rhq;fj;ijg; ghHj;J n[d;k ,yf;fpdk;> n[d;k ,uhrp> n[d;k el;rj;jpuk; Nghd;wtw;iwj; njupe;J nfhs;syhk;.  

 

Kd;dH kdjhYk; ifahYk; gy kzpj;jpahyk; my;yJ rpy ehs;fs; nrytopj;Jf; fzpf;Fk; rhjfj;ij ,d;W rpy kzpj;Jspfspy; Nrhjpl nkd;nghUspd; cjtpAld; fzpj;J Kbj;J tplyhk;. gpwe;j ehs;> Neuk;> CH> ehL> neLf;NfhL (longititude) kw;Wk; FWf;Ff; NfhL (latitude) Mfpa juTfisf; nfhLj;Jtpl;lhy; rhjfk; ,ikg; nghOjpy; ,uhrprf;fuk; ethk;r Fz;lyp ,uz;ilAk; ghif gprfhJ "Jy;ypa" khff; fzpj;Jf; nfhLj;J tpLfpwJ!

 

Mdhy;> rhjfj;ij mwptpayhsHfs; fz;Lgpbj;j fzpdp %yk; fzpj;JtpLtjhy; kl;Lk; mJ rupnad;W nghUs; nfhs;sf;$lhJ. fzpdpf;F vjidf; nfhLf;fpNwhNkh mJjhd; ntspNa tUk;. Fg;igiaf; nfhLj;jhy; Fg;igjhd; ntsptUk; (garbage in garbage out)  vd;gij kwe;J tplf;$lhJ.  

 

rpf;fy; vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwnjd;why; rhjfj;ijg; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;Ytjpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjw;Fr; Nrhjplg; gbg;G> mwpT> gl;lwpT Mfpait epiwaj; Njitg;gLk;.    

 

Nrhjplj;ij Kiwahfg; gbj;J mjid KONeuj; njhopyhfr; nra;JtUgtHfs; kpfr; rpyNu. ngUk;ghNyhH Nrhjplj;ij miuFiwahfTk; nghOJ Nghf;Ff;fhfTk; gbj;j miur;  NrhjplHfsplk; rhjfq;fis nfhLj;Jg; gyd; Nfl;fpd;whHfs;.   

 

rpyH Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; cz;ikahdJ> mijg; ghHj;Jg; gyd; nrhy;Yk; miu> Kf;fhy; NrhjplHfs;jhd; gpiotpLfpd;whHfs; vd vz;Zfpd;whHfs;. me;j vz;zk; jtwhdJ. Nrhjpl rhj;jpuNk gpioahd mbj;jsj;jpy; vOg;gg;gl;bUf;Fk; Nghyp mwptpayhFk;. vdNt mjd; mbg;gilapy; NrhjplHfs; rupahff; fzpj;Jr; nrhy;Yk; gyd;fSk; fl;lhak; gpioahfNt ,Uf;Fk;!

 

,g;NghJ ,e;jpa ehNsLfspy;  ',e;j Mz;L jpUkzkh? Nahrpj;Jr; nra;Aq;fs;' vd;w jiyg;gpy; gy nra;jpfs; ntspte;Js;sd. mjpy; xd;W gpd;tUkhW>  

  

GJnly;yp> A+iy 30> 2003 - ,e;j Mz;L jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;gtHfs; ed;whf Nahrpj;Jr; nray;gl Ntz;Lk; vdr; N[hjplHfs; vr;rhpj;J cs;sdH.  

 

,J Fwpj;J jiyefH jpy;ypapy; cs;s ,yl;Rkp ehuhazH Nfhtpy; jiyik mHr;rfH ,yl;Rkp ehuhaz rh];jpup $wpAs;sjhtJ:   

 

',e;j Mz;L> tpaho fpufk; jpUkz tho;f;ifia tsk; Fd;wr; nra;tjhf cs;sJ. vdNt ,e;j Mz;L jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;sj; jpl;lkpl;L cs;stHfs; mJ Fwpj;J ed;F Nahrpj;Jr; nraw;gl Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;ghf ,uh[];jhd;> gQ;rhg;> nly;yp> mhpahdh> F[uhj;> cj;jug;gpuNjrk; kw;Wk; kj;jpag; gpuNjrj;jpy; cs;stHfs; ,e;j Mz;L jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;sf;$lhJ. nghJthfr; rpk;kk; kw;Wk; fd;dp ,uhrpf;fhuUf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s ,J cfe;j fhyk; my;y. mtHfs; xf;NlhgH 25 Mk; Njjpf;Fg; gpwNf jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. kw;w ,uhrpf;fhuHfs;$l tpaho fpufj;jpw;Fg; ghpfhuk; nra;j gpwNf jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

,j;jifa epiy ,g;NghJ Gjpjhf Vw;gltpy;iy. tof;fkhf 18 Mz;LfSf;F (?) xUKiw ,t;thW Vw;gLk;. ,e;jr; nra;jp> jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;gtHfSf;F kl;Lkpd;wp eif tpahghhpfs;> rikay;fhuHfs; MfpNahUf;Fk; mjpHr;rp juf;$baJ MFk;.” (jpdfud;)  

 

,Nj khjpup ,q;F ntsptUk; Toronto Star (Mf];l; 06> 2003) ehNsl;bYk; No time to get wed-Indian astrologers delay marriages- Rifts in families as fallout hits GTA?  vd;w ePz;l jiyg;gpy; gugug;NghL nra;jp ntspapl;;Ls;sJ.

 

'mLj;j rpy khjq;fSf;F Nfhs;fs; rupapy;iy. ahUk; ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; jpUkzk; nra;af;$lhJ. gQ;rhq;fj;jpd;gb FUgfthd; rpk;k ,uhrpapy; gpuNtrpf;fpd;whH. Rf;fpud; (nts;sp)  #upaDf;F mz;ikapy; ,Ug;gNjhL Vida Nfhs;fspd; rpf;fyhy; ,e;jf; fhyk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tjw;Ff; nfl;l fhykhFk;;. mLj;j Mz;L ij khj eLg;gFjpapy;jhd; Nfhs;fs; ey;y  ,lq;fSf;F khWfpd;wd” vd;fpd;whH Nkhfd; kp\;uh (Mohan Mishra) vd;w ,e;jpa NrhjplH.

 

,tH 10 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; fdlhtpy; FbNawpatH. ,tuJ thbf;ifahsupy; miuthrpg; NgH ,tuJ Nahridf;F ,zq;fj; jpUkzq;fis xj;jpg; Nghl;Ls;sdH. 

 

,jdhy; FLk;gq;fspy; gpsTfs;  Vw;gl;Ls;sjhfTk; ,e;j ehNsl;bd; nra;jp NkYk; njuptpf;fpwJ.   

 

Mf mHr;rfH ,yl;Rkp ehuhaz rh];jpup kw;Wk; NrhjplH Nkhfd; kp\;uh ,UtUk; mLj;j  rpy khjq;fs; jpUkzk; nra;tjw;Ff; nfl;l fhyk; vd;W nrhy;yg; GJtz;zhug;Ngl;il> nrd;id-81 iar; NrHe;j NrhjplH fPo;uhy; gz;bl; gr;iruh[d; FU ngaHr;rpahy; ed;ikNanahopa jpd;ik ,y;iy vd;W jplkhfr; nrhy;fpd;whH. mtuJ FUngaHr;rpg; gyidr; RUf;fkhff; fPNo jUfpNwd;. 

 

'NjtFU vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;w FUgfthd; jdJ cr;r tPlhd flf ,uhrpapypUe;J 23-7-2003 md;W Gjd;fpoik ,uT 6 kzp 27 epkplj;Jf;F rpk;k ,uhrpapy; gpuNtrpf;fpd;whH. rpk;k ,uhrpapy; kfk;> g+uk;> cj;jpuhlk; Mfpa el;rj;jpuq;fspd; mjpgjpfshd NfJ> Rf;fpud;> #hpad; MfpNahhpd; rQ;rhuq;fspd; kPJ rpk;k ,uhrpapy; Ml;rp ghpghydk; nra;fpwhH.  

 

,e;jf; FU ngaHr;rpf;F xU khngUk; rpwg;G cz;L. mjhtJ FUgfthd; rQ;rhpf;Fk; ,e;j Mz;ilj;jhd; kfhkfk; Mz;L vd;W $Wfpd;Nwhk;. ,J 12 Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw tUtjhy;jhd; ,jw;F xU jdpr;rpwg;G cz;L.  

 

nghJthff; FUit ey;ytH vd;W $WthHfs;. ey;ytHjhd;> Qhdpjhd;> nry;tj;ij ms;sp toq;FgtHjhd;> Gj;jpufhud;jhd;> ehs;il Msitg;gtUk; mtHjhd;. FUthy; Vw;gLk; nfL gyDk; ekf;F ed;ikahdjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. fpufq;fspy; FU kl;LNk tf;u fjp milAk; NghJ ,Uklq;F ed;ikiar; nra;Ak; fpufk; MFk;. ey;NyhUld; el;ghfg; gof itg;gJk; mtHjhd;> GJg; GJ cj;jpfis mwpa itg;gtUk; mtHjhd;> gy fiyfspy; ty;ytuhf;FtJk; tho;f;ifapy; nfsutj;ijAk; khpahijiaAk; ekf;F ePbf;f itg;gJk; ,tUila gykhFk;. ,ijnay;yhk; mtH vg;gbr; nra;fpd;whH vd;why; jdJ 5> 7> 9 Mk; ghHitahy; nra;fpd;;whH.  

 

Mdhy;> FUgfthd;  ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpw;Fr; nra;tJ ,y;iy vd;w cz;ikiag; gyNgH mwptjpy;iy. jw;NghJ rpk;k ,uhrpf;F te;J tpl;lhHjhd;. Mdhy;> FUthy; rpk;k ,uhrpf;fhuUf;F xU gaDk; fpilahJ vd;gJ vj;jid NgUf;Fj; njhpAk;? 

 

,jdhy;jhd; nghpNahHfs; FUghHf;ff; Nfhb ed;ik vd;whHfs;. Mkhk; FU ghHj;jhy;jhd; ed;ik fpilf;Fk;.

 

FU gfthd; xUtUila n[d;k ,uhrpf;F 2> 5> 7> 9> 11 Mk; ,lq;fspy; rQ;rhpf;Fk; fhyq;fspy; ed;ik jUthH vd;Wk; 5> 7> 9 Mk; ghHit fpilf;Fk; ,uhrpf;F ed;ik fpilf;Fk; vd;Wk; nrhy;thHfs;.  

 

,e;j tUlf; FU ngaHr;rpahy; flfk;> Nklk;> Fk;gk;> jDR> Jyhk; Mfpa 5 ,uhrpf;fhuUf;F kpf ey;y gyd;fs; elf;Fk;. kw;w ,uhrpf;fhuUf;Fr; Rkhuhd gyidNa vjpHghHf;fyhk; vd;whYk; kPd ,uhrpf;F 6 Mk; ,uhrpahd rpk;kj;Jf;F FU tUtjhy;> jdJ ghHit ,y;yhky; NghdhYk; FUtpd; nrhe;j tPlhf kPdk; ,Ug;gjhy; FU jdJ nrhe;j tPl;Lf;F ey;yJ nra;Ak; epiyikapy; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; nfLjy;g; gyd;fisf; nfhLf;fkhl;lhH vd;W ek;gyhk;.   

 

nghJthf xU fpufk; rhjfkw;w epiyapy; ,Ue;jhy; nfL gyd;fs; elf;Fk.; Mdhy;> FU gfthd; rhjfkw;w epiyapy; ,Ue;jhYk;> nfL gyd;fs; nkd;ikahfNt ,Uf;Fk;.   

 

fpufq;fspy; FU kl;LNk tf;u fjp milAk; NghJ ,Uklq;F ed;ikiar; nra;Ak; fpufk; MFk;.  FU Nfe;jpuhjpgj;jpa Njhrk; ngWk; fpufk; MFk;. FU 1> 4> 7> 11 Mfpa Nfe;jpuq;fspy; rQ;rhpf;Fk;NghJ kdjpy; rQ;ryj;ijAk;> kdf; f\;lq;fSk; Vw;gLk;. mjhtJ rpk;kk;> hp\gk;> tpUr;rpf ,uhrpf;fhuUf;F kdf; Fog;gKk;> KbTf;F tu Kbahj gpur;rpidfs; te;J epw;Fk;. me;jf; fhyq;fspy; FUgfthdpd; Nfhtpy;fSf;Fr; nrd;W te;jhy; jPa gyd;fs; Fiwe;J ey;y gyd;fis milayhk;.  

 

FUgfthd; kpJd ,uhrpf;F 3 Yk;> kPd ,uhrpf;F 6 Yk;> kfu ,uhrpf;F 8 Yk;> rpk;k ,yf;fpdj;jpYk;> fd;dp ,uhrpf;Fg; 12 Yk; rQ;rhpf;fpd;whH. ,jdhy; ,e;j ,uhrpf;fhuHfSf;F nghpa ed;ikfis vjpHghHf;f Ntz;lhk;. Mdhy;> nfLjy; mjpfk; ,Uf;fhJ. 

 

FU gfthd; Nfhr;rhug;gb 1> 3> 4> 6> 8> 10> 12 Mk; ,lq;fspy; tUk;NghJ jPikahd gyd;fSk;> FUgfthd; gif> ePr;rk; ngWk;NghJ gztuT> jpUkzk;> Gj;jpu ghf;fpak;> tPL thq;Fjy;> nfhLj;j gzk; tUjy; Nghd;witfs; jilgLk;.   

 

FUtpw;Fr; #hpad;> re;jpud;> nrt;tha; ez;gHfs;> GjDk; Rf;fpuDk; tpNuhjpfs;. rdp> uhF> NfJ %tUk; el;Gk; ,y;iy gifAk; ,y;iy vd;w Kiwapy; rkepiyahsHfs; MthHfs;.  

el;rj;jpu rQ;rhuk; ,e;j tifapy; ,e;j Mz;L FU el;Gf; fpufkhd #hpadpd; Ml;rp tPlhd rpk;kj;jpy; rQ;rhpf;fpd;whH. ,jdhy; ey;yijr; nra;thH. Mdhy;> ,ilapy; ehd;F khjq;fs; giff; fpufkhd Rf;fpudpd; el;rj;jpukhd g+uj;jpy; rQ;rhpf;fpd;whH.  23-07-2003 md;W rpk;k ,uhrpf;Fs; NfJ el;rj;jpukhd kfk; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; 1 Mk; ghjj;jpy; gpuNtrpf;Fk; FU kfk; el;rj;jpuq;fspd; 2> 3> 4 Mk; ghjq;fspy; 9-9-2003 tiu rQ;rhpf;fpd;whH.   

 

kfk; el;rj;jpuhjpgjp NfJ MFk;.  NfJ FUTf;Fr; rkkhdtH vd;gjhy; FU ,e;j ,uz;L khjq;fspy; kd epiwTld; ,Ue;J ghHitapy; gy ed;ikfisr; nra;thH. Mdhy;> 20-9-2003 md;W g+uk; el;rj;jpuj;jpd; rhuj;jpy; gpuNtrpf;Fk; FUgfthd; 18-12-2003 tiu g+uk; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; rQ;rhpf;fpd;whH. 

 

g+uk; el;rj;jpugjp Rf;fpud; MthH. FUTf;F Rf;fpud; gif MthH.  gifgl;l fpufkhd Rf;fpud; el;rj;jpuj;jpy; rQ;rhpf;Fk; fhyq;fspy; FU gfthdpd; ghHit ed;ikfisr; rpwg;ghfr; nrhy;tjw;F ,y;iy. gy gpur;rpidfs; KbT ngwhky; mg;gbNa Njq;fp epw;Fk;.

 

mjd;gpd; 5-01-2004 md;W Kjy; tf;ufjpf;F Mshfp 24-07-2004 md;W tf;u eptHj;jp Mfpd;whH. tf;ufjpf;F MshFk; ,e;j MW khjq;fspy; FUgfthd; ed;ikfis ,ul;bg;ghf ms;spj;ju ,Uf;fpd;whH. Mdhy;> FUgfthdpd; rpk;k ,uhrp ngaHr;rp Njhuhakhf xUtUlk; xNu epiyaha; gyd; ,Uf;Fk; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ.  mtH rQ;rhpf;Fk; el;rj;jpu rhuj;ijg; nghWj;Jj;jhd; gyd; mikAk;.  

      

     GtpAk; nrt;thAk;

FU ngaHr;rpia kl;LNk fzpj;Jg; gyd; $wpdhy; rhpahd fzpg;G MfhJ.  ,uhF> NfJ> rdp> #hpad;> nrt;tha;> Gjd;> Rf;fpud; Nghd;w Vida fpufq;fspd; Nfhr;rhuq;fisf; fzf;fpl;Lg; gyd; $wpdhy;jhd; mJ rhpahd> Rj;j njspthd gydhf mikAk;.  mjd; mbg;gilapy; ,ijf; fzpj;J nfhLj;Js;Nsd;.' 

        

,jidg; gbj;j gpd;dH cq;fSf;F jiy Rw;wpdhy; mjw;F ehd; nghWg;gpy;iy. ,uhrp tPLfs;> el;rj;jpuq;fs;> Nfhs;fs;> mtw;wpd;-

 

    

     1) ruk;> ];juk;> cgak;

     2) gfy; ,uT gyd;fs;

     3) gQ;rtpj ];jhdq;fs;    

     4) cr;r-ePr;rk;

     5) #upa-re;jpu Xiufs; (,uhrpfs;)

     6) jpjp #d;ak;

     7) Jthjr ght gyd;fs;

     8) %d;Wtpj ghupahaq;fs;

     9) n[d;k el;rj;jpuk;

    10) jhuh gyd; - re;jpu gyd;

    11) Njhrq;fs;

    12) fhufg; gyd;fs;

    13) el;ghl;rp cr;r ePr;r tPLfs;

    14) MNuhfzk; mtNuhfzk;

    15) fpufq;fspd; ghHitfs;

 

Kjypatw;iwf; fzpj;jy; (computation) tupir xOq;F khw;wy;  (permutation) kw;Wk; xd;W NrHj;jy; (combination) mbg;gilapy; gyd; nrhy;Yk; NghJ mit MSf;F Ms; NtWgl;Nl jPUk;.  

 

nrd;id NrhjplH 'Rj;j njspthf”  fzpj;Jf; nfhLj;jpUf;Fk; gyd;gb jpUkzj;Jf;F ve;jj; jilf; fw;fSk; ,y;iy> NkYk; 'FU ngaHr;rpia kl;LNk fzpj;Jg; gyd; $wpdhy; rhpahd fzpg;G MfhJ" vd;fpd;whH.

 

Mdhy;> jpy;yp fdlh NrhjplHfs; FU ngaHr;rpia kl;LNk itj;J  ',e;j Mz;L jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;sf;$lhJ. nghJthf rpk;kk; kw;Wk; fd;dp ,uhrpf;fhuUf;Fj; jpUkzk;  nra;J nfhs;s ,J cfe;j fhyk; my;y> mtHfs; xf;NlhgH 25

Mk; Njjpf;Fg; gpwNf jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;syhk;'  vd;W gyd; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;.  

 

,jpy; ahH nrhy;Yk; gyd; rup? my;yJ gpio? ,uz;Lk; rupahf ,Uf;f KbahJ! Mdhy;> ,uz;Lk; gpioahf ,Uf;f KbAk;. cz;ikAk; mJjhd;.

 

vg;gb NfhFyh\;lkpf;Fk; Fyhk; fhjUf;Fk; njhlHG ,y;iyNah mNj Nghy; Nfhs;fSf;Fk; el;rj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; jpUkzj;Jf;Fk; ve;jj; njhlHGk; ,y;iy! 

 

ey;y fhykhf jkpoHfs; tPl;Lj; jpUkzq;fs; ,e;jf; FUg; ngaHr;rpahy; jilgltpy;iy. js;spg;Nghlg; glTk; ,y;iy. XNu ehspy; (Mf];l; 30) %d;W jpUkzq;fSf;F vdf;F miog;G te;jpUf;fpwJ. xU Ntis gpiog;Gf; nfl;LtpLk; vd;w gaj;jpy; FUitAk; Rf;fpuidAk; cs;SHr; NrhjplHfs;> mUr;rfHfs; fz;L nfhs;shJ tpl;L tpl;lhHfsh? my;yJ ,uj;jf; fz;zPH jpiug;glj;jpy; ebfNts; ,uhjh nrhy;tJNghy ,uz;L fpufq;fSk; Nfhil tpLKiwapy; Ngha;tpl;ldth? mg;gbj;jhd; epidf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ!

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (20)

 

jpUkzk; Mapuq;fhyj;Jg; gapH

 

ef;fPud; 

 

ehd;  njhlf;fj;jpy; $wpathW  NrhjplHfs; fz; njupahjtHfs; ahidiag; ghHj;J MSf;F Ms; ahidiar; vg;gbr; rpj;jupj;jhHfNsh mNj Nghy; NrhjplHfs; MSf;F Ms; ntt;Ntwhd gyd; nrhy;tjw;Ff; fhuzk; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; gpioahd mbj;jsj;jpy; (foundation)  vOg;gg; gl;bUg;gNj MFk;. tPl;bd; mbj;jsk; gykhf ,Ue;jhy;jhd; mjw;F Nky; RtH> $iu Nghd;wit cWjpahf epw;f KbAk;. mbj;jsk; gytPdkhf ,Ue;jhy; fl;llk; ,be;J tpOe;J tpLk;. 

 

jpUkzk; xU Mz; ngz; tho;tpy; Vw;gLk; ,dpikahd epfo;T MFk;.  jpUkzk; xUtd; my;yJ xUj;jpapd; tho;tpy; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd jpUg;gq;fisAk; khw;wq;fisAk; Vw;gLj;jf; $baJ. gpwg;Gg; Nghy; jpUkzk; tho;f;ifapy; ngUk;ghYk; xUKiw kl;LNk ,lk;ngWfpwJ. Md fhuzj;jhy;jhd; kpfTk; rpe;jpj;J epjhdpj;J mtrug;glhJ ehY NgNuhL Fbg;gpwg;G (FLk;gr; #oy;)> Fbik (xOf;fk;)> ahz;L (mfit)> cUT (Njhw;wk;)> jpU (nry;tk;)> MZf;F Mz;ik> ngz;Zf;F nkd;ik> fy;tp> njhopy; Nghd;wtw;iw myrp Muha;e;J Nfl;Lj; njupe;J nfhz;L jpUkzj;ij KbT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

 

khg;gps;is tPl;lhH tug;NghFk; kUkfs; ,y;ywj;Jf;Fj; jf;f ew;Fz> ew;nra;ifAld; jiytdJ tuTf;Fj; jFe;j tho;f;ifia elj;jp> jd;idAk; fhj;J> jd;id kze;J nfhz;l jiytidAk; Ngzpf; FLk;gg; GfopidAk; fhj;J GFe;j tPl;bd; FLk;g tpsf;fha;> khkd; khkpia kjpj;J elg;gtsha; mika Ntz;Lk; vd Mirg;gLfpd;whHfs;. 

 

ngz; tPl;lhH tug;NghFk; kUkfd; jq;fs; gps;isiaf; filrptiu fz; fyq;fhky; fhg;ghw;Wthd;> md;NghLk; MirNahLk; tpl;Lf; nfhLg;NghLk; FLk;gk; elj;Jthd; vd vjpHghHf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

“vy;yhr; nrhy;Yk; nghUs; Fwpj;jdNt” vdj; njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH. jkpopy; kUkfs;> kUkfd; vd;w nrhw;fs; nghUs; nghjpe;jit MFk;. kU vd;why; neUq;fpa vd;W nghUs;. kzkfs; tPl;lhUf;F kUkfd; neUq;fpa kfd; MthH. kzkfd; tPl;lhUf;F kUkfs; neUq;fpa kfs; MthH. ,e;j kfd;-kfs; cwit tpsq;fpf; nfhz;lhy; FLk;gk; xU gy;fiyf; fofk; MfptpLk;. tho;f;if kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;Fk;. ,uz;L tPl;lhUf;Fk; ,ilapy; G+ry; gpzf;F tu VJNt ,y;iy.

 

jpUkzj;jpy; cs;s 'jpU" vd;gjd; nghUs; moF vd;gjhFk;. kzk; vd;gJ ,dpa thrk;. moFk; thrKk; ,iztNj jpUkzk;.  

 

xU nghUs; gpbf;fhtpl;lhy; mjid khw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;. thq;fpa tPL gpbf;fhtpl;lhy; my;yJ mJ xUtupd; Njitf;F Vw;wjhf my;yJ Njhjhf ,y;yhtpl;lhy; mjid tpw;Wtpl;L ,d;ndhU tPl;il thq;fpf; nfhs;syhk;.  Mdhy;> kidtpiaf; fztNdh my;yJ fztid  kidtpNah epidj;j Nghnjy;yhk; khw;wpf; nfhs;s KbahJ. mtHfSf;F ,ilapyhd cwT vd;gJ tpopapy; tpOe;J .cs;sk; fye;J capupy; fye;j cwthFk;. ,JNt ,y;ywj;jpd; mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghlhFk;.  ,e;j cwT fhyj;ijAk; fle;J epw;gjhFk;. ,jdhy;jhd; jpUkzk; vd;gJ Mapuq;fhyj;Jg; gapH vd;w nghd;nkhop gpwe;jJ. 

 

rq;f fhyk;jhd; jkpoHfspd; nghw;fhyk; vdj; jkpowpQHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs;. rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfs; kd;dd; capHj;Nj kyHjiy cyfk; vd ek;gpdhHfs;. rhjp Ngjk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. cyfk; vd;gJ caHe;NjhH khl;L vd ,yf;fzk; tFj;jhHfs;. vg;NghJk; caHe;jtw;iwNa cs;spdhHfs;. caHe;j Fwpf;NfhSld; tho;e;jhHfs;. vy;NyhUk; cwtpdHfs; vd;w  gue;j Nehf;NfhL cyfj;ijg; ghHj;jhHfs;. MZk; ngz;Zk; fy;tp Nfs;tpfspy; caHe;J xj;j cupikNahL tho;e;jhHfs;.

 

ve;j ehl;L tuyhw;wpYk; fhzKbahjthW Mz; GytHfNshLg; ngz; GytHfs; Nghl;b Nghl;Lf; nfhz;L ghly;fs; ghbdhHfs;. rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj;njhif gj;Jg; ghl;Lg; ghba 483 GytHfspy; 50 Fk; Nkw;gl;l GytHfs; ngz;ghy; GytHfs; MthH! ,tHfs; gy EhW ghly;fisg; ghbAs;sHfs;. 

 

rq;f fhyk; rhjp NtWghL ,y;yhj fhyk;. ,sntapdpahH> mt;itahH FwtH Fyk;> ntz;zpf; Faj;jpahH FatH Fyk;> ngUq;Nfhg;ngz;L murH Fyk;.

 

njhopypdhy; jho;tpy;iy> nghJkf;fSk; xd;Nw kd;dDk; xd;Nw> kd;dd; capHj;Nj kyHjiy cyfk;.

 

kdr;rhl;rpiatpl NtW neUq;fpa rhl;rp ,y;iy.

 

khdk; ,oe;J tho;jypYk; rhjy; ,dpJ.  

 

Ms;tpidAk; Md;w mwpTk; jhk; gpwe;j Fbia caHj;Jk;.

 

gFj;Jz;L gy;YapH Xk;Gjy; EhNyhH njhFj;jtw;Ws; vy;yhk; jiy.  

 

,e;jpuH mkpo;jNk fpilj;jhYk; mjidg; gpwHf;Fk; gFj;Jz;gH.

 

gop tUnkdpd; cyifNa ngWtjhapDk; nfhs;shH
Gfo; vdpd; capiuAk; nfhLg;gH  

 

ahJk; CNu ahtUk; NfspH>
jPJk; ed;Wk; gpwH ju thuh

NehjYk; jzpjYk; mtw;Nwhud;d

rhjYk; GJt jd;Nw tho;jy;
,dpJ vd;W kfpo;e;jd;W kpyNk
…            (GwehDhW - 192)

 

<d;W Gwd;jUjy; jhapd; flik

rhd;Nwhd; Mf;Fjy; je;ijapd; flik

Nty;;tbj;Jf; nfhLj;jy; nfhy;yw;Ff; flik

ed;dil ey;fy; ehl;il MSk; Nte;jHf;Ff; flik

xspWths; mUQ;rkk; KWf;fpf;

fspW ngaHjy; fhisapd; flik!          (GwehDhW - 312)

 

vd;Dila jhAk; cd;Dila jhAk; ve;jtifapy; cwtpdH?

vd; je;ijAk; cd; je;ijAk; vt;topapy; cwtpdH?

ahDk; ePAk; ,jw;F Kd;dH vt;top mwpJk;!

nre;epyj;jpNy nga;j kioj; jz;zPiug; Nghy

md;G epiwe;j ekJ cs;sk; jhkhfNt fye;Jtpl;ld!  (Few;njhif - 40)

 

<nad ,uj;jy; ,ope;jd;W> mjd; vjpH

<Nad; vd;wy; mjidf; fhl;bYk; ,ope;jJ

nfhs;nsdf; nfhLj;jy; caHe;jd;W> mjd; vjpH

nfhs;Nsd; vd;wy; mjidf; fhl;bYk; caHe;jJ! (GwehDhW - 204)

 

Mw;Wjy; vd;gJ xd;W mye;jtHf;F cjTjy;>

Nghw;Wjy; vd;gJ GzHe;jhiug; gpupahik>

Gz;G vdg;gLtJ ghL mwpe;J xOFjy;>

md;G vdg;gLtJ jd;fpis nrwhmik>

nrwpT vdg;gLtJ $wpaJ khwhik>

epiwT vdg;gLtJ kiwgpwH mwpahik

Kiw vdg;gLtJ fz;NzhlhJ capH ntsty;

nghiw vdg;gLtJ Nghw;whiug; nghWj;jy;.      (fypj;njhif) 

 

ahk; mk; ,ug;git

nghUSk; nghd;Dk; NghfKk; my;y epd;ghy;

mUSk; md;Gk; mwDk; %d;WNk!              (fypj;njhif)  

 

rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfs; ,t;Tyfj;jpy; ,d;Gw;W tho;tNj tho;tpd; jiyaha Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;bUe;jdH. 

 

rq;f fhy kf;fsplk; fs; Fbj;jy;> guj;ijaH cwT Nghd;w rpy Fiwfs; ,Ue;jd. Mdhy;> Fiwfistpl epiwfNs kpf kpf mjpfk;.  

 

mwnewpapy; nghUsPl;b> gpd;dH jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;L kidtp kf;fNshL ,d;gkhf tho Ntz;Lk;. mJjhd; gpwe;jjd; gyd;. ,e;jf; fUj;ij rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fs; midj;Jk; tw;GWj;jpf; $Wfpd;wd. 

 

mwk; nghUs; ,d;gk; Mfpa %d;iwANk jkpoHfs; tho;f;ifapd; cWjpg; nghUshff; nfhz;ldH. Ehy;fs; vy;yhk; ,t; cWjpg; nghUs;gw;wpNa mika Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ njhy;fhg;gpa tpjp.  tPL NgW gw;wpa ftiy mtHfSf;F ,Uf;ftpy;iy.

 

njhy;fhg;gpaiug; gpd;gw;wpNa jpUts;StH jpUf;Fwspy; mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;w Kg;ghy; gw;wpg; NgRfpd;whH. ,e;j %d;wpDs;Sk; ,d;gg; gFjpiaNa kdpj tho;;f;ifapd; capHehbahfr; rpj;jupj;J ,Uf;fpd;whH.   

 

jpUf;Fwspy; cs;s nkhj;jk; 133 mjpfhuq;fspy; ,y;ywj;Jf;F 20 mjpfhuq;fSk; ,d;gg; ghYf;F 25 mjpfhuq;fSk; xJf;fpAs;shH. vQ;rpa 88 mjpfhuq;fs; JwNthHf;Fk; murHfSf;Fk; nrhy;ypait (fs;shik> tha;ik> ntFshik> fy;tp> Nfs;tp> fhyk; mwpjy;> Ms;tpid> tpidj;jpl;gk;> el;G> jP el;G> cl;gif> kUe;J........ Nghd;wit) MFk;. JwNthHf;Fk; murHfSf;Fk; nrhy;ypait Fbkf;fSf;Fk; Ml;rpahsHfSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk; vd;gjhy; 133 mjpfhuq;fspy; 115 mjpfhuq;fis itaj;jpy; tho;thq;F thOk; topKiwf;F xJf;fpAs;shH. 

 

jpUts;StH jpUf;Fwis muritapy; muq;Nfw;wpaJgw;wp xU Gidfij kuGtop  nrhy;yg;gl;L tUfpwJ.  

jpUts;StH jhk; vOjpa jpUf;Fws; Rtbfisr; Rke;J nfhz;L mjidg; GytHfs; Gil#o ,Uf;Fk; muritapy; muq;Nfw;Wtjw;F muz;kid Nehf;fpg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whH. topapy; mtiu mt;itahH ghHj;JtpLfpd;whH. ts;StH iffspy; fl;Lf; fl;lhfr; Rtbfs;. mt;itahUf;F tpag;G NkypLfpwJ. 

 

',e;j mjpfhiyg; nghOjpy; vq;Nf Nghfpd;wPHfs;? ifapy; vd;d? fl;Lf; fl;lhfr; Rtbfs; ,Uf;fpd;wdNt?”

 

'xd;Wkpy;iy> mwk; nghUs; ,d;gk; gw;wpf; Fws; ntz;ghtpy; 1330 ghly;fs; vOjpAs;Nsd;. mjidf; fw;wwpe;j GytH ngUkf;fs; Kd;dpiyapy; muq;Nfw;w Ntz;Lk;. mjd;nghUl;L ,e;j ,sq;fhiy Ntisapy; muz;kid Nehf;fpg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwd;." 

 

'mwk; nghUs; ,d;gk; gw;wp 1330 ghly;fs; ghl Ntz;Lkh? xU ntz;ghtpy; mJgw;wpa  fUj;ijr; RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;yptplyhNk? ePq;fs; cq;fs; mUke;j fhyj;ijAk;  XiyiaAk;  tPzhf;fp tpl;BHfs;!"

 

'mg;gbah? xU ntz;ghtpy; mwk; nghUs; ,d;gj;ij mlf;fp tpl KbAkh? xd;wiu mbapy;  vOjpaNghJ mZitj; Jisj;J vOfliyg; GFj;jpr; rhjid gilj;J tpl;Nld; vd;wy;yth epidj;Njd;! vq;Nf gb ghHg;Nghk;?" 

 

'gbf;fpNwd;" 

 

<jy; mwk;> jPtpid tpl;L <l;ly; nghUs;

fhjyH ,UtH fUj;njhUkpj;J MjuT

gl;lNj  ,d;gk;> guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk;

tpl;lNj Ngupd;g tPL.  

 

twpNahUf;Fk; tpUe;jpdHf;Fk; cjt Ntz;Lk; mwnewpapy; nghUs; <l;l Ntz;Lk; fUj;J xd;Wgl;l fhjyH ,UtH xUtuhfp jpUkzj;jpy; ,ize;J gps;isfisg; ngw;W ,t;Tyf tho;tpNy milAk; ,d;gNk tho;f;ifapd; Fwpf;Nfhs;. mjidtpl NtW Fwpf;Nfhs; ,y;iy.

 

'guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk; tpl;lNj Ngupd;g tPL" vd;w ehw;ghy; nfhs;if Mupaupd; nry;thf;fhy;> gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghy;> gpw;fhyj;jpy; jkpo;kf;fspil cyf ntWg;Gf; nfhs;ifahfr; NrHf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

'tho;thtJ khak; kz;zhtJ jpz;zk;”

 

'vy;yhk; mtd; nray;”


'mtdpd;wp XuZTk; mirahJ
”

 

'md;nwOjpaij ahUk; mopj;njOj KbahJ”

 

“mJ mtdJ tpjp”

 

vd;w ntl;b Ntjhe;jk; gpwe;j gpd;dNu mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;w cWjpg; nghUs;fNshL tPL NrHf;fg;gl;lJ.  

 

cyf ,d;gk; rpw;wpd;gk; vdg; GuhzpfHfs; mjidr; rpWikg; gLj;jpdhHfs;. 'guid epidj;J ,k; %d;Wk; tpl;lNj Ngupd;gk;" vd;W rkathjpfs; NkYyf tho;f;ifiag; ngUikg; gLj;jpdhHfs;.

 

,tw;why; jkpo;nkhop tsu Kbahky; NghdJ. jkpoHfs; Kd;Ndw Kbahky; NghdhHfs;. jkpo; $Wk; ey;Yyfk; cau KbahJ NghdJ.

 

jkpopy; cs;s rq;ffhy ,yf;fpak; Nghd;w caHthd ,yf;fpak; Ntnwe;j nkhopapYk; ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH gilf;fg;gltpy;iy. 

 

jkpopy; cs;s njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w ,yf;fz Ehy; Nghy; Ntnwe;j nkhopapYk; ,yf;fz Ehy;  gilf;fg;gltpy;iy.

 

rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfsJ gFj;jwpT gilj;j> jd;ek;gpf;if epiwe;j tho;tpay; Nfhl;ghLfisg; gbf;Fk; NghJ tpag;ghfTk; jpifg;ghfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

mNj nghOJ vg;gb thdshtr; rPNuhLk; rpwg;NghLk; NgNuhLk; GfNohLk; NtNyhLk; thNshLk; ,kak; vd tho;e;j ,dk; ,d;W mjy ghjhsj;Jf;Fj; jho;e;Jtpl;lNj vd;w ftiyAk; vOfpwJ.  

 

,k;ik nra;jJ kWikf;F Mk; vDk;

mwtpiy thzpfd; Ma; my;yd;

rhd;NwhH nrd;w newpnad

Mq;Fg;gl; ld;W mtd; if tz;ikNa!  (GwehDhW 134)

 

vd;W khHjl;ba Mapd; guk;giu nrj;jgpwF rptNyhfk; itFe;jk; NrHe;jplyhk; vd;nwz;zpf; flTsHf;F ifA+l;Lf; nfhLf;f tupirapy; fhy; fLf;ff; fhj;J epw;fpwJ!  

 

EhW nts;sp nfhLj;Jf; Fj;Jtpsf;Nfw;wpdhy; ,y;ywk; jisf;Fk; fztDf;F ePz;l mfit fpilf;Fk; nry;tk; nfhopf;Fk; jpUkzkhfhj ,sk; ngz;fSf;F moFk; FzKk; tha;e;j Jiztd; fpilg;ghd; vdj; jkpoHfs; ek;Gfpd;whHfs;. ek;g itf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;.

 

,e;j cyfj;ijNa gilj;Jf;  fhj;J mUSk;  flTSf;F xU Njq;fha; KbAk; Rz;lYk; KWf;Fk; ghYk; goKk; gl;lhilAk; nghd;Dk; ve;j %iyf;F? flTs; mt;tsT kypthdtuh? 

 

ePz;l MASf;Fk; Fj;Jtpsf;Fg; G+irf;Fk; vd;d njhlHG? ,e;jpahtpy; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; Nfhapy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. jkpo;ehl;by; kl;Lk; MW fhyg; G+ir elf;Fk; Nfhapy;fs; 25>000 Fk; mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wd. Mdhy;> ,e;jpa Fbkf;fspd; ruhrup mfit Mz; 65.5> ngz; 69.6 ( 1911,y; ruhrup mfit 20 ) kl;LNk.

 

Mdhy;> fpwpj;jt ehlhd fdlhtpy; Mz; - ngz;  ruhrup mfit KiwNa 81.2> 84.9 (2012) MFk;.  

 

ey;y rj;JzT> Rj;jkhd jz;zPH> Jha;ikahd fhw;W> ey;y #oy;> kUj;Jt trjp> guk;giu> ey;nyhOf;fk;> NghJnkd;w kdk; ,itNa xU kdpjdpd; mfitiaj; jPHkhdpf;fpwJ.  mfitiaf; flTNsh Nfhs;fNsh el;rj;jpuq;fNsh jPHkhdpf;fpwJ vd vz;ZtJk; NgRtJk; vOJtJk; file;njLj;j %lj;jdk;. 

 

filr; rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfSf;F ,k;ik kWik gw;wpa ek;gpf;if ,Ue;jJ. Jwf;fk; epuak; mwpKfkhfp ,Ue;jd. ey;tpidf;F ew;NgWk; jPtpidf;Fj; jPg;NgWk; cz;L vd;W ek;gpdhHfs;. md;igAk; mwidAk; Gwf;fzpj;jtHfs; ePq;fhj epuak; nry;tH vd ek;gpdhHfs;.

 

ij ePuhbdhHfs;. nghq;fy; tpoh> gq;Fdp tpoh> ,e;jpu tpoh> eLfy; tpoh> Kb#l;L tpoh nfhz;lhbdhHfs;.  nja;tk; ,Ug;gij ek;gpdhHfs;. nja;tq;fis topgl;lhHfs;. nja;tq;fSf;F capHg; gyp nfhLj;jhHfs;. 

 

Mdhy;> mikg;G Kiwahd rkak; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rlq;Ffs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vy;yhk; ty;y> vy;yhk; njupe;j> vq;Fk; epiwe;j flTs; topghL ,Uf;ftpy;iy! 

 

rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfs; tho;f;ifia mfj;jpiz Gwj;jpiz vd ,uz;lhfg; gFj;jdH. mfk; vd;why; cs;Ns>  Gwk; vd;why; ntspNa vd;gJ nghUs;.

 

cs;sj;J czHTfis ntspg;gLj;JtJ mfk;. Vida tho;tpay; $Wfshd ngUkpjk;> fy;tp> nfhil> JhJ> tzpfk; Nghd;wtw;iwg; Gwk; vd;wdH. 

 

ehd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJNghy vjpH tUk; Mf];L 27> 2003 (Gjd;fpoik) nrt;tha;f; Nfhs; Gtpapy; ,Ue;J RkhH 5.5 Nfhb fpkP Jhuj;Jf;F mUfpy; tug; NghfpwJ. mWgjpdhapuk; Mz;L fopj;J nrt;tha; Kjd; Kjy; ,t;tsT mz;ikapy; tUfpwJ. mjid ntWk; fz;zhy; ghHj;J kfpoyhk;.

 

,g;gb Kd;dH nrt;tha; te;jNghJ kdpjd; Gtpapy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  epahe;jHjhy; (Neanderthal) vd;w kdpjFuq;Nf ,Ue;jJ!

 

kPz;Lk; nrt;tha; ,g;gbg; Gtpia neUq;fp tu xU ,yf;fk; Mz;L MFkhk;! mg;NghJ cyfpy; ahH ,Ug;ghHfs;? nrt;tha; ,g;gbg; Gtpia mz;kpg;gJ gw;wpr; NrhjplHfs; ftiyg;gltpy;iy. fhuzk; mtHfSf;Fg; GtpAk; xU Nfhs;> Vida Nfhs;fs; Nghy; mJTk;  Qhapiwr; Rw;wptUfpwJ vd;fp;w cz;ik njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. Nfhs;fs; vjdhy; MdJ> mtw;wpd; ePs mfyk;  vd;d> mit vt;tsT njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gd gw;wpa mwpT mtHfSf;F ,Uf;ftpy;iy!

 


  

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (21)

 

ma;e;jpy; xU gq;F rhjfq;fs; gpioahff; fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd!   

   

kPz;Lk; mfj;jpiziaf; fstpay; fw;gpay; vdg; ghFgLj;jpdH. gUtk; va;jpa xUtDk; xUj;jpAk; re;jpj;Jj; jkf;Fs; fhjy nfhz;L kiwthf xOFk; tho;f;if fstpay; vdg;gl;lJ. ,J md;gpd; kpFjpahy; mtd; mts; vd;w Ntw;Wikapd;wp ,UtUk; xUtuha; xOFk; cs;sg; GzHr;rpahFk;. fw;gpy; epd;W tOthky; md;gpdhw; ,izAk; cs;sg; GzHr;rpNa fsnthOf;fj;jpd; rpwg;gpayhFk;.

 

fhjyDk; fhjypAk; fsnthOf;fj;jpd; Kbe;j gadhf xUtiu xUtH Cuwpaj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;L thOk; tho;f;ifiaf; fw;gpay; vdg; ngaH ,l;ldH. nghJthfj; jpUkzq;fs; fstpaypy; njhlq;fp fw;gpaypy; Kbe;jd. 

 

xUjiyf; fhjiyf; iff;fpis vd;Wk; nghUe;jhf; fhjiyg; ngUe;jpiz vd;Wk; ngaupl;L Vida FwpQ;rp> Ky;iy> kUjk;> nea;jy;> ghiyj; jpizfis kl;Lk; md;gpd; ma;e;jpiz vd;W mioj;jdH. 

 

jiytd; jd;NdhL md;G fhl;Lk; jiytpiag; ngw;NwhH nfhLg;gg; gyH mwpa kze;J thOk; kid tho;f;ifNa fw;ngdr; rpwg;gpj;J ciuf;fg;gLk;. ,jidf; fuzk; vd;w nrhy;yhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH toq;FthH.   

 

fw;G vdg;gLtJ fuznkhL Gzuf;

nfhsw;Fup kugpd; fpotd; fpoj;jpiaf;

nfhilf;Fup kugpNdhH nfhLg;gf; nfhs;tJNk. (njhy;. nghUs; - fw;gpay; 1088)

 

fw;G vd;W $wg;ngWtJ> tJitr; rlq;Fld; nghUe;jpf; nfhs;tjw;Fupa kugpDila jiytd;> jiytpiaf; nfhLg;gjw;Fupa kugpidAilNahH nfhLg;gJ nfhs;StJ MFk;.

 

fuzk;       - rlq;F

fpotd; fpoj;jp - jiytd;> jiytp

 

nfhLg;Nghupd;wpAk; kzk; cz;L. ngw;NwhuJ cld;ghbd;wp fsnthOf;fj;jpy; ,ize;J jiytDk; jiytpAk; CHtpl;L CH Nghjy; cz;L. ,J cld;Nghf;F vdg;gLk;. mtHfisj; Njbg; gpbj;J te;J ngw;NwhHfs; Cuwpaj; jpUkzk; nra;J itj;jdH. 

 

nfhLg;NghH ,d;wpAk; fuzk; cz;Nl

GzHe;J cld; Nghfpa fhiyahd.  (njhy;.nghUs; - fw;gpay; 1089)  

 

jiykfsJ kdj;jpd;fz; mike;j fyq;fh epiyahfpa jpz;ikNa fw;ngdg;gl;lJ. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpYk; mjw;F Kd;dUk; ,j; jpUkzr; rlq;F vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; tpjpf;fg; gltpy;iy. Nru> Nrho> ghz;ba mur FLk;gj;jpw;Nf Kjd; Kjy; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH VidNahHf;Fk; mJ tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. 

 

mfehDhW vl;Lj;njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;W> mjpy; cs;s 400 ghly;fs; ntt;NtW fhyj;jpy; ntt;NtW GytHfshy; ghlg;gl;lit.

 

,jpy; fhzg;gLk; ,uz;L ghly;fs; (86> 136)  goe;jkpoupd; jpUkz Kiwiar; rpj;jupf;fpd;wd.

 

NghH> fy;tp> JhJ> nghUs; fhuzkhf neLehs;g; gpupe;J nrd;w jiytd; jiytpiaf; fhz MirNahL tpiue;J tUfpwhd;. Njhop jLf;fpwhs;> jiytp jitd; Nky; fLq; Nfhgj;NjhL ,Ug;gjhff; $Wfpwhs;.

 

mg;NghJ jiytd; jdJ jpUkzr; rlq;fpd; NghJ ele;Njwpa fhl;rpfisj; Njhopf;F vLj;Jf; $WtJNghy;  ey;yhT+H fpohH vd;w  nre;jkpo;g; GytH ehlf ghzpapy; me;jg; ghliy (86) mikj;Js;shH.  

 

“vq;fs; jpUkz ehsd;W cOe;jk; gUg;Gld; $l;br; rikj;j> gf;Ftkhff; Fioe;j nghq;fNyhL> kiyNghy; Ftpe;j  ngUQ; Nrhw;wpid cz;gtHfs; $l;lk; epiwe;jpUe;jJ. tupirahff; fhy;fis el;Lf; FspHe;j kzg; ge;jy; KOJk; ntspapypUe;J nfhz;Lte;j ntz;kzy; gug;gg; gl;bUe;jJ.  

 

kidapy; tpsf;F Vw;wp kyH khiyfis ge;jy; KOJk; neUf;fkhfj; njhq;f tpl;L kpf mofhf myq;fupj;Js;sdH.

 

jpUkz tPl;by; kidtpsf;Ffis Vw;wp  itj;J xspngwr; nra;Js;sdH.

 

GfopidAila jpq;fSld; $ba cNuhfpzp ed;dhs; Fw;wkw;wJk; tho;tpw;F ey;yJ gaf;Fk; mlHe;j ,Us; ePq;fp> tpbay; njhlq;Fk;  tdg;G kpF Neuj;jpy; jpUkz tpoh njhlq;FfpwJ.  

 

jiyapy; ed;ePHf; Flj;jpidj; jhq;fpAk;> ifapy; mfd;w ghj;jpuj;ij Ve;jpf; nfhz;Lk;> jpUkzj;ijr; nra;J itf;Fk;> fyfyg;Gld; $ba Kjpa kq;fy tho;turpaH ePHf; Flq;fis Kd;NdAk; gpd;NdAk; KiwKiwahfj; je;jpl kzkfis ed; ePuhl;bdH. 

 

ey;y kf;fisg; ngw;W mb tapw;wpy; tup tupahfj; jOk;Gfs; nfhz;l kzptapW tha;e;j kq;fy kfspH ehy;tH Jha MilfisAk; mzpfisAk; mzpe;J $bepd;w kzkfsplk;  'cd;id mile;j fztd; tpUk;gpf; $bf; fw;G newpapd;Wk; jtwhky; ey;ywq;fisr; nra;J> fztd; tpUk;gj;jf;f kidtpahhf mtid tho;ehs; KOJk; ed;F Ngzpf; fhj;J thOk; vz;zj;ijf; iff; nfhz;L tho;thahf!" vd;W ePUld; FspHe;j ,jo;fs; cs;s G+f;fisAk; Gjpa ney;iyAk; Jhtp tho;j;jpajhy; kzkfspd; mlHj;jpahd fupa $e;jypy; mit Njhw;wkspf;f> jpUkzk; ,dpNj epfo;fpwJ.  

 

mjd;gpd; MHtj;JlDk;> Muthuj;JlDk; R+o;e;j cwtpdH ',d;W Kjy; ePAk; ngupa kidf; fpoj;jp Mfptpl;lha;" vd;W Nfyp Ngrp kzkfSf;F NfhbALj;jp nky;ypa myq;fhuq;fisr; nra;J> tdg;Gld; $ba KjypuT miwf;Fs; cld; $ba GzHr;rpf;Fupa md;wpuNt mtis mDg;gp itj;jdH.

 

mt;tiwf;Fs; EioAk; kzkfs; cLj;jpa Gjpa Glitf;Fs; jd;id xLf;fpf; nfhz;L> jd; ,dpa fztd; ,Uf;Fk; ,lk; Nehf;fpr; nry;fpd;whs;. 

 

mg;NghJ mts; Gj;jhilapy; xLq;fp Kfk; Gijj;Jf; fple;jhs;. mtisj; jOTk; tpUg;gj;NjhL Kfj;ij %ba Jzpiar; rw;Nw tpyf;f mts; mjw;F mQ;rpg; ngU%r;R tpl;lhs;. eLq;fp xLq;fpdhs;. "Vd; gae;jid> cd; kdjpy; cs;sij cs;sthW vd;dplk; $W" vd tpdhtpNdd;.  

 

mg;NghJ khidg;Nghy; klik nfhz;ltSk;> nrUf;fpidAila Nehf;fpidAilatSk;> FspHe;j $e;jiyAilatSk;> khepwj;jpid cilatSkhfpa kzkfs;> mfk; kyHe;j kfpo;r;rpasha; Kfk; jho;j;jp vd; fhjyp nkype;j kly; nfhz;l fhjpy; mzpe;jpUe;j rpte;j kzpfs; gjpj;j mofpa Fiofs; mira tpiue;J te;J jdf;Fupatid tzq;fpdhs;. Mjyhy; mts; vf;fhyj;Jk; vd;ghy; md;Gilats;. mjid eP mwpaha;" vd;W Njhopaplk; jiytd; $wpdhd;. 

 

rq;ffhyj;jpy; Gifg;glf; fUtp ,Ue;jjpy;iy. Xspg;glk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. Mdhy;> xU jpUkzf; fhl;rpiag; ghlypy; glk;gpbj;J itj;j GytH ey;yhT+H fpohUf;F ehk; ed;wp gy   nrhy;yf; flikg; gl;Ls;Nshk;. mtuJ nrhy;Nyhtpaj;ijg; gbf;Fk;NghJ vkJ Kd;NdhuJ ehfupfr; rpwg;igAk; gFj;jwpitAk; vz;zp kdk; G+upg;gilfpwJ> cs;sk; ctif  nfhs;fpwJ> jiy epkpHfpwJ. 

 

GytH ey;yhT+H fpohH fhjyhy; gpizf;fg;gl;l jiytd; - jiytpaJ Kjy; ,uit vt;tsT ehfupfkhf> vt;tsT espdkhfj; jiytd; $w;whf vLj;Jr; nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpd;whH vd;gJ vz;zp vz;zp kfpoj;jf;fJ MFk;.  

 

rq;ffhyj; jpUkzj;jpy; nghUs; Gupahj nrj;j tl nkhop ke;jpuq;fs; ,y;iy> GNuhfpjH ,y;iy> jl;riz ,y;iy> vup Xk;gy; ,y;iy> jPtyk; ,y;iy> mk;kp kpjpj;jy; ,y;iy> mUe;jjp fhl;ly; ,y;iy.  

 

rhjfk; ghHj;Jj; jpUkzk; eilngwtpy;iy vd;gijr; nrhy;y Ntz;bajpy;iy. rhjfk; vd;w nrhy;iy nkhj;jk; cs;s 5>877 rq;fg; ghly;fs; xd;wpNyDk; fhzKbatpy;iy. rhjfk; ghHf;Fk; %lek;gpf;if Mupag; gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dNu CLUtpaJ.  

 

jpUkzj;jpd; Kd;dH rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfs; nghUj;jk; ghHf;ftpy;iyah? ghHj;jhHfs;! gj;Jg; nghUj;jq;fs; ghHj;jhHfs;! mit gFj;jwpTf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd nghUj;jq;fs;!

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH nka;g;ghl;baypy; kzkfd; kzkfs; ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba me;jg; gj;Jg; nghUj;jq;fs; gw;wpf; $wpapUf;fpd;whH.

 

gpwg;Ng> Fbik> Mz;ik> Mz;NlhL>

cUT> epWj;j fhk  thapy;>

epiwNa> mUNs> czHnthL> jpUvd

KiwAwf; fpse;j xg;gpdJ tifNa.             (njhy;. nghUs;- nka;g;ghl;bay; 273) 

 

Fbg; gpwg;G> xOf;fk;> Ms;tpid> mfit> tbT> fhk xOf;fj;Jf;Fupa cs;sf; fpsHr;rp> Fzk;> mUSlik> cs;sf; Fwpg;ig mwpe;njhOFk; Ez;zwpT> nry;tk; xj;jjhf ,Uj;jy; ey;yJ.   

 

     gpwg;Ng Fbik       -      Fbg; gpwj;jy;> mjw;Fj; jf;f xOf;fk; Fbik vdg;gLk;

     Mz;ik            -      Ms;tpid> mJ ,UghyhHf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;

     cUT              -      tbtoF

     epWj;j fhkthapy;   -        epiy epWj;jg;gl;l ,d;gj;jpw;F thapyhfpa md;G

     epiw              -       epiwT  

     ahz;L             -       mfit

     mUs;              -      vt;TapHf;Fk; ,Lf;fz; nra;ahik.

     czHT            -       cs;sf; Fwpg;ig mwpe;njhOFk; mwpTlik my;yJ

     jpU               -       nry;tk;.  (NguhrpupaH ciu) 

 

mLj;Jj; jiykfd; jiykfs; ,UtUk; tpyf;f Ntz;ba gj;Jk; vitnait vd;gjidj; njhy;fhg;gpaH njhFj;Jr; nrhy;fpd;whH.  

 

epk;gpup nfhLik tpag;nghL Gwnkhop

td;nrhw; nghr;rhg;G kbiknahL Fbik

,d;Gwy; Vioik kwg;NghL xg;Gik

vd;wpit ,d;ik vd;kdhH GytH.   (njhy;. kurpay;)

 

epk;gpup     -    nghwhik

nfhLi  -    NfL#o epidf;Fk; jPtpidAs;sk;

tpag;G     -    jiykfs;ghy; nja;tj;jd;ik fz;lhy;Nghy tpae;njhOFjy;

Gwnkhop   -    Jhw;wy; my;yJ Gwq; $Wjy;

td;nrhy  -    ,uf;fkpd;wp nrhy;Yk; RL nrhw;fs;

nghr;rhg;G  -    kwjp  

kbik     -    Nrhk;gy;

Fbik    -     Fbikr; rpwg;ig caHthf vz;zp ,d;GWk; csg;Nghf;F

Vioik   -    mwptpd;ik  

kwg;G      -   kwjp

xg;Gik    -   xg;gpl;L Nehf;fy; (NguhrpupaH ciu)

 

njhy;fhg;gpaH $wpAs;sthW kzg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJNt mwpTlikahFk;. NrhjplH rhjfj;ijg; ghHj;Jf; $Wk; nghUj;jq;fs; KO klikahFk;.

 

Nfl;il el;rj;jpuj;jpy; gpwe;jts; fztdpd; %j;j rNfhjuidAk;> Mapypaj;jpy; gpwe;jts; fztDila jhiaAk; %y el;rj;jpuj;jpy; gpwe;jts; fztdpd; jfg;gidAk; tprhf el;rj;jpuj;jpy; gpwe;jts; fztDila ,isa rNfhjuidAk; ehrk; nra;Ak; vd Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; nrhy;fpwJ.  ([hjf ghy gPbif – gf;fk; 156)

 

Nfl;il %j;j ikj;JdUf;F MfhJ> Mapypak; khkpahUf;F MfhJ> %yk; khdhUf;F MfhJ> tprhfk; ,isa ikj;JdUf;F MfhJ vd;gij vg;gbf; fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;? xUtuJ rhjfj;jpy; cs;s el;rj;jpuq;fs; ,d;ndhUtiu vg;gbg; ghjpf;fpd;wd? me;j ,d;ndhUtuJ rhjfj;jpy; cs;s Nfhs;fs; kw;Wk; el;rj;jpuq;fs; mtw;wpd; fjp vd;d?

 

Mz;> ngz; vd;w ,U gpwg;Gf;fspYk; ngz;Zf;F kl;LNk Mfhj Njhrq;fisr; NrhjplHfs; vOjp itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,jdhy; ngz;fNs Njhrq;fspdhy; mjpfk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;. Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ij Mz;fs; vOjpaJ mjw;nfhU Kf;fpa fhuzpahf ,Uf;fyhk;.  

 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpy; ngz;Zf;F kl;Lk; Njhrk; juf; $ba el;rj;jpuq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:

 

   Kjy; ju Njhrk;

 

    1)      mRtpdp

    2)      kpUfrPuplk;

    3)      Mapy;ak;

    4)      kfk;   

    5)      rpj;jpiu

    6)      Rthjp

    7)      Nfl;il

    8)      %yk;

    9)      mtpl;lk;

    10)   rijak;

 

    ,uz;lhk; ju Njhrk;

 

    1)      tprhfk;

    2)      fpUj;jpif

    3)      G+rk;

 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; nrt;tha; Njhrg; ngz;Zf;Fr; nrt;tha; Njhr khg;gps;isiaf; fl;b itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W nrhy;fpwJ.

 

,t;thW Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ijf; fz;%bj;jdkhfg; gpd;gw;Wtjhy; Vida nghUj;jq;fs; ,Ue;Jk; rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ,y;yhjjhy; gy jpUkzq;fs;  ,ilapy; epd;W Ngha; tpLfpd;wd. ,jdhy; mfit te;Jk; kzk; Kbf;f Kbahky; Mz;> ngz; ,UghyhUk; my;yy; gLfpd;wdH.

 

Nrhjplg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;J> ey;yNeuk; ghHj;J> Ntj ke;jpuq;fs; Koq;f> mf;fpdp tsHj;J>

'Kjypy; ,e;j kzg; ngz; Nrhkd; trg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lhd;> mLj;J fe;jHtd; cd;id mile;jhd;> %d;whtJ ,e;jpuDf;F kidtpahdhs;> ehd;fhtJ mf;fpdp cd;id mDgttpj;jhd;. ngUikAk; GfOk; nfhz;l ,e;j Njt GU\Hfshy; mDgtpf;fg;gl;l cd;id kdpjdhd ehd; ,g;NghJ tupf;fpNwd;” (“Nrhk g;gpujNkh> tptpNj fe;jHNth> tptpj cj;ju> j;Uj;jPNah mf;fpdp\;Nlgjp> JuPa];Nj kD\;a[h”)  vd;W nrhy;yp> ghHtjp guNkRtud; rhl;rpahf> ,yf;Fkp =ehuhazd; rhl;rpahf> Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs; rhl;rpahf jhyp fl;b> ifj;jyk; gw;wp>  Vob vLj;J itj;J> mk;kp kpjpj;J> mUe;jjp ghHj;J> mf;fpdp tyk; te;J nra;Jnfhz;l jpUkzq;fs; rpy Njhy;tpapy;> kzKwptpy; Kbe;Js;sd.  

 

Nrhjplg; nghUj;jk; ghHf;fhky; nra;J nfhz;l gy fhjy; jpUkzq;fs; ntw;wp ngw;Ws;sd.

 

,jpypUe;J ehk; njupe;J nfhs;tJ jpUkzq;fs; Njhy;tpapy; my;yJ ntw;wpapy; KbtJ Nfhs;fspy; ,y;iy>  mJ jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk; kzkf;fspd; md;Gk; mwDk; cilj;j ,y;yw tho;f;ifapy; jq;fp ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

mLj;j gl;rkhfj;jhd; kzkf;fsJ jha; je;ijaH> cw;whH> ez;gHfs;> ngupNahHfs; iffspy; jq;fp ,Uf;fpwJ. 

 

,jpy; cs;s Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; ngUk;ghyhd NrhjplHfs; madhk;r NtWghl;ilf; fzf;fpy; vLf;fhJ rhjfj;ijf; fzpg;gjhy; ma;e;jpy; ehY gq;F rhjfq;fs; gpioahd el;rj;jpuk;> ,uhrp> Nfhs;fisf; fhl;Lfpd;wd! xUtuJ ,uhrp Fk;gk; vd;W rhjfk; nrhd;dhy; ngUk;ghYk; mtH mjw;F Ke;jpa kfu ,uhrpapy; gpwe;jtuhf ,Ug;ghH.

 

,d;W (2003) ,e;j madhk;r NtWghL 23.57 ghif (23.57 ehs;fs;) MFk;. ,J 30 ghif nfhz;l xU ,uhrp  tPl;by; ehypy; ma;e;J gq;fhFk;!  

 

,jdhy;  gpioahd nghUj;jq;fs; cs;s rhjffhuHfs; jpUkzk; nra;Js;shHfs;! rupahd nghUj;jq;fs; cs;s rhjffhuHfs; nghUj;jk; rupapy;iy vd;W nrhy;ypj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;stplhky; jLf;fg;gl;Ls;shHfs;! Nrhjplj;ijAk; NrhjpliuAk; ek;Gtjhy; te;j tpid ,J! 

 

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L  (22)

 

fhjYf;Fg; ghil fl;bf; nfhy;y epidf;Fk; je;ij!  

 

,jw;F Kd;dH nrt;tha;f; Nfhsj;ij thdj;jpy; Fwpg;ghfg; ghHj;j epidtpy;iy. ngaUf;F vw;whg;NghyNt mJ nrk;kQ;rs;  (orange) epwj;jpy; fhl;rp je;jJ. nrt;tha;f; Nfhisg; gw;wp Vw;fdNt (Gul;L 7) rw;W tpupthf vOjpapUf;fpNwd;. mjd; epwk; rptg;ghf ,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzk; mjd; jiug; gug;G ,Uk;G epiwe;j Jhrpg; glyj;jhy; %lg; gl;bUg;gJjhd;.  

 

QhapW kz;lyj;jpy; cs;s gj;Jf; Nfhs;fspYk; vkJ Gtpf;Fk; nrt;tha;f; NfhSf;Fk;jhd; mjpf xw;Wik cz;L.  

 

Gtpf;Fk; tpahoDf;Fk; ,ilapy; nrt;tha; Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ. Gtpiag; NghyNt mq;F gUtq;fs; (seasons) khwp khwp tUfpd;wd. rpy rkak; fLikahd FspH. Mdhy;> kdpjHfSf;Fg; gpbj;j  ,jkhd fhyepiyAk;  (weather) cz;L.  GtpNahL xg;gpLk;NghJ mjd; tpl;lk; (diameter) 53 tpOf;fhlhFk; mjhtJ 12>756 fpkP (7>926 fy;) ePsk;.  nrt;thapy; xU ehs; 23 kzp> 56 kzpj;Jspfs;> 4 tpdhb. mJ Qhapw;iwr; Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhyk; 687 (Gtp) ehs;fs;. nrt;thapd; mr;R 23.98 ghif rupe;Js;sJ. (Gtpapd; mr;R 23½ (23.44)  ghif rupe;Js;sJ)

 

nrd;w fpoik njd;fpof;Fj; jpirapy; mbthdj;Jf;F Nky;Njhd;wpa nrt;tha;f; Nfhisf;   fz;L fspj;Njd;. ePq;fSk; fz;L fspj;jpUg;gPHfs; vd;W ek;Gfpd;Nwd;.

 

  nrt;thapy; fw;ghiwfs;   

nrt;thapy; cs;s vupkiyfs; 29 fpkP (90>000 mb) cauk; vof;$baJ. mjd; rpy gs;sj;jhf;Ff;fs; jiuf;Ff; fPNo 5000 fpkP. ( 3>000 fy;) MoKilaJ. nrt;thapy; cs;s fupkythAtpd; (CO²) msT 95..32 tpOf;fhL. mjd; njd; JUtj;jpy; gdpNkfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ> Mdhy;> jput epiyapy; jz;zPH ,y;iy.

  

,e;j nrt;tz;z epwf; Nfhspdhy; kdpjHfSf;Fj; Njhrk; cz;L vd;W NrhjplHfs; GYlh tpLfpd;whHfs;. nrt;tz;z epwj;ij itj;J mjidg; NghHf; flTshff; fpNuf;fHfSk; cNuhkHfSk; rpj;jupj;jhHfs;. nrt;tha;gw;wpa thdpay; mwpT mtHfSf;F mjpfsT ,Uf;ftpy;iy. nrt;tha; ,t;tsT mz;ikapy; te;jJgw;wp ve;jr; NrhjplDk; myl;bf; nfhs;stpy;iy. me;jr; nra;jpNa mtHfSf;Fj; njupahJ! 

 

NkYk; vOJKd; Nrhjplg; Gul;L fl;Liuj; njhlHgw;wp vdf;F NeupYk;> njhiyNgrp %yKk;> kpd;dQ;ry; topahfTk; gy thrfHfs; jq;fs; fUj;Jf;fisj; njuptpj;J ,Ug;gJ gw;wpf; Fwpg;gplyhk; vd epidf;fpNwd;.  

    

,e;j mofhd Nfhspdhy; kdpjHfSf;F Njhrk; cz;L vd;W NrhjplHfs; GYlh tpLfpwhHfs;. ,tHfSf;Fr; nrt;tha; Nfhs; ,Ug;gJjhd; njupAk;. kw;wg;gb mJgw;wpa mwpT mtHfSf;Fr; #dpak;. mjdhy;jhd; nrt;tha; ,t;tsT mz;ikapy; te;jJgw;wp ve;jr; NrhjplDk; myl;bf; nfhs;stpy;iy. me;jr; nra;jpNa mtHfSf;Fj; njupahJ!

 

gyH Nghw;wpAk; kpfr; rpyH Jhw;wpAk; vOjpAs;shHfs;. Jhw;wp vOJtJgw;wp vdf;Ff; ftiy ,y;iy. fl;Liuia mf;fiwNahL gbj;J tpl;Lj; jq;fs; fUj;ij xspT kiwtpd;wp vOjpj; njuptpf;fpwhHfNs! me;j kl;by; vdf;F kfpo;r;rp.

 

vg; nghUs; vj;jd;ikj;J MapDk; mg;nghUs; nka;g;nghUs; fhz;gJ mwpT vd nka;AzHjy; mjpfhuj;jpYk; (36) vg;nghUs; ahH ahH tha;f; Nfl;gpDk; mg;nghUs; nka;g;nghUs; fhz;gJ mwpT vd mwpTlik mjpfhuj;jpYk; (43) ts;StH ,uz;lhapk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu $wpapUf;fpd;whH. mtH fhyj;jpYk; ,spj;jtha;j; jkpoHfSk; Vkhspj; jkpoHfSk; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtHfSf;Fj;jhd; ts;StH ,t;thW mwpTiu toq;fpdhH vd;W nfhs;tjw;F ,y;iy. ts;StH mwpTiu ,f;fhyj;Jf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.                        

                                                                            nrt;tha; fLfjp tpz;fyk;      

ehd; Nrhjplg; Gul;ilg; gw;wp vOJtijg; gbg;NghH nghWikNahL gbj;J tuNtz;Lk;. ehd; Kd;itf;Fk; thjj;jpy; nka;g;nghUs; ,Uf;fpwjh vd ciuj;Jg; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;gbg; ghHj;j gpd;dNu mijf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; my;yJ js;s Ntz;Lk;.

 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; xU Gul;L> %lek;gpf;if> rhgg;NfL> mjpy; nka;g;nghUs; ,y;iy vd;gijr; rhd;WfNshL vz;gpj;J tUfpNwd;. Nrhjplj;ij ek;GtHfs; mjw;fhd fhuz fhupaq;fis Muhahky; ntWkNd mg;gd; ntl;ba fpzW cg;Gj; jz;zPH vd;whYk; mjidf; Fbf;f tpUk;Gk; %lHfs; Nghy; ele;J nfhs;fpd;whHfs;.  ,Ue;Jk; mtHfisf; fhyg; Nghf;fpy; jpUj;jyhk; vd;w ek;gpf;if vdf;F ,Uf;fpwJ.  

 

nrd;w rdp> QhapW> jpq;fs; (tpLKiw ehs;) fhiy khiy vd;W xNu jpUkz tpohf;fs;.  ,g;NghJ jpUkz Neuj;ijAk; ehs;fisAk;

                                                             

ma;aHkhH gQ;rhq;fj;ijg; ghHf;fhky; jq;fs; ehs;Fwpg;igg; ghHj;J epr;rapf;fpd;whHfs;! Mdgbahy;jhd; Gyk;ngaH ehLfspy;  rdp QhapW tpLKiw ehs;fspy; jpUkzq;fs; ,lk;ngWfpd;wd. Ntiy ehs;fspy; jpUkzq;fis itj;jhy; fdlh Nghd;w ehl;by; ngUk;ghNyhH tu khl;lhHfs;!

 

tof;fk;Nghy vy;yhk; itjPfj; jpUkzq;fs;. xNu xU jpUkzk; kl;Lk; jkpo;Kiwj; jpUkzk; MFk;. jkpo;nkhopg; gw;Wk; jkpopdg;gw;Wk; jd;khdKk; epuk;gg; ngw;w jk;gp jpUKfk; (ghG) jhd; jkpo;Kiwj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;ltH. ,tH ,q;Fs;s cyfj; jkpoH ,af;fj;jpy; njhz;luhf ,Uf;fpd;whH.  

 

ma;aH ,y;iy> mk;kp ,y;iy> mf;fpdp tsHj;jy; ,y;iy> tlnkhopf; $r;ry; ,y;iy> mUe;jjp ghHj;jy; ,y;iy (,d;W jpUkzq;fs; kz;lgq;fspy; elg;gjhy; GNuhfpjHfs; rhl;Lf;NfDk;  mUe;jjp fhl;Ltijf; iftpl;L tpl;lhHfs;. ghtk; mUe;jjp)  gukrptd; -ghHtjp>  =ehuhazd; - ,yf;Fkp rhl;rp ,y;iy.

 

Kg;gj;J Kf;Nfhb NjtHfs; rhl;rp ,y;iy. mfypiaf; nfLj;jjhy; Mz;Fwpia ,oe;J Nkdp KOJk; Mapuk; Nahdpiaf; fTjk Kdptuplk; 'guprhfg;” ngw;w ,e;jpud; rhl;rp ,y;iy. FU gj;jpdpiaf;  nfLj;j mf;fpdp rhl;rp ,y;iy.

 

,it xd;Wk; ,y;yhky; ,uz;L khiyfis khw;wpg; gj;Jj; jpUf;Fwisg; gbj;Jj; jkpo; kzk; fkOk; jpUkzj;ij kzkf;fs; jpUKfk; - tjdp ,UtUk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

 

vd;idg; nghWj;jstpy; vdf;F ,ul;bg;G kfpo;r;rp. jpUkz tpohtpw;F ehNd jiyik jhq;fp  elj;jp itj;;Njd;. Kof;fk; MrpupaH jpUKUfNte;jd; tho;j;Jiu toq;fpdhH.

 

itjPfj; jpUkzk; vd;why; ma;aH nrhy;Yk; tlnkhop ke;jpuk; ahUf;Fk; tpsq;fhJ. ma;aH ke;jpuj;ij mbtapW Nehff; fj;jpr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUf;f jpUkzj;Jf;F te;jtHfs; jq;fs; ghl;by; tPl;Lf;fij> CHf;fij> ehl;Lf;fij fijj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;ghHfs;! ngz;fspd; ciuahly; ngUk;ghYk; Gjpjhf te;j gl;Lr;Nriy> eif gw;wpNa ,Uf;Fk;!

 

jkpo;Kiwj; jpUkzk; mg;gbapy;iy. 'Ur;rid ghl;NlahFk;> Mjyhy; kz;kPJ vk;ikr; nrhw;wkpopy; ghLf!” vd rhl;rhj; rptdhNu tpUk;gpf; Nfl;l nre;jkpopy; ele;j jpUkz tpohit fz;ntl;lhJ fhJ nfhLj;J vy;NyhUk; ghHj;Jk; Nfl;Lk; kfpo;e;jhHfs;!

 

rupahf xd;Nw Kf;fhy;  kzpj;jpahyj;jpy;  ele;J Kbe;j jpUkzk; vy;NyhUf;Fk; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. jpUkzk; Kbe;j gpd;dH ngupNahHfs;> jha;khHfs;> ez;gHfs; jq;fs; kfpo;r;rpia vd;NdhL gfpHe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,jpy; ,Ue;J xU cz;ik tpsq;fpaJ.

 

itjPfj; jpUkzj;ijr; nrf;F khl;L kdg;ghd;ikapy; tof;fj;ij khw;wpf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ> kuigf; iftplf; $lhJ> mg;gbr; nra;jhy; flTs; Nfhtpg;ghH> tho;f;ifapy; ,lHfs; Neuyhk; vd;w mr;rj;jpy;jhd; gyH; nra;fpd;whHfs;. rpwpjsT gFj;jwpT NgRgtHfSk; jpUkzk; vd;W tUk;NghJ FLk;g neUf;Fjy; fhuzkhf itjPfj; jpUkzj;Jf;F xg;Gf; nfhz;L tpLfpd;whHfs;. vjw;Fk; mQ;rhJ Jzpr;rNyhL jkpo;j; jpUkzq;fis nra;a vy;NyhUk; Fwpg;ghf jkpo; ,isQHfs; ,isQpfs; Kd; tuNtz;Lk;.

 

jkpo;Kiwj;  jpUkzq;fis nra;a Kd;tUkhW jkpo;g; gilg;ghspfs; fofk; miog;G tpLj;Js;sJ. md;iwa jpUkz tpoh NkilapYk; ehd; fofk; rhHghf miog;G tpLj;Njd;. jl;riz vJTk; thq;fhJ nra;J jUtjhf thf;fspj;Njd;!

 

itjPf jpUkz tPl;by; vd;idf; fz;l ez;gHfs; (gyH Kd;gpd; njupahjtHfs;)  Nrhjplg; Gul;Lj; njhliug; gbg;gjhfTk; ',e;jr; Nrhjplf;fhud;fSf;F ed;whff; nfhLq;fs;”  vd;W Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhHfs;. xU rpyH kl;Lk; 'ghtk; NrhjplHfs;> mtHfs; gpiog;gpy; kz;izg; Nghl;L tplhjPHfs;” vd;W mohf;Fiwahff; Nfl;lhHfs;.

 

ehd; 'NrhjplHfs; kl;Lk; jpUkzg; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gijf; iftp;l;L tpl;ljhf VLfspy; ntspg;gilahf mwptpf;fl;Lk;. mjd; gpd;dH ehDk; mtHfisg;gw;wp vOJtij epWj;jptpLfpNwd;” vd;Nwd;.

 

vdJ fl;Liuahy; rpyuJ gpiog;G nfl;Lg; Nghfyhk;. Mdhy;> mtHfs; nrhy;Yk; Nrhjplj;jhy; gyuJ tho;f;if my;yth ghohfpg; Ngha;tpLfpwJ! mjid vg;gb ,e;j Ehw;whz;by; mDkjpf;fyhk;?

 

,g;NghJ trpag; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W xU NrhjplH nrhy;y mjid ek;gpa ngz;zpd; jfg;gdhH fhjyHfSf;F ,ilapy; vg;gb tpy;ydhf Kisj;Js;shH vd;gijf; fhl;Lk; kpd;dQ;riyAk; mjw;F ehd; vOjpa gjpiyAk; jUfpNwd;. 

 

'cq;fs; fl;Liuj; njhlH kpfkpf ed;whf cs;sJ. .ehd; kpfTk; tpUk;gpg; gbg;Ngd;. Vndd;why; jw;NghJ ,;e;jg; gpur;rpidapy; rpf;fp kpfTk; Ntjidg; gl;Lf;nfhz;bUf;fpNwd;. vdf;F caph; ez;gd; xUtd; ,Uf;fpwhd;. mtd; xU ngz;izf; fhjypj;J ,U tPl;lhUila G+uz tpUg;gj;Jld; jpUkzk; epr;rapf;fg;gl;Ltpl;l epiyapy; ngz;zpd; je;ij ,ufrpakhff; Fwpg;Gg; nghUj;jk; ghh;j;Jtpl;lhh;. mjpy; ,UtUf;Fk; trpag; nghUj;jk; Fiwthk;. fd ehs;fSf;Fr; Nrh;e;jpUf;f khl;lhh;fshk;. Mff;$baJ 2 tUle;jhdhk; Nrh;e;jpUg;ghh;fs; vd  rhjfk; $Wfpwjhk;. ,g;NghJ ngz;zpd; je;ij jpUkzj;Jf;F jiltpjpf;fpd;whH. vd;d nra;ayhk;? cq;fs; mwpTiu vd;d?”

 

,g;gbf;F

 

rhe;jd; 

 

,e;jpah vd;W Kftup ,l;lhYk; rhe;jd; ,yq;ifapy; ,Ue;Jjhd; ,e;j kpd;dQ;riy vOjpapUf;fpd;whH. capH ez;gd; rpf;fypy; rpf;fp ,Ug;jhfr; nrhd;dhYk; mtNu rpf;fypy; rpf;fpapUg;gjhf ehd; Cfpf;fpNwd;. mtUf;Fg; fPo;f;fz;lthW ePz;l kWnkhop vOjpNdd;. vdJ FLk;gk; gw;wpa rpy nra;jpfis mjpypUe;J vLj;Jtpl;Nld;.

 

tzf;fk;. Kjypy; ,uz;L NgUila rhjfq;fNs ngUk;ghYk; gpioahff; fzpf;fg;gl;bUf;fyhk;. ,e;jpa Nrhjplk; QhapW Mz;Lf;Fg; gjpy; tpz;kPd; Mz;ilNa fzpj;J te;jJ. Mdhy;> fp.gp. 287 f;Fg; gpd;dH; ,e;j ,uz;L Mz;L fhyf; fzpg;Gf;F ,ilapy; fhzg;gl;l Neu NtWghL fzf;fpy; vLf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,jdhy; rhjff; fzpg;Gg; gpioj;J tpl;lJ.  ,ijg;gw;wp kfhftp ghujpahH tpNtfNghjpdp vd;w Vl;by; MH. rhkpehja;aH vd;gtH gQ;rhq;fj;jpy; cs;s ngupa gpio xd;iw tlnkhop fye;j ciueilapy; vOjpapUe;jhH. mtH vOjpa fbjj;ij Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;bg; ghujpahH vOjpapUe;jij mg;gbNa fPNo jUfpNwd;.

 

"xU fhyj;jpy; tre;j; tp\_thdJ fhHj;jpif e\;rj;jpuj;jpy; ,Ue;jjhfNt Ntjj;jpy; ,Ue;J njupfpwJ. mg;NghJ cj;juhazk; khf khrj;jpw;F gpwe;jpUf;Fk;.

 

mjw;F ,uz;lhapuk; - ,uz;lhapuj;J Ie;EhW tU\q;fSf;fg;ghy; me;j tp\_  mRtpdp el;rj;jpuj;jpy; Nk\uhrpapd; Muk;gj;jpypUe;jJ. ,q;qdk;> tre;j tp\{thdJ Nk\ uhrpapd; Muk;gj;jpy; ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; cj;juhazk; ijkhjg; gpwg;gd;W njhlq;fpw;W. mjw;fg;ghy; fzf;Fj; jtwpg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. madtp\{f;fspd; rydj;ij (,af;fj;ij) mwpahkNyh mwpe;jpUe;Jk; ftdpahkNyh ]k;tj;ruj;jpd; gupkhzj;ij 20½ epkp\k; [h];jpahf (mjpfkhf) fzpj;J tpl;lgbahy;> mad tp\{ fhyq;fs; tU\k; xd;Wf;F 20½  epkp\k; gpe;jp tUfpd;wd. 80 tU\j;jpy; xU KOehs; gpe;jptpLk;.

 

Nkw;Fwpj;j epakq;fs; Vw;gl;L ,g;NghJ mNef E}w;whz;Lfsha; tpl;lgbahy; Gz;a fhyq;fs; 20> 22 ehs; gpe;jpg;Ngha; epakq;fs; gpuj;jpa\j;Jf;F tpNuhjkhfpapUf;fpd;wd.” (ghujpahH fl;Liufs; - gf;fk; 210-211) 

 

rhkpehja;aH Fwpg;gpl;l fhy tpj;jpahrk; rup> Mdhy;> 80 Mz;L vd;W vOjpapUg;gJ jtW. mJ 72 Mz;L vd;W ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU Mz;by; 50.26 tl;l tpdhb (arc seconds) QhapW mjd; ghijapy; gpd;Df;Fj; js;sg;gLfpwJ. vdNt 71.6 Mz;by; 1 ghif (xU ehs;)

 gpd;js;sg;gl;LtpLfpwJ.

 

Nkw;Fyf (ntg;g kz;ly) rhjfj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,e;jpa (el;rj;jpu Mz;L)  rhjfj;ijf; fzpg;gjw;F madhk;r NtWghl;il Kd;djpy; ,Ue;J fopf;f Ntz;Lk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf 1950-01-01 ,y; gpwe;j xUtUf;F QhapW kPd ,uhrpapy; 25 ghifapy; epd;why; 1950 f;F cupa madhk;r NtWghlhd  23-09-31 ghifia mjpypUe;J fopf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb fopf;Fk; NghJ 1-50-26 ghif ngWkjp tUfpwJ. vdNt ,e;jpa Nrhjpl rhjfj;jpy; QhapW kPd ,uhrpapy; 1-50-26 ghifapy;  epw;Fk;. ,d;ndhUtuJ Nkw;Fyf rhjfj;jpy; 1950 ,y; QhapW kPd ,uhrpapy; 15 ghifapy; epd;why; mjpy; ,Ue;J madhk;r NtWghl;ilf; (23-09-31 ghif) fopj;jhy; 21-50-29 ghif ngWkjp (23-09-31 – 15 = 8-09-31) gpd;dH 30.00 – 8-09-31 = 21-50-29) tUfpwJ. mjhtJ QhapW Fk;g ,uhrpapy; 21 ghif 50 kzpj;Jsp 29 tpdhbapy; epw;Fk;.

 

 

kPdk;> Fk;gk;> kfuk;> jDR el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs;

 

Gtp cUz;il tbtkhdJ vd;gij ehk; mwpNthk;. Mdhy;> Gtp Kw;wpYk; cUz;il tbthdJ my;y. Gtpapd; tpl;lk;  12>756 fpkP (7>926 iky;) MFk;. mJ jdJ mr;rpy; xU kzpj;Jsp  1>670 fpkP (1>040 iky;) my;yJ xU tpehbf;F 0.46 fpkP  (0.29 iky;) (1>040 mph or 0.29 miles per second or 1,670 km/h, 0.46 km/s) Roy;fpwJ.

 

Mdhy; Gtp eLtl;lf;Nfhl;Lf;F tlf;fpNyh njw;fpNyh Fiwe;j Ntfj;jpNyNa mjd; mr;rpy; Roy;fpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf eLtl;lf;Nfhl;Lf;F 40 ghif tlf;Nf my;yJ njw;Nf mjd; Ntfk; kzpj;jpahyj;Jf;F 1280 fpkP (795 fy;) Mff; Fiwe;J tpLfpwJ. Gtp cUz;il tbtpy; ,Ug;gNj ,jw;fhd VJthFk;.

 

Gtp 149.60 kpy;ypad; fpkP (92.90 kpy;ypad; iky;) njhiytpy; cs;s Qhapiw  Vwj;jhs nghJNkdp xU tpdhbf;F 29.79 fpkP (18.49 iky;) my;yJ kzpf;F 107>000 fpkP (67>000 iky;) Ntfj;jpy; Rw;Wg; ghijapy; (orbit) Rw;wptUfpwJ. mg;gbr; Rw;wptUk; NghJ me;jf; Nfhs;tPjp Gtpapd; mr;R  tpz;eLf;Nfhl;Lf;F 23½ ghif rupe;jpUf;fpwJ (The ecliptic is titled 23.5o relative to the celestial equator).

 

Gtpapd; Muk; (radius) 6378.137 fpkP (3963.19 fy;) vd;why; mjd; Rw;wsT (circumference) 40>075 fpkP (24.901.5 fy;) njhiyT MFk;. Mdhy;> tlJUtk; - njd;JUtk; ,ilapyhd njhiyT  40>000 fpkP kl;LNk. ,e;j NtWghl;Lf;Ff; fhuzk; fpof;F Nkw;fhf cs;s  Gtpapd;; eLf;Nfhl;il (equator) mz;ba gFjp tlf;Fj; njw;fhf cs;s neLf;NfhL  (longitude) gFjpiapl rw;W Gilj;Jf; (bulge) fhzg;gLfpwJ.

 

,e;j Gilg;Gf; fhuzkhf Gtpapd; mr;R QhapW epyh ,uz;bd; vjpH vjpuhd <Hg;gpdhy; rw;Wj; jsk;GfpwJ (wobble),   ,jdhy; Gtpapd; Rw;W Ntfk; jilgLfpwJ.

 

Gtpapd; tl JUtk; (North Pole) miutpz;Nfhsj;jpy; (Celestial Hemisphere ) xU fw;gid tl;lj;ij tyk; ,lkhf (counter-clockwise) tiufpwJ. ,e;j tl;lj;ijg; Gtp Rw;wptu 25>800 Mz;Lfhyk; vLf;fpwJ. ,JNt mad Ke;J epfo;T (precession  of equinoxes) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

jw;NghJ Gtpapd; JUtk; (cz;ikapy; tpz;zfj;jpd; JUtk; - Celestial Pole) tl Nfhsj;jpy; cs;s tl kPd; my;yJ JUt el;rj;jpuj;ij  (Polarisis or Polestar or North Star)   Nehf;fpAs;sJ. ,e;jj; JUt el;rj;jpuNk gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; khYkpfs; flypy; jpirfis mwptjw;F thdpy; xU milahskhf itj;jpUe;jdH.

 

fpK %thapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,e;j tl JUtk; Thuban vd;w el;rj;jpuj;ij Nehf;fp ,Ue;jJ. fpgp 15>000 Mz;lstpy; Vega vd;w el;rj;jpuNk tl kPdhf my;yJ JUt el;rj;jpukhf ,Uf;Fk;. 

 

Qhapiwg; Gtp Rw;wptUk;NghJ mjd; mr;R vg;NghJk; xNu gf;fkhf 23½  ghif  rha;e;jpUf;Fk; vd;gijg; ghHj;Njhk;. ,jdhy; Qhapw;wpd; Nfhzk; Mz;L KOJk;  xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;jpy; khwpf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk; (The earth's axis always remains pointing in the same direction as it revolves around the sun. As a result, the solar angle varies at a given place through out the year). ,JNt gUtq;fs; Vw;gLtjw;F Kf;fpa fhuzpahFk;. tl Nfhsj;jpy; Nfhil vd;why; njd; Nfhsj;jpy; gdp fhykhf ,Uf;Fk;. njd; Nfhsj;jy; Nfhil fhyk; vd;why; tl Nfhsj;jpy; gdp fhykhf ,Uf;Fk;.

   

A+d; 22; tl Nfhsj;jpy; Gtpapd; mr;R Qhapiw Nehf;fp ,Uf;Fk;. mg;NghJ QhapW 23½ ghif tlf;Nf FWf;Ff;Nfhl;Lf;F rup NkNy cr;rpapy; fhzg;gLk;. ,e;j ehs; Nfhil jpUg;GKfk; (Summer Solstice) vdg;gLk;. ,jd; NghJ flff; Nfhl;Lf;F (Tropic of Cancer) tlf;Nf cs;s gFjpfspy; Mz;bd; kpf ePz;l gfy; fhzg;gLk;. tlJUtj;jpy; 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; gfyhf ,Uf;Fk;.

,jw;F vjpHkhhwhfj; njd; Nfhsj;jpy; A+d; 22; gdp jpUg;GKfkhf (Winter Solstice) ,Uf;Fk;. kfuf; Nfhl;Lf;F (Tropic of Capricorn) njw;Nf cs;s gFjpfspy; Mz;bd; kpf ePz;l ,uT fhzg;gLk;. njd; JUtj;jpy; 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; ,uthf ,Uf;Fk;.

ntg;g kz;ly Mz;L (Tropical Year) vd;gJ (,J QhapW Mz;L (Solar Year) vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLk;) Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tu (my;yJ Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ghHf;Fk; NghJ QhapW el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fisr; Rw;wp tUtJ Nghd;w Nghyp mirT (apparent motion)  vLf;Fk; 365 ehs;fs; 5 kzp> 48 kzpj;Jsp (epkplq;fs;) 46 nehb my;yJ 365.242189 ehs;fs; nfhz;l fhykhFk;. mjd; fhyk; Ntdpy; (Spring)  rkgfypuT (Vernal Equinox) ehs; (khHr;R 20) njhlq;fp mLj;j Ntdpy; rk gfypuT tiuahd fhykhFk;. fPo;f; fz;l ml;ltiz Gtp - QhapW kw;Wk; gUtq;fs; Mfpatw;Wf;F ,ilapyhd njhlHigf; fhl;LfpwJ.  

 

                Gtp – QhapW njhlHG kw;Wk; gUtq;fs;

                                     Earth - Sun Relations and Seasons

 

 

khHr;R
rkgfypuT

(Equinox)

bnrk;gH
jpUg;GKfk;
(
Solstice)

nrg;njk;gH
rkgfypuT

(Equinox)

A+d;
jpUg;GKfk;
(
Solstice)

jpfjp

khHr;R 21

bnrk;gH 22

nrg;njk;gH 23

A+d; 21

Qhapwpd;
epiy

0 ghif

23 ½ ghif
njw;F

0 ghif

23 ½ ghif
tlf;F

njhLNfhL
(
Tangent)
fjpHfs;

 

tl- njd;
JUtq;fs;

 

tl- njd;
JUt tl;lq;fs;

tl- njd;
JUtq;fs;

tl- njd;
JUt tl;lq;fs;

xU ehspd;
ePsk;

vq;Fk; 12
kzpj;jpahyg; gfy;

tl JUtj;jpy;
24 kzpj;jpahy ,Us;

njd; JUtj;jpy;
24 kzpj;jpahy ntspr;rk;

eLtl;;lf;Nfhl;by;
12 kzpj;jpahy ntspr;rk;;

vq;Fk; 12
kzpj;jpahyg; gfy;

njd; JUtj;jpy;
24 kzpj;jpahy ,Us;

tl JUtj;jpy;
24 kzpj;jpahy
ntspr;rk;

eLtl;lf;Nfhl;by;
12 kzpj;jpahy ntspr;rk;

 

ntg;g kz;ly Mz;Lf; fzpg;gpy; QhapW Ntdpy; rk gfypuT Nkl ,uhrpapy; 0 ghifapy; cjakhfpwJ vd vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.  ,J khwhJ> Mdhy;> madhk;r NtWghL  (23-53-43 ghif - 2003) fhuzkhf el;rj;jpu kz;ly Mz;Lf; fzpg;gpy; QhapW mNj ehspy; kPdk; 6 ghif 03 kzpj;Jspapy; cjakhfpwJ.

 

el;rj;jpu kz;ly Nrhjplj;jpy; QhapW xU ,uhrp tPl;by; GFk; ehNs khjj; njhlf;fk; MFk;. ,J nghJthf khjj;jpd; (solar month) 3 tJ fpoikapd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ,lk; ngWk;. Mdhy;> ntg;gkz;ly Nrhjpl ehs;fhl;bapy; khjj; njhlf;fk; khjj;jpd; Kjy; ehs; njhlq;FfpwJ. madhk;r tpj;jpahrNk ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; MFk;.

 

el;rj;jpu kz;lyr; Nrhjplf; fzpg;gpy; ,uhrpr; rf;fuk; epiyahdJ. ,uhrp tPLfSf;Fk; ,uhrp kz;lyq;fSf;Fk; njhlHG vg;NghJk; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;jj; njhlHG  ntg;g kz;ly Nrhjplf; fzpg;gpy; ,y;iy.

Mdhy;> ,e;j ,uz;L fzpg;Gk; xt;nthU khjKk; 15-20 ,ilapyhd ehs;fspy; xd;wd; kPJ xd;W (overlap) gbe;jpUf;Fk;. ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; gpwf;Fk; xUtH ,uz;L Nrhjpl KiwapYk; xNu ,uhrpapy; gpwf;fpw tha;g;G ,Uf;Fk;. NtW ehs;fspy; madhk;r tpj;jpahrk; fhuzkhf n[d;k ,yf;fpdk; khWgLk;. tpisT? ma;e;jpy; ehd;F (89 tpOf;fhL) rhjfk; gpioj;J tpLk;.

 

,e;j ,lj;jpy; ntg;g kz;lyk; kw;Wk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyf; fzpg;gpy; ,uhrpfs; ,lk; ngWk; ehs;fs; NtWgLtJ Nghy  thdpay; ehs;fSk; NtW gLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf QhapW Nkluhrpf;F ntg;g kz;lyf; fzpg;gpy; khHr;R 21 ,y; GFfpwJ. el;rj;jpu Mz;Lf; fzpg;gpy; Vg;upy; 14 ,y; GFfpwJ. Mdhy;> thdpay; fzpg;gpy; Vg;upy; 19 ,y; GFfpwJ.  ,jdhy; rhjfk; el;rj;jpu kz;lyf; fzpg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; fzpf;fg;gl;lhYk; mJ thdpay; fzpg;NghL Vwj;jho 5 ehs;fs; NtWgLfpwJ. mg;gb NtWgLk; NghJ rhjfj;jpy; cs;s ,uhrpfs;> Nfhs;fs; tpz;kPd;fs; Rj;jkhfg; gpioj;JtpLfpwJ! ,J gw;wpg; gpd;dH tpupthf tpsf;fg;gLk;. 

 

tpz;Nfhsk; xU ,uhl;rj ge;J Nghd;wJ vd;Wk; mjpy; tpz;kPd;fs; xl;b itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;Wk; itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. Gtpiag; NghyNt mjpYk; eLf;NfhL> neLf;NfhL> FWf;Ff; NfhL> JUtq;fs; Nghd;wit fw;gidahf tiuag;gl;bUf;fpwJ. Gtp jdJ mr;rpy; Nkw;Ff; fpof;fhfr; RoYk; NghJ ,e;j tpz;Nfhsj;jpd; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fs; fpof;F Nkw;fhf cjakhfp  kiwfpd;wd. Mdhy;> tl JUtk; ( 66½ - 90 ghif)  njd; JUtk; ( 66½ - 90 ghif) Mfpa  gFjpfspy; ,jidg; ghHf;f KbahJ. ,jdhy; mq;F thOk; v];fpNkh> ,Dapl; (Inuit) Nghd;w nrt;tpe;jpaUf;Fr; rhjfk; fzpf;f KbahJ!

                                                                                       gUtq;fs;

thdpayhsHfs; xU Mz;L fhyj;ijg; Gtpf;Fg; gjpy; tpz;Nfhsj;jpy; (Celestial sphere) fhzg;gLk; xU mirah tpz;kPdpd;  (Spica vd;w fd;dp ) gpd;Gyj;jpy; Qhapiw xUKiw Rw;wptu vLf;Fk; Mz;Lf; fhyj;ijf; nfhz;L fzpf;fpd;whHfs;.

,g;gbf; fzpf;fg;gLk; Mz;Nl el;rj;jpu Mண்L (Sidereal Year) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; fhyk; 365 ehs;fs;> 6 kzp> 9 kzpj;Jsp> 9.54 tpehb my;yJ 365.256363 ehs;fs; MFk;. (The time required for one complete revolution of the earth around the sun, relative to the fixed stars, or 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.54 seconds in units of mean solar time.)

 

vdNt el;rj;jpu Mz;Lf;Fk; ntg;gkz;ly Mz;Lf;Fk; ,ilNa 20 kzpj;Jsp (20.4480) NtWghL Vw;gL;fpwJ. mjhtJ xU el;rj;jpu Mz;L ntg;gkz;ly Mz;iltpl 20 kzpj;Jsp 24 tpehb mjpfkhdJ my;yJ ePskhdJ.

 

                                

                                          

Mz;Ltif

             

ஆண்டுவகை நாள்கள் = 86,400 மணித்துளி நாள் மணி மணித்துளி நொடி
நட்சத்திர ஆண்டு 365.25636042 365 6 9 9.54

 

வெப்பமண்டல ஆண்டு

 

365.24219878 365 5 48 45.51

வேறுபாடு

   0

0

 0

 20

24.03

 

xU ntl;gkz;ly Mz;bd; xU Ntdpy; rkgfypuT ehspypUe;J mLj;j Ntdpy; rkgfypuT ehsd;W Gtpapd; ,Uf;ifia ,uhrp tl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; mirah  el;rj;jpuk; xd;NwhL ehk; xg;G Nehf;fpdhy;> Gtp tpz; neLf;Nfhl;bd; (Celestial longitude) Nkw;Fg; gf;fkhf 50.26 tpehb efHe;jpUg;gJ Nghy; Njhd;Wk;.

 

(If at the end of a tropical year from one vernal equinox to the next, we consider the position of the earth with reference to a fixed star of the zodiac, the earth appears to lie some 50.26 seconds of celestial longitude to the west of its original position. Elements of Vedic Astrology – page 22)

 

xt;nthU Mz;Lk;; Ntdpy; rkgfypuT ,lk; ngWk;NghJ ,uhrptl;lj;jpy; cs;s mirah tpz;kPd;fs; 50.26 tpehb Fiwe;J fhzg;gLk;. ,t;thW njhlHr;rpahf ,uhrp tl;lj;jpy; Ntdpy; rkgfypuTfs; gpd;Nehf;fp efHtij mad Ke;Jepfo;T (Precession of Vernal equinoxes) vd miof;fpd;whHfs;.

 

,e;j mad Ke;Jepfo;it Kjd; Kjypy; fz;L gpbj;jtH Gfo;ngw;w fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpahd fpg;gHr;R]; (Hipparchus (fpK 190-120) vdg; gutyhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ. ,tNu> jhd; fz;Lgpbj;j Kf;Nfhz fzpj ml;ltiziag; (Trigonometric Table) gad;gLj;jpg; Gtpf;Fk; epyhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s njhiyitr; rPHnra;jhH vdr; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;. 

 

,uz;L tif Mz;L ,Ug;gijAk; tpz; mr;R gpd;Ndhf;fp efHtij Kjd; Kjypy; fpg;gHr;R]; mtjhdpj;jhH.

While in reality the Earth goes in an orbit around the Sun, it seems from the Earth that the Sun moves over the ecliptic (red) on the celestial dome. When the Sun seems to pass through the vernal equinox (longitude 0°), the longitude of the Earth itself is 180° longitude.The Earth in its orbit around the Sun causes the Sun to appear on the celestial sphere moving over the ecliptic (red), which is tilted on the equator (blue).

 

 

fpg;gHr;R]; 850 Fk; mjpfkhd el;rj;jpuq;fspd; tiuglj;ij> mtw;wpd; nghypT (Magnitude) xspHik cl;glj;>  jahupj;jhH. ,e;j tiuglk; 1>800 Mz;L fopj;J thdpay; tuyhw;wpy; kpf Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jJ. ,tNu Nfhs;fspd; Xl;lj;ij tpsf;f rpW  tl;lq;fis (epicycles)  fz;L gpbj;jtH. Mdhy;> ,tUk; VidNahiug; Nghy; mup];Njhl;lypd; Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Vw;Wf; nfhz;ltHfspy; xUtH MthH.  

 

Xt;nthU 72 Mz;Lk; ,e;j NtWghL mz;zstpy; 1 ghif my;yJ 1 ehs; Mf mjpfupf;fpwJ. NkNy $wpaJ Nghy mad Ke;Jepfo;Nt ,e;j NtWghl;bw;Ff; fhuzkhFk; MFk;.

 

,q;F Fwpg;gplg;gLk; fhy Neuq;fs; ruhrup fhy Neuq;fshFk;. Gtp Qhapiw Kl;il tbT Nghd;w xU ePs; tl;lj;jpy; (elliptic)  Rw;wp tUtjhy; Gtp QhapWf;F mz;ikapy; Rw;Wk;NghJ rw;W NtfkhfTk; Nrz;ikapy; nry;Yk;NghJ rw;Wk;NghJ  Ntfk; Fiwe;Jk; Rw;WfpwJ.

 

ntl;gkz;ly Mz;Nl ehs;fhl;b> gQ;rhq;fk; Nghd;wit fzpg;gjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. mjd; mbg;gilapy; NrhjplHfs; gad;gLj;Jk; ntg;g kz;ly ,uhrptl;lk; (Tropical Zodiac ) Kw;wpYk; gpioahdJ. mJ 1>718 (fpgp 285)  Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH thdpy; fhzg;gl;l tpz;kPd;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fsJ ,Uf;ifiaNa fhl;LfpwJ.

 

el;rj;jpu Mz;Lf; fzpg;G thdpy; ve;jnthU nghOjpYk; fhzg;gLk; tpz;kPd;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fsJ ,Uf;ifia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ. thdpayhsHfs; el;rj;jpu Mz;ilNa gad;gLj;Jfpd;whHfs;.     

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;ij vOjpatHfSf;F ,d;iwa thdpay; gw;wpa mwpNth mJgw;wp Muha;r;rp nra;tjw;F Ntz;ba fUtpfNsh ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjw;fhd tha;g;Gk; #oYk; md;W  ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mtHfsplk; ,Ue;jJ ‘Qhdf; fz;”  xd;W kl;LNk! ,e;j NtWghl;il tpsf;fNt thdpay; gw;wpa Kf;fpa juTfis rw;W tpupthf NkNy  je;jpUf;fpNwd;.

 

'njd;dhl;Lg; gQ;rhq;ff; fzpg;ghsHfs; fp.gp Vohk; E}w;whz;bd; tuhfkpfpuH tFj;Jj; je;j fhyf; fzpg;ig ,d;Dk; mg;gbNa gpd;gw;wp tUfpd;wdH. mjdhy; 23 ehs;fs; ek;Kila fhyf; fzf;fpy; gpw;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fpwJ" vd;fpd;whH NguhrpupaH f.j. jpUehTf;fuR.

 

NkYk; “,e;j Mz;L (2003) jPghtsp nehtk;gH 14 ,y; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ vd;W ehs;fhl;b $WfpwJ. Nkw;fhZk; fUj;Jg;gb 23 ehs; js;spg; Nghfpwnjd;gJ rupahdhy; jPghtsp mf;NlhgH 22 ,y; my;yJ 23 ,y; tu Ntz;Lk;" vd;fpd;whH. (nghUs; GjpJ E}y; - gf;fk; 91)

 

gp.tp. ,uhkd;> fpU\;z%Hj;jp Nghd;w NrhjplHfs; ,e;j madhk;r NtWghl;ilf; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jr; rhjfq;fisf; fzpj;jhHfs;. mtHfNs madhk;r NtWghl;ilf; fzpj;Jf; nfhLj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. mjw;F mtHfsJ ngaHfs; ,lgg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,uhkidtpl NkYk; VO NrhjplHfs;; madhk;rk;ijf; fzpj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;.  Mdhy;> fzpg;gpy; NrhjplHfs; xj;j fUj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy. ,e;jf; fzpg;Gf;fspy; xU ghiff;F ehd;F tpehbf;Fk;  mjpfkhd NtWghL fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jpa murhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l  ,yhfpup (Lahiri) vd;gtuJ fzpg;igNa ngUk;ghyhd NrhjplHfs; gpd;gw;Wfpd;whHfs;. ,yhfpup fp.gp. 2000 Mk; Mz;Lf;F fzpj;j madhk;rk; 23-11-.51 ghifahFk;.

 

vdNt rhjfq;fs; gpioahff; fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. rhjfHfs; gpwe;j Mz;Lf;Fupa madhk;rj;ijg; gpwe;j ehs;> Neuj;jpy; ,Ue;J fopj;Jr; rhjfq;fisf; fzpf;f Ntz;Lk;. 

 

,g;gbf; fzpj;jhy; kl;Lk; rhjfk; nka;ahfptplhJ. Fiwe;j gl;rk; madhk;r NtWghL ,Uf;fhJ.

 

jpUkzg; nghUj;jj;jpw;F 10 njhlf;fk; 13 tpjkhd nghUj;jk;  ghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jpy; trpag; nghUj;jk; xd;whFk;.    

 

fpo;r;rp epiwe;j Rfkhd FLk;g tho;f;iff;F ,e;jg; nghUj;jk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nrhjplk; nrhy;fpwJ. trpak; vd;why; ftHr;rp vd;W nghUs;.

 

ftHr;rp ,Ue;jgbahy;jhd; ckJ ez;gDf;F me;jg; ngz; kPJk; ngz;Zf;F mtd; kPJk; fhjy; gpwe;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

,uhrpfisg; ngz; Mz; vdg; ghFgLj;jp trpag; nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ mwptPdk;. ,uhrpfis Mz; ngz; vd;W vg;gbg; gpupj;jhHfs;? Nklk; njhlq;fp  kPdk; <whf tUk; gd;dpuz;L ,uhrpfspy; xw;iwg;gl tUk; ,uhrpfs; Mz; ,uhrpfs; vd;Wk; ,ul;ilg;gl tUk; ,uhrpfs; ngz; ,uhrpfs; vd;Wk; NrhjplHfs; gpupj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,g;gb xw;iw ,ul;il ghHj;Jg; gpupg;gJ  ve;jtpj tpjpf;fl;bd;wpr; (arbitrary) nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. vdNt Vida nghUj;jq;fs;  NghyNt trpag; nghUj;jj;jpw;Fk; ve;jtpj mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; ,y;iy. NrhjplHfs; xw;iw ,ul;il gpbg;gjpy; kd;dhjp kd;dHfs; vd;gij kl;Lk; mJ fhl;LfpwJ.

 

,t;tsTjhd; ehd; nrhy;yf;$baJ. fhjYf;Fg; ghil fl;bf; nfhy;y epidf;Fk; ngz;zpd; %lj; je;ijf;F ehd; ,t;thW vOjpapUg;gij vLj;Jr; nrhy;Yq;fs;. mtH Vw;f kWj;J>  jhd; gpbj;j KaYf;F %d;W fhy; vd;W xw;iwf; fhypy; epd;why; kdg; nghUj;jk; cs;s ckJ ez;gidAk; mtdJ fhjypiaAk; xU NfhapYf;Ff; $l;br; nrd;W jhyp fl;lTk;! mjw;F Kd; jpUkzg; gjpTg; gzpafk; nrd;W gjpTj; jpUkzk; nra;aTk;.  

 

mtHfsJ vjpHfhyk; mtHfsJ ifapy; ,Uf;fpwJ. NrhjplH ifapy; epr;rakhf ,y;iy! ehNdh vdJ gps;isfNsh rhjfk; ghHf;fhky; jhd; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;Nlhk;. vdJ jpUkzk; nrhe;jj;Jf;Fs; Ngrpr; nra;jJ> Mdhy;> gps;isfsJ jpUkzq;fs; vy;yhk; rq;f fhyj;Jf; fstpaypy; njhlq;fp fw;gpaypy; Kbe;j jpUkzq;fs;! ehq;fs; NgusT ve;jf; FiwAkpd;wpr; r%f mLf;fpd; eLj; jl;Lf;F Nky; tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk; vd;gij kfpo;r;rpAld; mwpaj; jUfpNwd;.   

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (23)

 

NrhjplUf;Nf vkdhfg; Ngha;tpl;l Nrhjplk;!

 

ef;fPud;

 

'%l gf;jpfspNy kpfTk;  njhy;iyahd mk;rk; ahnjdpy; vy;yhr; nra;iffSf;Fk; ehs;> el;rj;jpuk;. yf;fpdk; Kjypad ghHj;jy;. rtuk; gz;zpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;why;> mjw;Ff; $l ek;ktH khrg; nghUj;jk;> gl;rg; nghUj;jk;> ehs; nghUj;jk; ,j;jidAk; ghHj;jhf Ntz;bapUf;fpwJ.

 

rtuj;Jf;Ff; $l ,g;gbnad;why; ,dpf; fypahzq;fs;> rlq;Ffs;> tpahghuq;fs;> ahj;jpiufs;> tptrha Muk;gq;fs;  Kjypa Kf;fpa fhupaq;fs; gy;yhapuj;jpd; tplaj;jpy; ek;ktH Nkw;gb nghUj;jq;fs; ghHg;gjpy; nrytpLk; fhy tpuaj;Jf;Fk; nghUs; tpuaj;Jf;Fk; tuk;Ng fpilahJ.

 

rFdk; ghHf;Fk; tof;fk; fhHaq;fSf;Fg; ngUe; jilahf te;J %z;bUf;fpwJ. ,jpy; NeUk; mopTfSk; mtw;why; nghUs; mopTfSk; vt;tsT cz;lhfpd;wd vd;gij ek;ktH ftdpg;gNj fpilahJ. rFdk; ghHg;gjdhy; fhupa e\;lk; khj;jpuk; cz;lhfpwJ. ehs; nghUj;jk;> yf;dg; nghUj;jk; Kjypad ghHf;Fkplj;Nj> fhHa e\;lk; kl;Lkpd;wp Nkw;gb yf;dk; Kjypad ghHj;Jr; nrhy;Yk; NrhjplUf;F NtW gzk; nrythfpwJ.'  (ghujpahH fl;Liufs; - gf;fk; 8-9)  

 

,d;W vd;d thOjhk;? ghujp fhyj;ijtpl ,d;W Nkhrkhd %lek;gpf;iffspy; jkpo;kf;fs; %o;fpg; Ngha; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;!  vj;jid ngupahHfs; te;J vijr; nrhd;dhYk; %lek;gpf;iffisf; iftplkhl;Nlhk; vd;W Kuz;L gpbf;fpd;whHfs;!  

 

ee;jpdp vd;w xU thrfH vdf;F vOjpapUf;Fk; ,e;j kliyg; gbAq;fs;. 

 

'kdpjDf;F Mwhk; mwpT tPz;. mtd; mae;J mwpTs;s kpUfkhfNt ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;! rpe;jpf;fj; njhpahjtDf;;F vjw;F MwwpT? ,tdpd; %lj;jdj;ij itj;Jj;jhNd fdlhtpy; ,;j;jid Nfhapy;fs;! ,td; fdlh ,y;iy nrt;tha;f; fpufj;jpw;Fg; NghdhYk; jpUe;jg; Nghtjpy;iy. ghujpapd; tupfs; jhd; epidtpw;F tUfpd;wJ neQ;R nghWf;Fjpy;iyNa ,e;j epiy nfl;l kdp;jiu epidj;J tpl;lhy;!

 

r%f ey cjtpapy; ,Uf;Fk; xU %jhl;b Jh;f;ifak;kd; Nfhapy; fl;Lk;NghJ jd; ngah; nrhy;ypj; jfL itf;f 500 nlhyh;fs; nfhLj;jhthk;. ,g;gb vj;jidNah 500 fs;. ,ij ahuplk; nrhy;yp m*tJ? ,Nj %jhl;b jkpoH Gdh;tho;Tf; fofj;jpw;F 5 nlhyH Nfl;lhy; %f;fhy; m*thH! ehk; thOk; fhyj;jpNyNa vk; kf;fs; %lek;gpf;if vd;Dk; nfhba NehapypUe;J tpLgl Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj vd; Nghd;Nwhupd; Mir.'   

 

ee;jpdp ahH vd;gJ vdf;Fj; njupjpUf;ftpy;iy. gy ehs; fopj;J xU epfo;r;rpapy;jhd; jd;id vdf;F mwpKfk; nra;J nfhz;lhH. mtH xU eld Mrpupia. ,uz;L Foe;ijfSf;Fj; jha;. gps;isfSf;Fj; jdpj; jkpo; ngaH itj;jpUf;fpwhH.

 

ee;jpdp %lek;gpf;if xU nfhba Neha; vd;W vOjpaJ Kw;wpYk; rupNa! Neha;> Nehapd; %yk;> mijj; jzpf;Fk; kUe;ijf; NjHe;njLj;J jFe;j kUj;Jtk; nra;aNtz;Lk;!

 

khg;gps;is xU fzpdpg; nghwpapayhsH. ,q;Fs;s ngaH Nghd fzpdp epWtdk; xd;wpy; Ntiy. if epiwar; rk;gsk;> mfit 38 Mfptpl;lJ> Mdhy;> ,d;Dk; jpUkzk; Mftpy;iy. vd;d fhuzk;? vl;by; nrt;tha;! mtiug; NghyNt vl;by; nrt;tha;f; Fw;wKs;s ngz;izg;  gps;isapd; ngw;NwhHfs; ry;yil Nghl;Lj; Njbf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;! Njbf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk; NghJ ftpauR fz;zjhrd; ghbaJ Nghy gps;isf;F Mz;nlhd;W Nghdhy; tanjhd;W Vwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ! 

 

Nghfpw Nghf;ifg; ghHj;jhy; ,tH jpUkzk; nra;a tha;g;Ng ,y;yhky; murkug; gps;isahH Nghy; jdpf; fl;ilahf ,Uf;f NeupLk; Nghy; njupfpwJ!

 

nrt;tha; n[d;k ,yf;fpdj;jpy; (KjyhtJ ,uhrp tPL) ,Ue;J vz;zp 2>4>7>8 my;yJ 12 MtJ  ,uhrp tPLfspy; ,Ue;jhy; Njhrk; vd;fpd;whHfs;. ,jpy; 7 my;yJ 8 Mk; ,lj;jpy; nrt;tha; ,Ue;jhy; mJ Nkhrkhd Njhrkhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ. vg;gbg; ghHj;jhYk; rup 40 tpOf;fhl;bduJ rhjfj;jpy; nrt;tha;f; Fw;wk; ,Uf;fNt nra;Ak;!  

 

fpwpj;jt jkpoHfs; cl;gl ,e;Jf;fs; my;yhjhH jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;L thotpy;iyah? ,e;Jf;fSk; fhjy; jpUkzk; vd;why; rhjfk; ghHf;fhky;jhNd nra;J nfhs;fpd;whHfs;! ,tHfs; vy;NyhUk; thotpy;iyah? 

 

rhjfk; ghHj;Jr; nra;j jpUkzq;fs; vy;yhk; ntw;wp mile;J tpLkh? mjw;fhd cWjpiar; NrhjplHfshy; juKbAkh? rhjfk; ghHj;Jj; jpUkzk; nra;jgpd; khq;fy;ak; ,oe;j ngz;fs; ,y;iyah? kidtpfis ,oe;j Mz;fs; ,y;iyah? Nrhjplupd; kfNs tpjitahfptpl;l gupjhgk; ,y;iyah?   

 

me;jf; FLk;gk; 23 Mz;LfSf;F Nkyhf vq;fs; FLk;gj;NjhL xl;b cwthba FLk;gk;. vq;fs; tPl;L ey;y epfo;r;rpfs; vy;yhtw;Wf;Fk; Kd;tupirapy; epw;gtHfs;. cLf;if ,oe;jtd; ifNghy; Mq;Nf ,Lf;fz; fistjhk; el;G vd;w ts;Stupd; el;G ,yf;fzj;Jf;F ,yf;fpakhdtHfs;.   ahUf;Fk; jPq;F epidf;fhjtHfs;> kw;wtHfs; Nfl;fhkNy jhq;fshf type;J Ngha; cjtp nra;gtHfs;>  ele;jhy; Gy;Yf;$lr; rhfkhl;lhJ vd;W nrhy;thHfNs me;jsT nkd;ikahdtHfs;.  mj;NjhL flTs; gf;jp epiwa cs;stHfs;. Nfhapy; Fsk; NjH jPHj;jk; xd;Wk; jtWtjpy;iy.  ez;gH Njthu jpUthrfk;> jpUg;gy;yhz;L Nghd;wtw;iw ,ir Qhdj;NjhL ghlf; $batH.  

 

fle;j Mz;L ele;j vdJ filrp kfdpd; jpUkzj;Jf;Fr; nrhd;Ndhk;. Mdhy;> mtHfs; tutpy;iy. mNj ehspy; jq;fSf;F NtW xU Kf;fpa epfo;r;rp ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhd;dhHfs;. mij ehk; cz;ik vd ek;gpNdhk;.

 

Mdhy;> mtHfs; jpUkzj;Jf;F tuhky; tpl;ljw;F cz;ikahd fhuzk; kpf mz;ikapy;jhd; vkf;Fj; njupe;jJ. gbj;Jg; gl;lk; ngw;W NgRk; nghw;rpj;jpuk; Nghy; jq;fr; rpiy Nghy; tPl;by; tyk; te;j jq;fs; xNu kfis rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;J itjPf Kiwg;gb jpUkzk; nra;J nfhLj;jhHfs;. xNu kfs; vd;gjhy; jpUkzk; ntF rpwg;NghLk; rPNuhLk; ele;jJ. ,q;fy;y ,yz;ldpy;.

 

Mdhy;> jpUkzk; Kbe;J MW khjq;fs; ,y;iy> kfs; tPl;NlhL te;Jtpl;lhH. fztd; -kidtpf;fpilapy; vd;d rpf;fy; vd;W njuptpatpy;iy. Mdhy;> mtpo;f;f Kbahj ngupa rpf;fy; vd;gJ kl;Lk; njupfpwJ.

 

rhjfg; nghUj;jk; ghHj;Jr; nra;j jpUkzk; MW khjj;Jf;Fs; Kwpe;J tpl;lJ! NrhjplH ,uz;L rhjfq;fspYk; fhzg;gl;l ehs;> Nfhs;> el;rj;jpu epiyfisf; fzpj;J “kzg; nghUj;jk; cz;L nra;ayhk;' vd;W nrhy;ypa gpd;dHjhNd jpUkzk; ele;jJ? Nrhjplk; ngha;j;Jg; Nghdjw;F mJTk; ,t;tsT tpiutpy; ngha;j;Jg; Nghdjw;F  vd;d fhuzk;?

 

Kd;dH Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy fp.gp. 285 Mk; Mz;L Kjy;  fhyj;ijf; fzpg;gjpy; tpl;l jtWjyhy; QhapW Mz;Lf;Fk; el;rj;jpu Mz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; Vwj;jho 24 ghif NtWghL  Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; nghUs; vd;dntd;why; madhk;r NtWghl;ilf; fzf;fpy; vLf;fhJ NrhjplHfs; fzpj;Jf; nfhLf;fpw rhjfq;fspy; ma;e;jpy; ehd;F rhjfq;fs; gpioahd rhjfq;fshFk;. rhjfHfsJ n[d;k ,yf;fpdk; xU ,uhrp kz;lyj;jhy; Kd;Df;Fj; js;sg;gl;L tpl;lJ.  

 

rhjfj;jpy; xUtuJ n[d;k ,yf;fpdk; rpk;kk; vd;W ,Ug;gJ cz;ikapy; flf ,uhrp Mf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;! flf ,uhrp vd;W ,Ug;gJ kpJd ,uhrpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; xUtuJ n[d;k ,yf;fpdk; n[d;k el;rj;jpuk; ,uz;Lk; NtWgLk;! rpk;k ,uhrpapy; 24 ghiff;F Nky; gpwe;jhy; kl;Lk; n[d;k ,yf;fpdKk; n[d;k el;rj;jpuKk; rupahf ,Uf;f tha;g;Gz;L.  

 

nkhj;jj;jpy; rhjfKk; gpio! mjd; mbg;gilapy; nrhy;fpd;w gyd;fSk; gpio!

 

Mz; ngz; ,UtuJ rhjfq;fisg; ghHj;Jg; kzg; nghUj;jk; ,y;iy vd;W Nrhjpluhy; js;sptpl;l rhjfq;fs; cz;ikapy; 'nghUj;jkhf' ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;! nghUj;jk; vd;W nrhd;d rhjfq;fs; cz;ikapy; "nghUj;jk; mw;wjhf” ,Uf;fyhk;!

 

Nrhjpl ,uj;jpdq;fs;> Nrhjpl rpfhkzpfs;> Nrhjpl fiyf;Nfhf;fs; gpioahd rhjfj;ijf; fzpj;J mjd; mbg;gilapy; gyd; nrhy;yp gyuJ vjpHfhy tho;f;ifia ehrkhf;fp tpLfpd;whHfs;.  

 

,jpypUe;J Nrhjplk; rhjhuz Gul;ly;y mz;lg; Gul;L vd;gij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. kpf mz;ikf; fhyj;jpy;jhd; ,e;j fhy tpj;jpahrj;ijf; (madhk;r) fopj;Jf; fzpdpapd; cjtpNahL rhjfk; fzpf;Fk; Kiw eilKiwf;F te;Js;sJ. Mdhy;> vd;dplk; ,Uf;Fk; ifahy; vOjpa rhjfq;fspy; xd;NwDk; ,e;j madhk;rj;ij ftdj;jpy; nfhz;L fzpf;fg;gltpy;iy!

 

ghujpahH kdk; nehe;J vOjpAs;sijg; Nghy Nrhjplj;ij ek;Gtjpdhy; jkpo; rKjhaj;Jf;F Vw;gLk; NfLk; ,og;Gk; nfhQ;r eQ;rky;y. ,e;jf; fl;Liuj; njhlH %yk; Nrhjplk; vd;w  %lek;gpf;ifr; Nrw;wpy; %o;fpj; jtpf;Fk; xU rpyiuahtJ kPl;Lf; fiu NrHf;fyhk; vd cskhu ek;GfpNwd;.

 

,Njh ,d;ndhU kly;. vOjpatH jpUkhtstd;> kNyrpah.  

 

kpfr; rpwe;j fl;Liu. Nrhjplj;jpy; topAk; ,e;J kj ntwpahy; Vkhw;wg;gLk; jkpou;fSf;F ,J tpopg;Gzu;r;rpia Vw;gLj;Jk;. kNyrpa khrpiffspy; ,jid ntspapl tpUk;Gfpd;Nwd;. ,aYkh? mwpag;gLj;Jf. ef;fPuDf;F vk; ed;wpAk; ghuhl;Lk;.

 

tzf;fk;. ghuhl;Lf;F ed;wp. vdJ fl;Liuiag; gbj;Jtpl;L Nrhjplr; RtbfNshL Nrhjpl rhj;jpupfs; vd;NdhL rz;ilf;F tUthHfs; vd epidj;Njd;. xUtHjhd; Kd;te;jhH. Mdhy;> mtH Nrhjplj;ijj; njhopyhff; nfhs;shky; mjidg; nghOJ Nghf;Ff;fhf Muha;gtH. vdJ fl;Liufis jhuhskhf ntspaplyhk;. ef;fPud;.

 

,d;ndhU thrfH 'Nla; kilah' vd;W jdJ ngaiu kl;Lk; vOjptpl;L Ntnwhd;iwAk; jdJ kpd;dQ;rypy; Fwpg;gplhJ tpl;Ltpl;lhH!

 

'vdJ ngaH Mde;j;. nfPhyd;by; fle;j 9 Mz;Lfshf tjpj;J tUfpNwd;. Nrhjplg; Gul;L cl;gl cq;fsJ fl;Liufs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; thrpj;J tUfpNwd;. mit vy;NyhUf;Fk;  gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;fpd;wd. cq;fSld; Ngr tpUk;GfpNwd;. mJ rhj;jpakh?"

 

jkpod;gd; vd;gtH vd;idg; NghyNt Nrhjplj;ij ek;ghky; ,Ue;jjhfTk; gpd;dH mijapl;Lj; jhd; nra;j Ma;tpd; gpd;dH mJ mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; mike;Js;s xU fiy vd thjpl;L vOjpAs;shH. ,jw;F Kd;dH ngaH NghlhJ vOjpatH (Nrhjplg;  Gul;L 6)  ,g;NghJ ngaH Nghl;L vOjpAs;shH. Mdhy;> ,tH Nrhjplj;ijj; njhopyhff; nfhz;ltH my;y vd;gJ njupe;jNj. mtH NkYk; vOjpapUg;gjhtJ>

 

'ehd; mtu;fSf;F (NrhjplHfSf;F) tf;fhyj;J thq;f tutpy;iy. Mdhy;> thdpay; mwpTg;gb Nrhjplj;ijg; gbj;jhy; mjd; cz;ik tpsq;Fk;. xU cz;ik vd;dntd;why; thdrhj;jpuj;jpd; %yk; Nrhjplj;ij cyFf;F czHj;;jpatu;fs; fpNuf;fu;fNs. ek;ktu;fs; gy tpjkhd fl;Lf; fijfis Gide;J mtw;iw jhk; fz;L gpbj;jjhf ek;gg; gz;zpapUf;fpwhu;fs;.  Fwpg;ghf ,uhF NfJf;fSf;F fl;lg;gl;l fij. ,tw;iw ehd; ntspehl;by; thd rhj;jpuj;Jld; $ba Nrhjplk; fw;wjhy; ed;F mwpe;J nfhz;Nld;.

 

,uhF NfJf;fisg; gw;wpAk; mitfs; vg;gb Gtpapy; ,Ug;gtu;fSf;F ghjpg;Gfis Vw;gLj;Jfp;d;wd vd;gjw;F mwpT G+Htkhd tpsf;fk; cs;sJ. ,tw;Wf;nfy;yhk; NeUf;F Neh; Kl;b Nkhjy; ,d;wp tpsf;fkhf jahu; gLj;jp nfhz;bUf;fpNwd;. mtw;iw KbAkhdtiu mDg;gp itf;fpNwd;.

 

vdJ Nehf;fk; xUtiuf; fz;%bj;jdkhf vjpu;f;f Ntz;Lnkd;gjy;y. ehd; vdJ Mo;e;j  Kaw;rpapd; gadhf fz;lwpe;j cz;ikfisg; gfpu;e;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd;w Nehf;fNkahFk;.”

 

,d;iwa Nrhjplj;ij nrk;ikg; gLj;jpatHfs; fpNuf;fHfs; vd;gJ rupNa. Mdhy;> fpNuf;fHfs; ghgpNyhdpaHfsplk; ,Ue;Nj ,uhrp rf;fuk;> Nfhs;fs; gw;wpa juTfisf; fld; thq;fpdhHfs;. Nrhjplj;jpd; Njhw;wk; tsHr;rp> Nja;T gw;wpg; gpd;dH vOJNtd;.

 

jkpod;gd; uhF NfJ  fl;lg;gl;l fij vd;W xj;Jf;  nfhz;Ltpl;L 'mitfs; vg;gb Gtpapy; ,Ug;gtHfSf;F ghjpg;Gfis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd vd;gjw;F mwpT G+Htkhd tpsf;fk; cs;sJ" vd Kd;Df;Fg; gpd; Kuzhf vOjpAs;shH.

 

Nrhjpl Ehy;fisg; gbj;jjpy; ,uhF NfJ Nfhs;fs; Ntj fhyj;jpy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;gij mwpa KbfpwJ. gpw;fhyj;jpy;jhd; mit NrHf;fg;gl;ld.  ,uhF> NfJ Nfhs;fSf;F vd;d %yfq;fs; vd;gJ nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy.

 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpd;gb Gtpia QhapW Rw;wptUfpwJ. Gtpia jpq;fs; Rw;wptUfpwJ. mg;gb Rw;wptUk;NghJ QhapW nry;tjhfj; Njhd;Wk; Row;rp tl;lj;ij (ecliptic) jpq;fspd; Row;rp tl;lk; ,uz;L  Kiw njw;F tlf;fhfTk; tlf;Fj; njw;fhfTk; ntl;LfpwJ. mjhtJ xUKiw tlf;Fj; jpirapYk; ,d;ndhUKiw njw;Fj; jpirapYk; ntl;LfpwJ. ,jid Mq;fpyj;jpy; KiwNa  North node /  South node vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpd;whHfs;.

 

vjpH vjpuhf fhzg;gLk; ,e;jr; re;jp;iaNa ,e;jpa NrhjplHfs; ghk;ghf my;yJ Ntjhskhfr; rpj;jupj;J jiyg;gFjpf;F ,uhF vd;Wk; thw;;gFjpf;Ff; NfJ vd;Wk; ngaH itj;J mjw;Fg; gyDk; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;!  

 

rpyH Nrhjplk; cz;ikahdJ Mdhy;> mijr; rupahfg;gbf;fhky; gyd; nrhy;Yk; NrhjplHfshy;jhd; Nrhjplj;Jf;Ff; nfl;l ngaH vd;fpd;whHfs;. Nrhjplk; rup NrhjplH gpio vd;why; me;jr; Nrhjplj;jhy; r%fj;Jf;F vd;d gad;?

 

,d;ndhU thrfH rPd Nrhjplj;ijg; gw;wp vOj KbAkh vd;W Nfl;L vOjpapUf;fpd;whH. ,g;gb xt;nthU ehl;Lr; Nrhjplk; gw;wp vOjg; Nghdhy; ,e;jj; njhliu Kbf;f KbahJ Ngha;tpLk;. ,Ue;Jk; cyfpy; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l Nrhjplq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd> mit xd;Wf;F xd;W khWghLfpd;wd vd;w cz;ikia vLj;Jr; nrhy;y rPd Nrhjplk; gw;wpr; RUf;fkhd juTfs; fPNo jug;gLfpwJ.

 

rPd N[hjpl Kiwg;gb> ePq;fs; gpwe;j Mz;L cq;fs; mfitiaf; Fwpf;fhJ. mWgJ Mz;L Neu Row;rpapd; xU gFjpia> my;yJ juit kl;LNk gpwe;j Mz;L  nrhy;Yk;.

 

,e;j Mz;L;fisg; ghHf;f %d;W Kiwfs; gpd;gw;wg; gLfpwJ. gj;J nrhHf;f Mz;Lfs;> 12 g+kp fpisfs;> 12 tpyq;Ffshf Mz;Lfs; gpupf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

gdpnuz;L tpyq;F Kiw cUthd gioa fij njupahJ> Mdhy;> mjw;F xU Guhjd fij cz;L.  nrhHf;fj;jpypUe;j kd;dDf;Fg; nghOJ Nghftpy;iy. g+Nyhfj;jpy; elg;gtw;iw mtdhy; ghHf;fNth> njupe;J nfhs;sNth Kbatpy;iy. mjdhy; Gtpapy; cyTk; tpyq;Ffisg; ghHf;f Mirg;gl;lhd;. rpwe;j gdpnuz;L tpyq;Ffis tiuTfshfj; (model) NjHe;njLj;J mitfisr; nrhHf;fj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L tur; nrhd;dhd;.

 

kd;ddpd; MNyhrfH Kjypy; vypf;F miog;G tpLj;jhH. $lNt g+idiaAk; mioj;J tur; nrhd;dhH. 'g+idf;Fr; nrhHf;fkh vd;W nghwhik nfhz;l vyp> g+idia miof;ftpy;iy. gpwF vUJ> Gyp> Kay;> Guhjd kpUfk;> ghk;G> Fjpiu> ML> Fuq;F> Nrty; eha; vy;yhk; kd;dH khspiff;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;ld.

 

tpyq;Ffis kd;dd; Kd;G epWj;jpdhHfs;. gjpNdhU kpUfq;fs; kl;LNk ,Ue;jd. kd;dd; gdpnuz;lhtJ tpyq;iff; nfhz;L tur; nrhd;dhd;. mtrukhf Xba Nrtfd;> gd;wpiar; Rke;J nry;Yk; kdpjidf; fz;lhd; gd;wpiaf; nfhz;L te;J kd;dd; Kd; epWj;jpdhd;.

 

kpUfq;fs; rPuhf epw;fhky; jhWkhwhf kd;dd; Kd; epd;wd. vyp> vUjpd; KJfpy; mkHe;J Gy;yhq;Foy; thrpj;jJ. vypapd; ,irg; Gyikia nkr;rpa kd;dd; Kjyplj;ij vypf;Ff; nfhLj;jhd;. vUjpd; tpisahl;Lj; jpwikf;fhf ,uz;lhk; ,lj;ijf; nfhLj;jhd;. tPukhd Gypf;F %d;whtJ ,lk;> KaYf;F ehd;fhtJ ,lk;> Guhjd tpyq;Ff;F ma;e;J> ghk;gpw;F MW> Fjpiuf;F VO> ML vl;L> Fuq;F xd;gJ> Nrty; gj;J> eha; gjpndhd;W kd;ddpd; jahs Fzj;jpdhy; gd;wpf;F gdpnuz;lhtJ ,lk; fpilj;jJ. ,itNa gd;dpuz;L ,uhrpfshFk;.

 

,e;j tpoh Kbe;jJk;> g+id Xb te;jJ. ,dp xd;Wk; nra;a KbahJ vd;W nrhy;yp tpl;lhd; kd;dd;.

 

,Uk;G> ePH> kuk;> neUg;G> g+kp Mfpa ma;e;J Fzhjpraq;fSk; xt;nthU kpUfj;jpw;Fk; nghUj;jg;gl;lJ gd;dpnuz;Lk; ma;e;ijAk; ngUf;fp mWgJ tUl Row;rpf;F nghUj;jpdhHfs;. Nrhjplj;jpy; ,uhrpr; rf;fuk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Xt;nthU ,uhrpf;Fk;> Mz;Lf;Fk; me;j ,uhrpf;Fupa tpyq;fpd; Fzhk;rq;fNs khNlw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ.  rPd Nrhjplk; xU fl;Lf; fij vd;gjw;F ,e;jf; fij ey;y rhd;whf mike;Js;sJ.

 

,Njh  xU nra;jp. Nrhjplj;ij ek;Gtjpdhy; nghJ kf;fs; ghjpf;fg; gLfpd;whHfs; vd;gJ kl;Lky;y NrhjplHfSk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;.

 

Nryj;ij mLj;Js;s rpd;dfTz;lhGuj;ij NrHe;jtH n[aNty; (taJ 34). ,tUf;F kidtpAk; ,uz;L kfd;fSk; cs;sdH. jdf;Fj;jhNd jdJ rhjfj;jpd; gyd;fis ghHj;jhH. jdf;F kuzNahfk; neUq;fptpl;lJ vd;Wk;> Neuk; rupapy;iy vd;Wk; rhjfj;jpy;; ,Ug;gjhf rf ez;gHfsplk; n[aNty; Gyk;gpAs;shH.

 

,e; epiyapy; tPl;by; ahUkpy;yh Neuj;jpy; eQ;R Fbj;jhH. thapy; Eiu js;sp kaq;fpf; fple;j mtiu mg;gFjp kf;fs; jdpahH kUj;Jtkidf;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;wdH. Mdhy;> itj;jpak; gydpd;wpr; NrhjplH n[aNty; ,we;J NghdhH. (jpdkyH -A+iy 11> 2003)  

 

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (24)

 

"mwptpy;yhjtHfSf;F ,d;gkpy;iy" vd;gJ <rDila tpjp!

   

   

rhjpapNy> kjq;fspNy> rka newpfspNy

    rhj;jpu re;jbfspNy> Njhj;jpur; rz;ilapNy

MjpapNy> mgpkhdpj;(J) miyfpd;w cyfPH!

    miye;J miye;J tPNz eP mopjy; mofy;y…

 

vd rhjp> kjk;> rkak;> rhj;jpuk;> Nfhj;jpuk;> Njhj;jpuk; Nghd;w  %l ek;gpf;iffspy; %o;fp miye;J miye;J tPNz jkpoHfs; moptijf; fz;L tlYhH ts;syhH foptpuf;fg;gLfpd;whH. mtuJ mwpTiu ,d;Wtiu ahH fhjpYk; Vwpajhfj; njupatpy;iy.

 

fiyAiuj;j fw;gidia epiynadf; nfhz;lhLk;

fz;%bg; gof;fnky;yhk; kz;%bg; Nghf.......

 

ehy; tUzk;  Mr;rpukk; Mrhuk; Kjyh

etpd;w fiyr; rupjnky;yhk; gps;istpisahl;Nl..

 

xj;jhUk; caHe;jhUk; jho;e;jhUk; vtUk;

xUik csH Mfp cyfpay; elj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.. 

 

Ntjnewp Mfkj;jpd; newpGuhzq;fs;

tpsk;Gnewp ,jpfhrk; tpjpj;jnewp KOJk;

XJfpd;w #jidj;Jk; cstidj;Jk; fhl;b

cs;sjid cs;sgb czu ciuj;jidNa..... 

 

ts;syhH Ntj> Mfk> ,jpfhr> Guhzq;fis Kw;W KOJkhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;lhk; vd;W mwpTWj;jpdhH. mjpy; mlq;fpAs;s #Jfisf; fz;lwpa Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfl;fpd;whH. Mdhy;> mtuJ mwpTiufs; fhw;NwhL fhw;wha; fiue;J Ngha;tpl;ld. 

 

kw;w ,dj;jtHfs; tpOe;jhy; vOk;gp tpLfpd;whHfs;. ,uz;lhtJ kfhAj;jj;jpy; ghupa capH ,og;Gf;fisAk; clik ,og;Gf;fisAk; re;jpj;j n[HkdpaUk; ag;ghdpaUk; kPz;Lk; vOr;rp ngw;W ,kak; Nghy; cyf muq;fpy; vOe;J epw;fpd;whHfs;! cyfpd; gzf;fhu ehLfspy; n[HkdpAk;  ag;ghDk; Kd;tupirapy; epw;fpd;wd! njhopy;Jiwapy;> njhopy;El;gj;jpy;> nghUs; cw;gj;jpapy; nfhbfl;bg; gwf;fpd;wd.  

 

Mdhy;> jkpoHfs; tpOe;jhy; vOk;gNt khl;lhHfs;.  mg;gbj; jg;gpj; jtwp vOk;gpdhYk; kPz;Lk; mNj ,lj;jpy; tpOe;J tpLfpd;whHfs;! jkpo;r; rhjpapd; ehbia ed;F  gpbj;Jg; ghHj;jtH ghujpahH. jkpo;r; rhjpiag; gPbj;jpUe;j Nehia El;gkhff; fz;lwpe;jtH. Neha;f;F kUe;J nrhd;dtH. jkpo;r; rhjpapy; kz;bf; fple;j %l ek;gpf;iffisg; ghHj;Jf; fLk; Nfhgg;gl;ltH.

 

“ehs; NjhWk; rpyH ,we;J Nghfpd;whHfs;.  kpQ;rpapUf;Fk; %lH “tpjptrk;"  vd;fpd;whHfs;. Mklh tpjptre;jhd;. mwptpy;yhjtHfSf;F ,d;gkpy;iy" vd;gJ <rDila tpjp. jkpo; ehl;bNy rhj;jpuq;fspy;iy> cz;ikahd rhj;jpuq;fis tsHf;fhky;> ,Ug;gdtw;iwAk; kwe;J  tpl;Lj; jkpo; ehl;Lg; ghHg;ghH ngha;f; fijfis %luplk; fhl;b tapW gpioj;J tho;fpd;whHfs;." (ghujpahH ghly;fs; - gf;fk; 433)

 

Nkw;F ehLfspy; NrhjplKk; kjKk; fyg;gjpy;iy. Mdhy;> ,e;jpahtpy; NrhjplKk; kjKk; gpd;dpg; gpize;J fplf;fpd;wd. NrhjplHfs; Njhrk; ,Uf;fpwjhfr; nrhy;ypf; Nfhapy;fspy; rhe;jp nra;AkhW NjhrfhuHfis mq;F mDg;gp itf;fpd;whHfs;. NrhjplHfs; mDg;gj; jtwpatHfis Nfhapy;fhuHfNs thndhyp> ehspjo;fs; thapyhf ntUl;b miof;fpd;wdH.  fpuf Njhrj;jhy; ,uz;L NgH fhl;bYk; kio!

 

kw;w ve;j ,dj;jtiuAk;tpl jkpoHfs; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;jpd; Nky; msTf;F mjpfkhd ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

jpUkzk; kl;Lky;y kw;w ve;j ey;y epfo;ntd;whYk; gQ;rhq;fk; ghHf;fhky; vijAk; nra;Ak; JzpT mtHfsplk; ,y;iy. fil jpwg;G tpohth? tPL FbG+uyh? gps;isf;Fr; NrhW Cl;lyh? fhJ Fj;jyh? ePj;jhH epidth? vjw;F vLj;jhYk; ,uhF fhyk;> ml;lkp etkp> akfz;lk;> kuzNahfk; vd ehSk; NfhSk; ghHf;fhky; ngUk;ghd;ikahd jkpoHfs; mLj;j mb vLj;J itg;gjpy;iy. .

 

gy;yp nrhd;dhy; NghJk; vOe;jpUe;jtH cl;fhHe;J tpLthH. G+id FWf;Nf Nghdhy; nrhy;yNt Ntz;lhk;. rFdg; gpio vd;W nrhy;yp Ntiy epkpj;jkhf ntspNa Nghf ,Ue;jtH Ngrhky; tPl;by; ,Ue;J tpLthH.

 

fhyq;fhykhf Nrhjplj;jpd; kPJ itj;jpUf;Fk; ek;gpf;if tsHe;J tUfpwNj xopa Fiwe;j ghl;ilf; fhNzhk;.

 

tzpf Nehf;NfhL elj;jg;gLk; nra;jp VLfs;> fpoik VLfs; ghku kf;fspd; Nrhjpl Nkhfj;jpw;F nea;A+w;wp mjid NkYk; tsHj;J tUfpd;wd.

 

Nrhjplk;> ,uhrp gyd;> rdp ngaHr;rp>  FU ngaHr;rp> ,uhF NfJ ngaHr;rp> jpUkzg; nghUj;jk;> Njhr rhe;jp> Nfs;tp gjpy; Nghd;wtw;iwj; jhq;fp tuhj VLfNs ,d;W ,y;iynad;W nrhy;yptplyhk;.  

    

,uhrpfSk; Nfhs;fSk; fdlhtpy; ntsptUk; VLfspy; ',e;jthu ,uhrp gyd;” Fiwe;jJ ,uz;L gf;fq;fisahtJ epug;gp tpLfpwJ. mg;gb ,lk; xJf;fhj VLfisg; ghHg;gJ kpf mupJ. Kof;fk;> cyfj; jkpoH Nghd;w VLfs; kl;LNk ,e;j Kiwikf;F tpyf;F!

                                                         

                                                                                 ,uhrpfSk; fpufq;fSk;      

          

,iza tiyak; te;j gpd;dH NrhjplHfs; thd ntspapYk; fil tpupj;J tpl;lhHfs;. Mapuf;fzf;fhd KONeu NrhjplHfs; ftHr;rpfukhd Kiwapy;  rhjfk; fzpg;gJ> gyd; nrhy;tJ> nghUj;jk; ghHg;gJ> epidj;j fhupak; nrhy;tJ> cly;eyk;> Ntiy> thzpfk;> gzk;> gazk; gw;wpa MNyhrid> Njhrq;fSf;Fg; gupfhuk;> mjpl;lj;Jf;F jhaj;J> etuj;jpdf; fw;fs;> Nkhjpuk;> fhg;G> cUj;jpuhl;rk;> Jsrpkhiy> ae;jpuk; Nghd;wtw;iw tpw;gid nra;fpd;whHfs;.

 

mNjhL ke;jpuk;> je;jpuk;> tpujk;> nrgk;> jtk;> rhe;jp> mUr;rid> mgpNrfk;> vs;nsz;nza; rl;b vupj;jy; Nghd;wtw;iwr; nra;AkhW nrhy;fpd;whHfs;.

 

Nrhjplj;NjhL njhlHGila vz;rhj;jpuk;> ehb rhj;jpuk;> Tarot thrpg;G> mUs;thf;F (Clairvoyance) Nghd;w %l ek;gpf;iffis %yjdkhf itj;Jf;nfhz;L thzpfk; nra;Ak; NgHtopfSf;Fk; Fiwtpy;iy.               

 

ehd; Ntz;Lk; vd;Nw xU mUs;thf;Fr; nrhy;Yk; xUtNuhL kpd;dQ;ry; %yk; njhlHG nfhz;L vdJ

          

vjpHfhyk;gw;wpr; nrhy;YkhW Nfl;Nld;. mtH xU nts;isf;fhug; ngz;kzp. mLj;j tpehb mtuplk; ,Ue;J gjpy; te;jJ.

 

'NtYg;gps;is (vdJ Kjy; ngaH) ePq;fs; ek;g khl;BHfs;! cq;fisg;gw;wp ,uT fdT fz;Nld;. tpba cq;fs; kpd;dQ;ry; tUfpwJ. cq;fSf;F ,d;W Kjy; ey;y fhyk; gpwe;jpUf;fpwJ. cq;fsJ mjpl;l vz; 1> 3> 13. vjw;Fk; tpgukhd gyd;  nrhy;tjw;F 50 nlhyHfs; mDg;gp itAq;fs;......." ehd; gjpy; mDg;gtpy;iy. Mdhy;> mtH vd;id tpl;lghby;iy. Juj;jj; njhlq;fptpl;lhH. Njtij tPl;Lf; fjitj; jl;Ltijj; jdJ mff; fz;zhy; ghHf;f KbfpwJ vd;Wk; ehd; mjid Gwf;fzpg;G nra;tjhfTk; nrhd;dhH. njhlHe;J xt;nthU ehSk; vOjpf; nfhz;bUe;jhH. mtuplk; ,Ue;J ntl;bf; nfhs;StJ ngupa ghlhfptpl;lJ.   

 

rhjfk; fzpj;jy;> gyd; nrhy;Yjy;>  ehb ghHj;jy; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F 50 Kjy; 250 mnkupf;f nlhyHfs; fl;lzkhf mwtpLfpd;whHfs;. njhopy;> epjp> cly;eyk; gw;wpa Nfs;tp xt;nthd;Wf;Fk; 10 ,y; ,Ue;J 50 nlhyH mwtpLfpd;whHfs;. =yq;fhtpy; cs;s xU rpq;fs  NrhjplH rhjfk; ghHj;Jg;  gyd; nrhy;y &gh.4>750 Nfl;fpd;whH.

 

tl mnkupf;fhtpy; Nrhjplk; gyNfhb nlhyHfs; GuSk; tzpfkhf tpsq;FfpwJ. gj;jhapuj;Jf;Fk; mjpfkhd KO Neu NrhjplHfs; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. xU Mz;by; 2..2 Nfhb Nrhjplg; Gj;jfq;fs; tpw;gidahfpwJ. 1997 ,y; Life rQ;rpif elj;jpa fUj;Jf; fzpg;gpd;gb mnkupf;fHfspy; 47 tpOf;fhl;bdH Nrhjplj;ij ek;Gfpd;whHfshk;.

 

mwptpay; fz;L gpbg;ghd fzpdpapd; tUif NrhjplHfspd; %is ciog;igf; Fiwj;J mtHfsJ tUthiag; gd;klq;F mjpfg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. rhjfk; fzpg;gJ> gyd; nrhy;tjw;F Vuhskhd nkd;nghUs; gad;ghl;Lf;F te;Jtpl;ld.       

 

gbahjtHfs; kl;Lky;y gbj;jtHfs;> mwpthspfs;> jpwikrhypfs; midtUNk Nrhjplj;Jf;F mbikahfp ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. Nrhjplj;Jf;F mwpit kaf;Fk; Mw;wy; (rf;jp) ,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzk;  fhyk; fhykhf jkpoHfsJ %is ryit nra;ag;gl;L mjw;Fs; mtHfis mwpahkNyNa %lek;gpf;iffisAk; kjrhj;jpuq;fisAk; kjFUkhH jpzpj;J tpl;lhHfs;.   

 

ahUila tho;f;ifapy;jhd; Jd;gk; ,y;iy? njhy;iy ,y;iy? ftiy ,y;iy? ,og;gpy;iy?

 

xt;nthUtUila tho;f;ifapy; ,d;gKk; Jd;gKk;> tsHr;rpAk; Nja;Tk;> caHTk; jho;Tk;> nry;tKk; tWikAk;> ed;ikAk; jpd;ikAk;> Vw;wKk; ,wf;fKk; fye;Nj ,Uf;fpwJ. ,jid Ehy;fshYk; eilKiw tho;f;ifahYk; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

XH ,y; nea;jy; fwq;f XH ,y;

<He;jz; Kotpd; ghzp jJk;g

GzHe;NjhH G+tzp mzpag; gpupe;NjhH

igjy; cz;fz; gdpthHG ciwg;gg;

gilj;Njhd; kd;w mg; gz;gpyhsd;

,d;dhJ mk;k ,t;Tyfk;

,dpa fhz;fpjd; ,ay;G czHe;NjhNu!     

,d;dhJ mk;k ,t;Tyfk;

,dpa fhz;f ,jd; ,ay;GzHe;NjhNu.          (Gwk; 194)

 

“xU tPl;by; rhf;fhl;Lg; giwapd; xyp

 

,;d;ndhU tPl;by; kzj;jpw;Ff; nfhl;Lk; kpff; FspHe;j Kotpd; Xir

 

xU tPl;by; fhjyNuhL G+ mzpe;j kfspH

 

,d;ndhU tPl;by; fhjyH gpupthy;  fz;fspy; ePH epiwe;j kfspH

 

,t;thW mikAkhW ,t;Tyfifg; gilj;jtd; gz;gwpe;J xOFk; gzpgpyhsd;

 

nfhbJ ,t;TyfpdJ ,aw;if

 

Mjyhy; ,t;TyfpdJ jd;ikia ,dpJ mwpe;J

thof; fw;Wf; nfhs;thahf!

 

vd;fpd;whH gy;;FLf;if ed;fzpahH vd;w rq;f fhyg; GytH. ed;fzp ,tuJ ,aw;ngaH. vy;NyhHf;Fk; xU jd;ikg;gl mikf;fhJ NtWgl mikj;jikapd; gilj;jtid 'gz;gpyhsd;” vd itfpd;whH.

 

யாதும் ஊரே ; யாவரும் கேளிர் ;
தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர்தர வாரா ;
நோதலும் தணிதலும் அவற்றோ ரன்ன ;
சாதலும் புதுவது அன்றே ; வாழ்தல்
இனிதுஎன மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலமே; முனிவின
இன்னா தென்றலும் இலமே; ‘மின்னொடு
வானம் தண்துளி தலைஇ ஆனாது
கல்பொருது இரங்கும் மல்லற் பேர்யாற்று
நீர்வழிப் படூஉம் புணைபோல, ஆருயிர்
முறைவழிப் படூஉம்’ என்பது திறவோர்
காட்சியின் தெளிந்தனம் ஆகலின் மாட்சியின்
பெரியோரை வியத்தலும் இலமே;
சிறியோரை இகழ்தல் அதனினும் இலமே. (புறநானூறு
192)

 

NfLk; Mf;fKk; jhNk tupdy;yJ gpwH ju thuh>


NehjYk; mJ jPHjYk; mtw;iw xg;g jhNk tUtd>


rhjy; GJtjd;W> tho;jy; ,dpnjd kfpo;e;jd;W>


xU ntWg;G te;japlj;J ,d;dhnjd;W ,Uj;jYk; ,y;iy>


ngupNahiu tpaj;jYk; ,yk;>

 

rpwpNahiu ,fo;jYk; mjdpDk; ,yk;.         

 

vdg; Gfo; ngw;w rq;fg; GytH fzpad; G+q;Fd;wdhH mwpTWj;Jfpd;whH.

 

xUtuJ tho;f;ifapy; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk;; nghUs; NrUk;. ,d;ndhU Neuk; mJ NghFk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk; cly; eyk; ,Uf;Fk;. gpd;dH xU fhyj;jpy; mJ nflf;; $Lk;. ,itnayhk; ,aw;if tha;g;gl;ld.

 

vy;yhf; Foe;ijfSk; gpwf;Fk; NghJ gFj;jwpNthLjhd; gpwf;fpd;wd. gpd;dH mtHfs; ngupatHfshf tsUk; NghJ jha; je;ijaH mjd; gpQ;R kdjpy; rhj;jpu rk;gpujhaq;fis> %lg; gof;f tof;fq;fis> fl;Lf; fijfis> rhkp gaj;ijj; jpzpj;JtpLfpwhHfs;. kdpjHfs; Nrhjplj;ij ek;Gtjw;F mt;thW guk;giu guk;giuahf mtHfs; %isapy; jpzpf;fg;gl;l %lek;gpf;iffNs VJthFk;. vy;yh kdpjHfSk; -

 

  1) cstpay; mbg;gilapy; jq;fisg;gw;wp kw;wtHfs; Gfo;tijf; Nfl;f kpfTk; Mirg;gLfpd;whHfs;. Fwpg;ghfg; ngz;fSf;F ,e;j Mir mjpfk;.

   

  2) jq;fs; vjpHfhyk; vg;gb ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij Kd;$l;b mwpa vy;NyhUk;  Mirg;gLfpd;whHfs;. jq;fSf;Fg; gpuk;kh my;yJ gilj;jtd; VNjh xU ngupa jpl;lk; (grand design)   xd;;iwj; jahupj;J itj;Jf; nfhz;L fhj;jpUg;gjhf epidf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

  3) 'mw;Gjk;” fis mg;gbNa ek;gp tpLfpd;whHfs;. mwptpaiy mg;gb ek;Gtjpy;iy. gps;isahH ghy; Fbf;fpd;whH> NaRehjH miwag;gl;l rpYitapy; ,Ue;J ,uj;jk; tbfpwJ> rhap ghgh glj;jpy; ,Ue;J jpUePW nfhl;LfpwJ vd;why; thiag; gpsf;fpd;whHfs;. KUfd; khk;gok; thq;f kapNywp cyifr; Rw;wp te;jhH vd;w Guhzf; fijia vspjpy; ek;gptpLfpd;whHfs;. Mdhy;> kdpjd; epyhtpy; fhy; gjpj;jij ek;g kWf;fpd;whHfs;. thdpayhsHfs; neLe;njhiytpy; vkJ QhapW FLk;gj;ij xj;j QhapW FLk;gq;fs; ,Ug;gjhfTk; mjidr; Rw;wp Gtpiag; Nghd;w Nfhs;fs; tyk; tUfpd;wd vdr; nrhd;dhy; mij ek;g khl;lhHfs;.

 

  4) thdpayhsHfs; neLe;njhiytpy; vkJ QhapW FLk;gj;ij xj;j QhapW FLk;gq;fs; ,Ug;gjhfTk; mjidr; Rw;wpg; Gtpiag; Nghd;w Nfhs;fs; tyk; tUfpd;wd vdr; nrhd;dhy; mij vspjpy; ek;g khl;lhHfs;. nrt;tha;f; Nfhspy; tpz;fyid ,wf;fp ehrh Ma;T nra;fpd;wJ  vd;why; mijg;gw;wp mf;fiw nfhs;s khl;lhHfs;. mWgjpdhapuk; Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH Gtpf;F kpf mzpj;jhf nrt;tha;f; Nfhs; te;jJ njupAkh vd;W Nfl;lhy; njupahJ vd;ghHfs;. Mdhy; nrt;tha; Njhrk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ  vd;W NrhjplH rhjfj;ijg; ghHj;Jr; nrhd;dhy; NghJk;. clNd mjid Nfl;Lf; Nfs;tpapd;wp ek;gp tpLfpwhHfs;.

 

   5) jhq;fs; epidj;jJ elg;gij tpUk;Gfpd;whHfs;. fhiyapy; fz; tpopj;jTld; ',d;W ehs; ey;yhf ,Uf;fhJ> VjhtJ nfl;lJ elf;fg; NghfpwJ” vd;W epidj;jhy; mg;gbNa epidj;j khjpup ele;J nfhs;fpd;whHfs;. nrd;w fpoik Nrhjplg; gyidg; ghHj;Jtpl;L eQ;R Fbj;Jj; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz;l NrhjplH n[aNtypd; Nrhff; fij ,jw;F ey;y vLj;Jf;fhl;L. jdJ rhtpd; %yk; Nrhjplj;ij mtH EhW tpOf;fhL “nka;g;gpj;J' tpl;lhH! 

 

  6) kw;wtHfs; nrhy;tij vspjpy; xg;Gf; nfhz;LtpLfpd;whHfs;. 'ckf;F ,g;NghJ Neuk; fhyk; rupapy;iy”; vd;W kw;wtHfs; nrhd;dhy; mJ mtHfSf;Fr; rup Nghyj; Njhd;Wk;.  

 

  7) jq;fSf;Fj; jw;nrayhf Vw;gl;l epfo;Tfis (coincidences) epidtpy; itj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;whHfs;. kw;wtw;iw trjpahf kwe;JtpLfpd;whHfs;. tPl;by; cs;s eha; Fiuf;Fk; G+id mOk; Nfhl;lhd; fj;Jk;. Mdhy;> mit epidtpy; epw;gjpy;iy. tPl;by; xUtH ,we;j ehsd;W eha; Fiuj;jJ> G+id mOjJ> Nfhl;lhd; fj;jpaJ kl;Lk; epidtpy; epw;Fk;.  Vd; Fil nfhz;Lte;j ehs;fspy; kio nga;jJ kwe;J Ngha;tpLk;. Fil nfhz;Ltuhj ehs;fspy; kioapy; eide;jJ epidtpy; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

  8) jq;fs; rpf;fy;fs;> jq;fs; tho;f;if epiyik jdpj;JtkhdJ vd;W epidf;fpd;whHfs;. 

 

  9) kw;wtHfs; nfhLf;Fk; Muthukhd thf;FWjpfis tpUk;gp Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;whHfs;.

 

 10) rpf;fyhd tplaq;fSf;Fr; Rygkhd jPHit vjpHghHf;fpwhHfs;. ePupopT Neha;f;F clw;gapw;rp nra;J czTf; fl;Lg;ghl;il mDl;bg;gjw;Fg; gjpy; kUj;JtH nfhLf;Fk; khj;jpiuia tpOq;FtijNa tpUk;GthHfs;.

 

gpd;;tUk; Nrhjplg; gyidg; gbj;Jg; ghUq;fs;. mJ cq;fSf;Fg; nghUe;jp tUtJ Nghd;w kaf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;.

   

  1) cq;fs; kdR fs;skpy;yhj nts;is kdR. mjw;fhf ahiuAk; ePq;fs; vspjpy; ek;gp tpl khl;BHfs;.

 

  2) ez;gHfNshL NrHe;J Fk;khsk; mbg;gPHfs;. mNj Neuk; jdpikapy; ,Ug;gJ cq;fSf;Fg; gpbf;Fk;.

 

  3) ePq;fs; Kw;Nfhgf;fhuH. Mdhy;> mLj;j fzk; 'gdpf;fl;b" khjpupf; FspHe;J tpLtPHfs;.

 

  4) cq;fSf;F vijAk; xspj;J itf;fj; njupahJ. mNj rkak; vy;yh ,ufrpaq;fidAk; cq;fsJ ez;gHfNshL gfpHe;J nfhs;s khl;BHfs;.

 

  5) cq;fs; if Xl;ilf; if. mjhtJ nrythsp. ePq;fs; vt;tsTjhd; Xb Xb cioj;jhYk; ifapy; ehY fhR kpQ;rhJ.

 

  6) ePq;fs; Gjpjhfj; njhlq;Fk; njhopy; XNfh vd;W elf;Fk;. Mdhy;> iftrk; cs;s njhopy;fspy; el;lk; miltPHfs;.  

 

  7) cq;fsJ neUq;fpa cwtpdH xUtH mz;ikapy; ,we;jpUf;f Ntz;LNk?

 

  8) cq;fs; kidtpNahL rz;il NghLtPHfs;. Mdhy;> gpd;dH rkhjhdk; MfptpLtPHfs;.

 

  9) gioa fldfs;; jpUk;gp tUk;. Mdhy;> ePjpkd;wg; gbfspy; Vwp ,wq;f Ntz;b ,Uf;Fk;.

 

 10) cq;fSf;F ,dpg;Gr; rhg;ghL gpbf;Fk;. ghiyr; Rlr; Rlf; Fbg;gPHfs;.

 

 11) fle;j MW khjq;fshf cq;fsJ fpufq;fspd; ghHit rupapy;iy. ml;lkj;jpy; rdpgfthd; epd;W cq;fSf;F kd cisr;ry;> miyr;ry;> nghUs; ,og;G vy;yhtw;iwAk; nfhLj;J tpl;lhH.  mLj;j khj eLg;gFjpapy; et ehafHfspd; jiytdhd #upad; cr;rk; ngWfpd;whH. mq;fhufd; (nrt;tha;) jdJ nrhe;j  tPl;by; Ml;rp nra;ag; Nghfpd;whH. tpaho gfthd; flf ,uhrp 5Mk; ghifapy; guk cr;rk; ngWfpd;whH. rdpNah ePr;rk; milfpd;whH. Rg fpufq;fshd #upad;> FU> Rf;fpud;> Gjd;> tsHgpiwr; re;jpud; Mfpatw;wpd; ghHit ,Ug;gjhy; ,dp epr;rak; cq;fSf;F Nahf fhyk; gpwf;fg; NghfpwJ.  

 

,g;gbg; gpbnfhlhky;> xd;W gpioj;jhy; kw;wJ ruptUfpwkhjpup; xw;iw ,ul;il gpbj;J> jf;F itj;Jj;jhd; NrhjplHfs; gyd; $Wfpd;whHfs;. 

 

,uhrp gyd; Nrhjplk; ,tw;iw ek;g Ntz;lhk; vd typAWj;j jtj;jpU Fd;wf;Fb MjPdk; nghd;dk;gyk; mbfshH xU ,yf;fpa tpohtpy; fPo;f; fz;l fijiar; nrhd;dhH.

 

mtH xU gpugy;akhd ngupa NrhjplH. mtH $WtJ vy;yhk;  gypf;fpwJ> mtH nrhy;ypagb vy;yhr; nray;fs; eilngWfpwJ vd;W CNu NgrpaJ.

 

Nrhjpliur; re;jpf;f vg;NghJk; kf;fs; $l;lk;.  md;W “kTd tpujk;" ahuplKk; NrhjplH Ngr khl;lhH vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. 

 

xUtH FLk;gj;Jld; tUfpd;whH> jd;Dila kfDf;F gj;J ehs;fshf fLikahd fha;r;ry; vd;fpd;whH.

 

NtW xUtH tUfpd;whH> mtUk; jd;Dila kfDf;F gj;J ehs;fshf fLikahd fha;r;ry; vd;fpd;whH. 

 

Nrhjpl rhkpahH ,UtuplKk; MSf;F xU ke;jpupj;j 'fy;” iyf; nfhLj;J mLj;j thuk; te;J ghHf;fr; nrhy;fpd;whH.

 

xU thuk; fopj;J xUtH tUfpd;whH 'rhkp> vd; kfd; gpioj;Jf; nfhz;lhd;. ,g;Ngh ey;yh ,Uf;fhd; rhkp> cq;f Gz;zpaj;jpy;" vd;fpd;whH.

 

clNd Nrhjpl rhkp $wpdhH 'mtd; capH fy;iyg; Nghy; cWjpahdJ> fy; Nghy; MAs; nfl;b> mij ntspf;fhl;lNt ehd; 'fy;"iy cd;dplk; nfhLj;Njd;” vd;fpd;whH.

 

mLj;jtH tUfpd;whH "rhkp! vd; kfd; ,we;Jtpl;lhd;” vd;fpd;whH.

 

clNd Nrhjpl rhkp "mtd; cd; jiyapy; fy;iyg; NghLthd;> capNuhL ,Uf;f khl;lhd; vd;gijf; fhl;lNt cd;dplk; fy;iyf; nfhLj;Njd;"; vd;fpd;whH.

 

,e;j ‘fpy;yhb’ Nrhjpliug; NghyNt [hjff; Foe;ij fijapy; tUk; NrhjplUk; "vd;d rup? Mz; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; vd;W nrhd;dPH. ngz; Foe;ij my;yth gpwe;jpUf;fpwJ' vd;W mtd; rpdj;jpy; fj;jpa NghJ "nghW jk;gp! cdf;F Mz; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; vd;WjhNd nrhd;Ndd;? ,e;jf; Foe;ij cdf;Fg; gpwe;jpUe;jhy; Mz; Foe;ijahf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. ,J cdf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ij my;y!  CUf;Fg; gpwe;j Foe;ij!” vd;W gL nfl;bj;jdkhfj; jl;il khw;wtpy;iyah?

 

VkhWgtHfs; ,Uf;Fk; kl;Lk; Vkhw;WgtHfSk; ,Uf;fNt nra;thHfs; vd;gjhy; NrhjplHfs; tPl;Lf;F Vkhspfs; $l;lk; njhlHe;J Ngha;f; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpwJ.  

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (25)

 

gz;ila kdpjDf;F fz;lnjy;yhk; flTs;fs;!

 

ehrh epWtdj;jpdhy; tpahoDf;F 150 Nfhb mnkupf;f nlhyH nrytpy; mDg;gg;gl;l tpz;fyk; 14 Mz;Lf;Fg; gpd;dH jdJ MAis Kbj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. fle;j Qhapw;Wf;fpoik ehrh mwptpayhsHfs; me;j tpz;fyj;ij Ntz;Lnkd;Nw tpahod; kPJ Nkhjr; nra;J rpjwbj;jhHfs;.

 

me;j Mspy;yhj tpz;fyk; kzpf;F 174>000 fpkP Ntfj;jpy; tpahodJ fhw;W kz;lyj;jpw;Fs; GFe;jNghJ mJ rpjWz;L Mtpahf khwp cUf;Fiye;J NghdJ. me;j tpz;fyk; filrpahf mDg;gpa mwptpay; juTfs; Gtpf;F 800 kpy;ypad; (80 Nfhb) fpkP njhiyitf; fle;J tu vLj;j Neuk; 52 kzpj;Jsp MFk;.  

 

tpz;fyj;jpd; ngaiu ehd; nrhy;ytpy;iyNa? mjd; ngaH Galileo! Gfo;ngw;w ,j;jhyp ehl;L fypypNah fypNy  (Galileo         Galile- 1564-1642) vd;w thdpayhsuJ ngaiuj;jhd; ehrh me;j tpz;fyj;Jf;Fr; #l;b mtiug; ngUikg; gLj;jpAs;sJ.

 

tpahoDf;F ,Jtiu 6 tpz;fyq;fs; mDg;gg;gl;Ls;sd. gadpaH 10> gadpaH 11> NthNa[;[H 1> NthNa[;[H 2> fypypNah kw;Wk; A+yprp]; (Ulysses) vd;gdNt mit MFk;. 1989 ,y; Vtg;gl;l fypypNah tpahodpd; fhw;Wkz;lyj;jpy; cs;s ePH kw;Wk; Ntjpg; nghUl;fis mstpl mDg;gg;gl;ljhFk;.

 

tuyhw;wpy; Kjd;Kiwahf fypypNahjhd; tpaho Nfhis njhiyNehf;fp %yk; ghHj;jtH. 1610 ,y; mtH tpaho Nfhisr; Rw;wptUk; 4 epyhf;fisf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. Qhapwpy; fWg;Gg; Gs;spfs; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gijAk;> epyhtpy; gs;sj;jhf;Ffs; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gijAk;> re;jpuidg; NghyNt nts;spf; NfhspYk; tsHgpiw Nja;gpiw Vw;gLfpwJ vd;gijAk; fz;L gpbj;jtUk; mtHjhd;.  fypypNah fz;L gpbj;j epyhf;fspy; xd;W mtuJ ngauhy; (Callisto) miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

fypypNah tpahodJ epyhf;fs; mjidr; Rw;wp tUtijf; fz;L gpbj;j gpd;dNu Gtpikaf; Nfhl;ghl;by; ma;ak; Vw;gl;L QhapWikaf; Nfhl;ghL gw;wp

thdpayhsHfs; jPtpukhfr; rpe;jpf;fj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;. 

 

mtUf;Fg; gpd;dH NkYk; 12 epyhf;fs; Mf nkhj;jk; 16 epyhf;fs; tpahoid tyk; tUfpwJ vd;gJ fz;Lgpbf;fg; gl;lJ. ,d;W mjd; vz;zpf;if 35 Mf caHe;Js;sJ. ,jpy; ANuhgh (Europa)  vd;w epyhNt  mstpy; ngupaJ. mjpy; jz;zPH ,Uf;fyhk; vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ.

 

1989 ,y; ml;yhd;b]; (Atlandis) vd;w VTfiz %yk; tpz;Zf;F Vtg;gl;l ,e;jf; fypypNah tpz;fyk; Kjd; Kiwahf xU FWq;Nfhisr; (Asteroid) Rw;wp epyh xd;W tyk; tUtijf; fz;L gpbj;jJ. ,e;j Ez;Nfhs;fs; tpz;ntspapy; tpahoDf;Fk; nrt;tha;f;Fk; ,ilapy; fhzg;gLgit MFk;.  NkYk; tpaho Nfhspd; 3 epyhf;fspy; cg;Gf; fly;fs; ,Ug;gijAk; tpahod; kPJ thy;kPd; NkhjpaijAk; glk; vLj;J mDg;gpa tpz;fyKk; ,Jjhd;. ,e;j tpz;fyk; Gtpf;F nkhj;jk; 14>000 Gifg;glq;fis mDg;gp itj;jJ.

 

1994 Mk; Mz;L A+iy 16-22 ,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; #Nkf;fH- nytp 9 vd;w (Shoemaker - Levy 9 ) vd;w thy;kPd; tpahodpd; njd; miuf;Nfhsj;jpy; (Southern Hemisphere)  Nkhjp mjd; kPJ fUg;Gj; jOk;Gfis cz;lhf;fpaJ gyUf;F epidT ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

fypypNah tpz;fyj;ij ,g;gb mopar; nra;jjw;Ff; fhuzk; tpahodpd; epyhf;fspy; xd;whd ANuhg;gh (Europa) kPJ mJ Nkhjp mjd; kPJ Gtpapd; Ez;Zapupfs; (microbes) vijahtij gbar; nra;JtpLNkh vd;w gag;ghLjhd;. 1999 ,y; epyhtpy; Nkhjr; nra;J mopf;fg;gl;l tpz;fyj;Jf;F (Lunar  Prospector ) mLj;jjhf ehrhthy; jpl;lkpl;L Nkhjp mopf;fg;gl;l tpz;fyk; fypypNah kl;LNk.

 

ehrh ,d;Dk; xU gj;jhz;by; NkYk; xU Mspy;yhj tpz;fyj;ij (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter ) mDg;g ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

,e;j mwptpay; nra;jpia vOJk; NghJ ve;jj; jkpo; ehNsLfSk; mjid ntspapltpy;iy. mtw;iwg; nghWj;jstpy; ,J nra;jpNa my;y. ehfghk;G xd;W vq;NfahtJ xU Nfhapypy; fhzg;gl;lnjd;Nwh my;yJ ey;y ghk;nghd;W mHr;rfupd; Foe;ijapd; fOj;ijr; Rw;wpaJ vd;Nwh Nfs;tpg;gl;lhy; NghJk;.

mJ cz;ikNah ngha;Nah clNd mJ gugug;ghd nra;jpahfptpLfpwJ.

 

mnkupf;fd; tpz;zpy; cs;s Nfhs;fis jPtpukhf MuhAk;NghJ jkpod; ve;j ntl;fNkh Jf;fNkh ,y;yhky; mNj Nfhs;fisg; gf;jpNahL Rw;wpf; Fk;gpl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhd;. Njhrk; ePq;f mUr;rid> mgpNrfk;> vs;nsz;nza;r; rl;b vupf;fpwhd;.

 

mnkupf;fd; ifapy; mz;lj;jpd; tiuglk; ,Uf;fpwJ. jkpod; ifapy; gQ;rhq;fk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjpy; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;s gy;yp nrhw; gyd; (gj;Jj; jpf;F)> gy;yp nrhw; gyd; (gjpdhW jpf;F)> gy;yp nrhw; gpuptpd; gyd;> gy;yp tpOk; gyd;> ,UJ [dd gyd;> fdtpd; gyd;> fhfk; fiuAk; gyd;> M&lrf;fu gyd;> re;jpu ,yf;fpd Nfhru gyd;> jhuh gyd;> =uhk rf;fuk;> tpthfg; nghUj;jk;> Mz;Lg; gyd;> ,uhF fhyk;> ak fz;lk;> thu #yk;> mf;fpdp Nahfk;> gpuahzj;Jf;F tpyf;fg;gl;l rFdk;  Kjypatw;iw tpOe;J tpOe;J gbf;fpwhd;!

 

,e;j mofpy; xU jkpodhtJ Gfo; ngw;w Nehngy; (Nobel) gupir mwptpay;Jiwapy; rup my;yJ Ntnwe;jj; JiwapyhtJ rup jl;bf; nfhz;LNghf xU fLfsthtJ rhj;jpak; ,Uf;fpwjh? mLj;j Ehw;whz;byhtJ mg;gbahd rhj;jpak; ,Uf;fpwjh?

 

Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L vd;gij mwpTG+Htkhf tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s thdpay;gw;wpa eilKiw mwpT Njit. ,d;iwa mwptpay; cyfpy; tpz;ntsp gw;wpa kiyg;G kdpjDf;F Vw;gLtJ ,aw;if. Fwpg;ghf thdpay; gw;wpa juTfs; vspjpy; Gupe;J nfhs;s Kbahj Gjpuhf ,Uf;fpd;wd.                                                                                                                                         ghy; tPjp

,e;j  mz;lk; (Universe) fhyk; (Time) ntsp (Space) vd;w  ,uz;bYk; cs;s xsp> gUg;nghUs;> Mw;wy; ,tw;why; MdJ.  

 

ghy; tPjp (Milky Way) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; mz;lj;jpy; vkJ ghy; ntsp kz;lyj;ijg; Nghy; 10>000 - 20>000 Nfhb ghy;kz;lyq;fs; cs;sd. xt;nthU ghy;kz;lyj;jpYk; 50>000 Nfhb el;rj;jpuq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mjpy; vkJ ghy;kz;lyj;jpy; (galaxy) fhzg;gLk; 10>000 - 20>000 Nfhb tpz;kPd;fspy; (stars) vkJ QhapWk; xd;whFk;.  

 

vkJ QhapW> ghy;kz;lyj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Ue;J 30>000 xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; xU Xuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. Gtpapy; ,Ue;J QhapW 93 kpy;ypad;  (9.3 Nfhb) fy; njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ue;Jk; mJ mLj;j fpl;lb tpz;kPNdhL xg;gpLk;NghJ 270>000 klq;F mzpj;jhf cs;sJ.

 

,e;j mz;lk; 1>500 Nfhb (15 gpy;ypad;) Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH mlHj;jpahd jput tbtpy; ,Ue;jJ vd ek;gg;gLfpwJ. mg;NghJ ePupak; kw;Wk; fPypaj;ijtpl Ntnwhd;Wk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. tpz;kPd;fNsh Nfhs;fNsh ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mz;lj;jpd; mfit gj;Jf; Nfhb Mz;L ,Uf;Fk;NghJ tpz;kPd;fs; ePupaj;jpy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wp ,Uf;fyhk;.

 

,g;gbj;jhd; vkJ QhapW tpz;kPd; 449 Nfhb Mz;LfSf;F Kd; Njhd;wp ,Uf;fyhk;. QhapW Njhd;Wtjw;F Kd;dUk; gpd;dUk; gy tpz; kPd;fs; Njhd;wpd. 

 

,e;jj; Njhw;wk; ,d;Wk; njhlHfpwJ. Mw;wy; tha;e;j njhiyNehf;fp %yk; ghHf;Fk;NghJ ePupak; neUf;fk; mile;J mjpy; ,Ue;J tpz;kPd;fs; Njhd;Wtijf; fhzf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ.  

 

mz;lj;Jf;F xU ikak;> KbT my;yJ vy;iy ,Ug;gjhfj; njupatpy;iy. mNj Neuk; mJ tpupe;J nfhz;L nry;tjhf mwptpayhsHfs; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;.

 

ehk; njhiyNehf;fp %yk; fhZk; mz;lk; fle;j 1>500 Nfhb Mz;L fhyk; xspapd; Ntfj;jpy; te;J NrHe;j gFjpNa MFk;. Mjw;F mg;ghYk; mg;ghYk; mz;lk; tpupe;J fplf;fyhk;!

 

gz;ila kdpjDf;F tpz;ntspAk; mq;F fhzg;gLk; Nfhbf;fzf;fhd tpz;kPd;fSk; (stars) Nfhs;kPd;fSk; (planets)  ngupa kiyg;igAk; tpag;igAk; mr;rj;ijAk; nfhLj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

 

me;j kiyg;G> tpag;G> mr;rk; fhuzkhf kdpjd; tpz;kPd;fisAk; Nfhs;kPd;fisAk; mjptY gilj;j NjtijfshfTk; nja;tq;fshfTk; flTsHfshfTk; fw;gid nra;J mtw;iwg; ga gf;jpNahL topglTk; nra;jhd;.  

 

Fwpg;ghf #upa topghL vfpg;J> ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfspy; gutyhf ,Ue;jJ.  jkpo;ehl;by; #upadhH Nfhapy;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

 

#upad; xU Njtij> re;jpud; xU Njtij> el;rj;jpuk; xt;nthd;Wk; jdpj;jdpj; Njtij> kiy xU Njtij> ejp xU Njtij> rKj;jpuk; xU Njtij> kio xU Njtij> ,bkpd;dy; xU Njtij. ,g;gbg; fz;lJ> Nfl;lJ> njhl;lJ vy;yhk; Njtij vd;W vy;yhtw;Wf;Fk; ntt;NtW ngaH itj;J mtw;iwj; jpUg;jp nra;ag; G+rhupfisAk; ke;jputhjpfisAk; kdpjd; ehbdhd;. kdpjdpd; Kl;lhs;j;;;jdk; Njtijfspd; Nguhy; G+rhupfSk; ke;jputhjpfSk; mtd; kbapy; ifia itj;Jg; gzj;ijf; nfhs;isabf;f trjpahfg; Ngha;tpl;lJ.

 

Nrhjplk; xt;nthU fpufj;Jf;Fk;  ,uhrpfSf;Fk; el;rj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; mjpNjtijfs; cz;L vdr; nrhy;fpwJ.  

 

    fpufq;fspd;       mjpNjtijfs; 

 

    #upad;       -      rptd;

    re;jpud;       -      ghHtjp

    mq;fhufd;    -      fe;jH

    Gjd;         -      kfhtp\;Z

    FU          -      gpukd;

    Rf;fpud;       -      ts;sp

    rdp          -      vkd;

    uhF          -      gj;jpufhsp

    NfJ         -      ,e;jpud; 

 

    ,uhrp tPLfspd;     mjpNjtij

 

    Nk\k;     -        Rg;gpukzpaH

    up\gk;     -        kPdhl;rp

    kpJdk;     -       kfhtp\;Z

    flfk;      -       ghuhrf;jp

    rpk;kk;      -       gpukd;

    fd;dp      -       ,yl;Rkp

    Jyh       -       Ru];tjp

    tpUr;rpfk;   -       ma;ag;gd;

    jDR      -        ntq;fNlr ngUkhs;

    kfuk;      -        ,uh[uhN[];tup

    Fk;gk;     -        guNk];tuH

    kPdk;      -        md;dthfd Njtp

 

,t;thNw  mRtpdp njhlq;fp ,Nutjp <whf cs;s el;rj;jpuq;fSf;F KiwNa ru];tjp njhlq;fp rdp gfthd; <whf mjpNjtijfs; vd vOjp itj;Js;sJ.   

 

Mdhy;>> ,e;j mjpNjtij ahH ahH vd;gjpy; NrhjplHfs; tof;fk; Nghy; MSf;F Ms; NtWgLfpd;whHfs;. ehd; NkNy je;jJ V.vk;. gps;is vOjpa N[hjpl mKjk; vd;w Ehypy; fhzg;gLk; juTfshFk;. ,d;ndhU NrhjplH tpy;ypak; MH. nytrp  jhd; vOjpa xU Ntj thdpd; fPo; (Beneath a Vedic Sky by William R.Levacy) vd;w Ehypy; guhruiu Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;bg; gpd;tUkhW mjpNjtijfspd; ngaHfis tupirg; gLj;Jfpd;whH. 

 

    #upad;     -     mf;fpdp

    re;jpud;     -     tUzd;

    mq;fhufd;  -     Rg;gpukzpaH

    Gjd;       -     kfhtp\;Z

    tpahod;    -     ,e;jpud;

    nts;sp     -     ,e;jpuhzp

    rdp        -     gpukd;

    ,uhF      -     JHf;if

    NfJ       -     fNzrH

 

mq;fhufd;> Gjd; Nfhs;fs; ,uz;ilAk; jtpu Vida mjpNjtijfs; NtWgLtijAk; ,lk;khwp ,Ug;gijAk; ePq;fs; ftdpf;fyhk;. ,uhrp> tpz;kPd;fs; ,tw;iwg; nghWj;jtiuapYk; ,Nj fijjhd;. Nrhjplj;jpy; fhuz fhupaq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; Vuz Kiwahd fUJNfhs;fis vjpHghHg;gJ tPz;NtiyahFk;!

 

cNuhk fpNuf;f ,jpfhrq;fspYk; Nfhs;fs; Njtijfs;> nja;tq;fs;> flTsH Mfr; rpj;jupf;fg;gl;lhd. 

 

#upad; (Sun) .,jid Sol vd cNuhkHfSk Heilos vdf; fpNuf;fHfSk; mioj;jhHfs;.

 

Gjd; (Mercury) tzpfj;jpd; Njtijahf cNuhk ,jpfhrq;fspy; rpj;jupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. fpNuf;fHfs; Gjid Hemes  vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. flTsupd; Jhjtd; vd;gJ mjd; nghUs;. 

 

nts;sp (Venus) cNuhkHfspd; fhjy; kw;Wk; mofpd;  nja;tk;. fpNuf;f ,jpfhrj;jpy; nts;spia Aphrodite vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. 

 

nrt;tha; (Mars) cNuhkHfspd; NghHf; flTs;. fpNuf;fHfs; mjid Aries vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. 

 

tpahod; (Jupiter) cNuhk flTsupd; murd;. cNuhk murpd; fhty; nja;tKk; tpahod;jhd;. fpNuf;fHfs; mjid rPa]; (Zeus) vd;W mioj;jhHfs;. rPa]; fpNuf;f flTsH kw;Wk; xypk;g]; kiy (Mount Olympus)  MSk; flTs;. ,e;jpa ,jpfhrj;jpy; tpahod; NjtHfsJ FU> kdpj Fyj;ijf; fhf;Fk; nja;tk;. 

 

rdp (Saturn) cNuhk ,jpfhrj;jpy; tptrhaf; flTshf rpj;jupf;fg;LfpwJ. fpNuf;f ,jpfhrj;jpy; mjid Cronus  vd mioj;jhHfs;. Saturday vd;w Mq;fpyr; nrhy; Saturn vd;w nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J gpwe;jjhFk;.

 

rdp A+NuNdarpd; gps;isahFk;. jdJ gps;is Ml;rpapy; ,Ue;J jd;idf; ftpo;j;JtpLk; vd;w gaj;jpy; rdp A+Nudpair Mz;ikf; Fiwg;Gr; nra;jJ. gpd;dH rdp mjdJ gps;isahd A+gpl;lH (Jupiter) My; gjtp ftpo;f;fg;gl;lhH.

 

,e;jpa  ,jpfhrk; rdp #upaDf;Fk; rhah Njtpf;Fk; gpwe;j  Foe;ij vd;W rpj;jupj;J ,Ue;jijg; ghHj;Njhk;.   

 

epyh (Moon)  Yhdh (Luna) vd cNuhkHfshy; miof;fg;gl;lJ. fpNuf;fHfs; mjid Artemis vd mioj;jhHfs;. 

 

#upad; (Sun). ,jid Sol vd cNuhkHfSk;  Heilos vdf; fpNuf;fHfSk; mioj;jhHfs;.  

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (26)

 

kio nga;tpg;gjw;F gpuhzpfSf;Fj; jpUkzk;!

 

Ngud;GilaPH!

 

tzf;fk;.  kio Ntz;bAk;> jz;zPHg; gQ;rk; ePq;fTk;> grpg;gpzp ePq;fTk;> ehL nropf;fTk;> tptrhak; kw;Wk; njhopy; tpUj;jpailaTk; epfOk; RghD tUlk; Gul;lhrp khjk; 15 Mk; ehs; (2-10-2003) tpahof;fpoik tsH gpiw jpjpAk; %y el;rj;jpuKk; rpj;jNahfk; $ba RgNahf Rgjpdj;jpy; fhiy 10.30 kzp Kjy; ez;gfy; 12 kzptiu kzkfd; mUs;kpF NkftHzd;> kzkfs; mUs;kpF fhHKfpy;ty;yp ,UtUf;Fk; jpUkzk; Ng&H neha;ay; Mw;W tpehafH rd;djpapy; eilngWtjhy; nghJkf;fs; midtUk; fye;J nfhz;L kio Ntz;b gpuhHj;jpf;FkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpNwhk;.

 

,g;gbf;F

 

Ng&H nghJkf;fs; 

 

ahH ,e;j mUs;kpF NkftHzd;? mUs;kpF fhHKfpy;ty;yp? Kd;ida fhyj;jpy; khg;gps;is tPl;lhH my;yJ ngz; tPl;lhHjhd; jpUkzj;Jf;F jdpj;jdpahf miog;G mDg;GthHfs;. Mdhy;> ,g;Nghnjy;yhk; ,U tPl;lhH miog;G vd;W Nghl;L xH miog;gpjiog; gad;gLj;Jfpd;whHfs;. Mdhy;> NkNy CH kf;fNs xd;W$b miog;G tpLj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. vdNt ,J xU ngupa ,lj;Jj; jpUkzk; vd ePq;fs; epidf;fyhk;. mg;gb epidj;jhy; cq;fis ahUk; Fiw$w KbahJ.

 

cz;ikapy; ,e;j NkftHzd; - fhHKfpy;ty;yp ,uz;Lk; fOijfs;! fOijfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J itj;jhy; kio nga;Ak; vd;w %lek;gpf;ifahy;jhd; ,e;jj; jpUkzk;! jpdkyH ehNsL ,e;jr; nra;jpia ntspapl;Ls;sJ. me;j Vl;Lf;F ,g;gbahd gj;jhk;grypr; nra;jpfis ntspapLtjpy; jdp MHtk;!

 

Ng&upy; xU Nrhbf; fOijf;Fj;jhd; jpUkzk;. Mdhy;> nrd;idapy;  'kio kw;Wk; cyf mikjp  Ntz;b ghk;G> kPd;> Xzhd;> gd;wp cs;gl 18 tif [PtuhrpfSf;F xNu ,lj;jpy; jpUkzk; ele;jJ" vdj; jpdfud; ehNsL ngupa jiyg;gpl;L nra;jp ntspapl;Ls;sJ.

 

'nrd;id> nrg; 28- cyf mikjp kw;Wk; kiof;fhf nrd;id Nf.Nf. efH ky;b tpdhafH Nfhtpy; tshfj;jpy; ,d;W fhiy 18 tif [PtuhrpfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; ele;jJ. Fjpiu> fOij> eha;> thj;J> Nfhop> thd;Nfhop> khL> Kay;> vyp> Fuq;F> gd;wp> kPd;> ez;L> fpsp> fhfk;> cLk;G> ghk;G> Xzhd; Nghd;wtw;Wf;Fj; jpUkzk; elj;jp itf;fg;gl;lJ.  mtw;Wf;F XJthH thRNjtd; ke;jpuk; Xjpj; jhyp fl;bdhH.

 

Kd;djhf mjpfhiyapy; th];J Xkk;> fzgjp Xkk;> fz;b Xkk;> Nfhkhjh g+i[> f[  g+i[> m];t g+i[ Nghd;wit ele;jJ.  ,e;jpa Njrpaf; nfhb cl;gl 5 ehl;Lf; nfhbfSf;Fk; rpwg;Gg; g+i[ nra;ag;gl;lJ.  cyf rkhjhdk; Ntz;b 10 Gwhf;fs; gwf;f tplg;gl;ld."

 

,e;jr; nra;jpfisg; gbj;jNghJ ehq;fs; tho;tJ kdpjd; rpf;fpKf;fp fy;iyg; gad;gLj;jpa fw;fhykh my;yJ kdpjd; tpz;ntspg; gazk; nra;Ak; 21Mk; Ehw;whz;lh? vd;w ma;ak; epahakhfNt vOfpwJ.

 

,e;j Ehw;whz;by; ve;j kilaHfshtJ kio nga;tjw;F ,g;gbf; Fjpiu> fOij> eha;> thj;J> Nfhop> thd;Nfhop> khL> Kay;> vyp> Fuq;F> gd;wp> kPd;> ez;L> fpsp> fhfk;> cLk;G> ghk;G> Xzhd; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F ke;jpuk; nrhy;yp jpUkzk; nra;J itg;ghHfsh?

 

vyp> kPd;> ez;L> fhfk;> cLk;G> ghk;G> Xzhd; Mfpatw;Wf;F vg;gbj; jpUkzk; nra;J itg;gJ?

 

kio nga;tjw;Fk; gpuhzpfs; fy;ahzj;jpw;Fk; Xk Fz;lq;fSf;Fk; VjhtJ njhlHGz;lh? ,e;jg; gpuhzpfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J itg;gjd; %yk; kio nga;tpf;f KbAkhdhy; gUt kio ngha;j;J tpl;ljhy; fhtpupapy; jz;zPH tuhjjhYk;  njhlHr;rpahf 3 Mz;L jQ;ir khtl;lj;jpy; Ntshz;ik fLikahfg; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. fUfpa gapiuf; fz;L fkf;fhuHfs; kdk; cile;j jw;nfhiy nra;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

'thd; ngha;g;gpDk; jhd; ngha;ah kiyj; jiya flw;fhtpup ' vdg; gl;bdg; ghiy ghba fbaYhH cUj;jpuq;fz;zdhH cr;rpkPJ itj;J nkr;rpg; ghba fhtpup ngha;j;Jg; Nghdjhy; gQ;rk; mq;F jiytpupj;jhLfpwJ.

 

kf;fs; grp jhq;f KbahJ vypfisg; gpbj;Jf; fwpahf;fp cz;L capH tho;fpd;whHfs;. 

 

,e;jj; jpUkzj;ij> Xkq;fis ,e;j XJthH $l;lk; jQ;irapy; elj;jp Vd; kioiag; nga;tpf;ftpy;iy?

 

cz;ik vd;dntd;why; nrd;idapNyNa kio nga;atpy;iy! mg;gbg; nga;jhYk; mjw;Fk; ,e;jj; jpUkzj;Jf;Fk; Xkj;Jf;Fk; njhlHG mwNt fpilahJ.

 

Ntjid vd;dntd;why; ,e;jj; jpUkztpohtpw;Fj; jkpo;ehL rl;lrig rghehafH fhspKj;J jiyik jhq;fpapUf;fpd;whH. mtuJ kidtp kNdhfhp> th];J rh];jpu epGzH H.Nf.gftjp uh[;> kidtp uhjh MfpNahH Fj;J tpsf;F Vw;wpdhHfs;. jpUthLJiw Kj;Jf;Fkhu jk;gpuhd; Rthkp> fUzhfud; Rthkp> tyk;Ghp Nahd;> ftpQH gpiw#bahd; tho;j;jpg; NgrpdhHfs;. gl mjpgH gp.b. nry;tFkhH ed;wp $wpdhH. 

 

,jpy; MH.Nf. gftjpuh[; kw;Wk; tyk;Gup Nahd; ,tHfs;gw;wp ,e;jf; fl;Liuj; njhlupd; njhlf;fj;jpNyNa (Gul;L  2> 3) vOjpAs;Nsd;.  

 

'xU kdpjdpd; ed;ik jPikia mtH FbapUf;Fk; tPl;bd; th];J mikg;G epHzapf;fpwJ vd;gJ tpQ;Qhd g+Ht cz;ikahFk;. Foe;ijr; nry;tk; ,y;yhky;NghtJ> kdepiy ghjpj;j MNzh> ngz;Nzh ,Ug;gJ> jPuhj Neha; gPbj;jpUg;gJ> jpUkzj; jilfs; cUthFtJ> gbg;G ke;j epiy vd;W ,d;Dk; gy;NtW jPikfs; th];J FiwghLs;s tPl;bdhy; Vw;gLk;. mjw;F me;j tPl;bd; Fiwfisr; rhpnra;tJ kpf Kf;fpak;. th];J FiwAs;s ,lq;fspy;

mkHe;J nra;Ak; njhopy;fSk; el;lj;jpy; jhd; KbAk;" vd;W  nrhd;d Gj;jprhyp ,Nj gftjp uh[;jhd;.

 

th];J rhj;jpuk; gpuhkzd;> rj;jpupad;> itrpfd;> #j;jpud; ,tHfsJ tPl;Lf;F ntt;NtW jpirapy; thry; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Fyj;Jf;F xU ePjp nrhy;fpwJ!

 

jkpo;ehl;by; vjw;Fg; gQ;rk; ,Ue;jhYk; ,g;gbahd %lj;jdj;Jf;Fk; Kl;lhs;jdj;Jf;Fk; gQ;rNk ,y;iy.

 

Kilehw;wk; tPRfpd;w %lek;gpf;iffspd; nkhj;j cUtkhfj; jkpo;ehL Kjyikr;rH n[ayypjhNt CHNjhWk; cyh tUfpd;whH. mtH Nghfhj Nfhapy; ,y;iy> Fk;gplhj nja;tk; ,y;iy> nfhLf;fhj fhzpf;if ,y;iy> FbapUf;Fk; tPNl ahfrhiyahf khw;wg;gl;L tpl;lJ.

 

ahfk; Vd; nra;ag;gLfpwJ? mf;fpdp> thA> tUzd;> ,e;jpud; Nghd;w NjtHfs; ke;jpu Kof;fq;fshYk;> nea;apd; eWkzj;jhYk; ftug;gl;L> G+kpapy; ahfk; elf;Fk; ,lq;fSf;F ,wq;fp te;J> ahfrhiyfspd; moifAk; Mlk;guq;fisAk; fz;L ,urpj;J> jPapy; nghRq;fpa gl;lhilfis mzpe;J> gytpj czTg; nghUl;fisAk; khkprj;ijAk; cz;L> ntwpf;Fk; Nrhk ghdj;ijg; gUfp> thridj; jputpaq;fisg; G+rpf;nfhz;L> jhk;G+yk; jupj;J> kdk; kpf kfpo;r;rpaile;J> ahfk;  nra;jtHfSf;Fk; VidatHfSf;Fk; Ntz;ba vy;yh tuq;fisAk; nfhLj;Jtpl;L NjtNyhfk; jpUk;gpg; Ngha;tpLthHfshk;! NghFk; NghJ ,e;jpud; kpQ;rpa gl;lhilfis jdJ kidtp ,e;jpuhzpia kfpo;tpg;gjw;F vLj;Jr; nry;thdhk;!

 

Jzpkzp> ,iwr;rp>  fs; Mfpatw;Wf;F Vq;Fk; ,e;j mw;gj; NjtHfs; kdpjHfSf;F mg;gb vd;d ngupjhf tuk; nfhLj;Jtpl KbAk;?

 

Mdhy;> jkpod; ,e;jf; fhl;Lkpuhz;b fhy Xkq;fs;> ahfq;fs; ,tw;wpy; ,d;Dk; ek;gpf;if itj;Jj; jdJ nghUisAk; Neuj;ijAk; khdj;ijAk; mwpitAk; ,oe;J tUfpwhd;!   

 

ehs;> el;rj;jpuk;> gQ;rhq;fk;  ghuhJ Kjyikr;rH n[ayypjh ve;j mYty;fisAk; nra;tjpy;iy. mtuJ ,uhrp vz; 9 vd;gjhy; vy;yhtw;iwAk; 9 ,y; itj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;whH. ghJfhg;Gf;F epWj;jg;gLk; fhtyupd; vz;zpf;if xd;gJ> mikr;ruitapd; $l;Lj;njhif xd;gJ> mtuJ ,uhrp epwk; gr;ir vd;gjhy; fl;Lfpw Nriy gr;ir>  NghLfpw rl;il gr;ir>  gpbf;fpw Fil gr;ir> nfhLf;fpw miog;gpjo; gr;ir vy;yhNk gr;ir epwk;jhd;. Nfhl;ilf;Fg; Nghtnjd;whYk; ml;lkp etkp ,uhF fhyk; ghHj;Jj;jhd; Nghfpd;whH.

 

,g;NghJ Nfhl;il mtUf;F ,uhrp ,y;iy vd;W ahNuh xU th];J rhj;jpup nrhy;y> gf;fj;jpy; cs;s ,uhzp Nkup fy;Yhupia ,bj;Jj; js;sptpl;L mq;F jkpo;ehL murpd; jiyikr; nrayfj;ijf; fl;lf; fl;lisfisg; gpwg;gpj;Js;shH.

 

'Njuh kd;dh! nrg;GtJ cilNad;> cd; efH GFe;J <q;F vd; fhy; rpyk;G gfHjy; epd;ghy; nfhiyf;fsg;gl;l Nfhtyd; kidtp” vdg; ghz;bad; neLQ;nropad; mitapy; tof;Fiuj;j fz;zfp “nka;apy; nghbAk; tpupj;j fUq;FoYk;  ifapy; jdpr; rpyk;Gk; fz;zpy; fz;zPUkhf” nrd;idf; flw;fiuapy; rpiyahf epw;gJ Koptsj;Jf;Ff; $lhnjd NrhjplH nrhy;y mJ ,uNthL ,uthf mfw;wg;gl;lJ.

 

NkNy $wpathW jkpo;ehl;by; vjw;Fg; gQ;rk; ,Ue;jhYk; ,g;gbahd %lj;jdj;Jf;Fk; Kl;lhs;jdj;Jf;Fk; gQ;rNk ,y;iy. ehlhSk; Kjyikr;rNu %lj;jdj;Jf;F ey;y Kd; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf tpsq;Fk;NghJ Fbkf;fisf; Nfl;fth Ntz;Lk;?

 

gpuhzpfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J itj;jhy; kio nga;Ak; th];J Kiwapy; tPl;ilf; fl;btpl;lhy; Foe;ijr; nry;tk; fpilf;Fk; jPuhj Neha; jPUk; gbg;G tUk; vd;why; ,e;jpahtpy; Vo;ik> tWik> gQ;rk; Neha; ,Ug;gJ Vd; vd;W mwpTilatHfs; Nfl;f khl;lhHfsh? Nfl;f Ntz;lhkh?  ,e;jpahtpy; 360 kpy;ypad; (36 Nfhb) kf;fs; tWikf; Nfhl;bd; fPo; tho;fpd;whHfs;. ,J nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; 35 tpOf;fhlhFk;. khjk; &gh 2640 tUkhdk; cs;NshNu tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;F Nky; tho;tjhff; fzpf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;. nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; 52. 6 Nfhb FLk;gq;fsJ (59 tpOf;fhL) ruhrup Mz;L tUkhdk; &gh 12>500 kl;LNk!  

 

,e;jpahtpy; Mz;Lf;F 25 kpy;ypad; ( 2..5 Nfhb) Foe;ijfs; gpwf;fpd;wd. ,jpy; 2.7 kpy;ypad; gps;isfs; 5 tJ mfit epiwA Kd;dH ,we;J Nghfpd;whHfs;.  

 

,e;jpahtpy; 4 mfitf;Ff; Fiwthd 60 kpy;ypad; Foe;ijfs; Cl;ltY gw;whf; Fiwahy; ghjpf;fg; gl;Ls;shHfs;.  ,e;jpahtpy; Mapuj;jpy; 7 Foe;ijfs;> Mapuj;jpy; 20 mfit te;NjhH fhr Nehahy; gPbf;fg; gl;Ls;shHfs;. 

 

,e;jpahtpy; Mz;Lf;F 600>000 Foe;ijfs; tapw;Nwhl;lj;jhy; Vw;gLfpw ePHtul;rpahy; (dehydration) ,wf;fpd;whHfs;. 

 

,e;jpahtpy; gPfhH> ,uh[];jhd;> cj;jug;gpuNjr khepyq;fspy; cs;s ngz;fspy; Ehw;Wf;F 75 tpOf;fhl;bdH vOjg; gbf;fj; njupahj jw;Fwpfs;. 

 

,e;jpahtpy; vapl;]; Nehahy; gPbf;fg;gl;ltHfs; njhif 3.97 kpy;ypad; (2001). njhO Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfs; njhif 704>000  (khHr; 31> 2000).   

 

vz;zpwe;j flTsUk;> Mapuf;fzf;fhd Nfhapy;fSk; NrhjplHfSk; th];J rh];jpupfSk; mUr;rfHfSk; G+rhupfSk; thOk; Gz;zpa G+kpahd ,e;jpa ehl;bd; myq;Nfhyk; ,Jjhd;. ,e;j mofpy; Nfhapy; Fsk;> NjH> jPHj;jk;> mUr;rid> mgpNrfk;> Nehd;G> fhtb Nghd;wtw;wpy; VjhtJ nghUs; ,Uf;fpwjh? rpe;jpf;fj; njupe;jtHfs; nfhQ;rk; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

 

vkJ QhapW FLk;gk; (solar system ) Qhapiw tyk; tUk; xd;gJ Nfhs;fs;> Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd Ez;;Nfhs;fs;> thy;kPd;fs; Kjypatw;iw cs;slf;fpaJ.  

 

Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J mjpfupf;Fk; njhiytpy; cs;s Nfhs;fs; Gjd;> nts;sp> Gtp> nrt;tha;> tpahod;> rdp> A+Nwd];> neg;jpA+d; kw;Wk; GSl;Nlh MFk;. ,tw;wpy; Kjy; 6 fpufq;fs;gw;wp Vw;fdNt (mj;jpahak; 6) XusT tpsf;fkhf vOjpAs;Nsd;.  

 

A+Nwd];jhd; jw;fhyj;jpy; (1781) fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l Kjy; NfhshFk;. ,jd; epwk; gr;ir- ePyk;  fye;jJ. Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J VohtJ njhiytplj;jpy; ,e;jf; Nfhs; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,J rdpiag; Nghy; ,d;ndhU klq;FnjhiyT. ,e;jf; Nfhisj; jw;nrayhf gpupj;jhdpa ehl;ilr; NrHe;j tpy;ypak; NfPHnry; (William Herschel ) vd;gtH njhiyNehf;fp %yk; thdj;ijg; ghHj;jNghJ fz;L gpbj;jhH. mjw;F Kd;dUk; rpyH mjidg; ghHj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;> Mdhy;> mtHfs; mjid xUtpz;kPd; (star) vdj; jtwhf vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;.   

 

,e;jf; NfhSf;F tpy;ypak; NfHry; jdJ ehl;bd; murH NahH[; epidthf itj;j ngaH (Georgian Star) ml;y];  (Atlas) vd;gjhFk;. Mdhy;> Vida Nfhs;fsJ ngaHfs; midj;Jk; fpNuf;fk; my;yJ cNuhkhdpa  ,jpfhr flTsHfsJ ngaHfshf ,Ue;jjhy; ,jw;F A+Nudpa]; vd;w fpNuf;f Mfha ,jpfhrf flTspd; ngaiu Johann E.Bode  vd;w n[Hkhdpa thdpayhsH khw;wpr; #l;bdhH.

                                                                                 Qhapwpd; Rw;Wg; ghij

 

,e;jf; Nfhs; ngUk;ghYk; ePupak; kw;Wk; fPPypak; ,uz;bdhYk; MdJ. Mdhy;> tpahod;  my;yJ rdpiatpl ghukhd %yq;fs; (elements) nfhz;lJ. Kfpy;fshy; %lg;gl;Ls;sJ. 1986 ,y; tpz;ntspf;F Vtg;gl;l  nthNa[;[H 2 (Voyager 2) tpz;fyk; %ye;jhd; Kjd; Kjyhf A+Nwd]; gw;wpa gy juTfis thdpayhsHfs; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;j tpz;fyk; A+Nudpair %bAs;s Kfpy;fSf;F NkNy 50>000 iky; (80>000 fpkP.) Jhuj;jpy; gwe;jJ.  

                                                                                        

A+NwD];

 

tpl;lk;     -   51>118 fpkP (31>763 fy;)   

jpzpT       14.53                                                                                           

jiu      -   thA kw;Wk; jputfj;jhy; MdJ. ,jd; ikag; gFjpapy;  Gtpapd; mstpy; ghiwfs; ,Uf;ff; $Lk;.                      

 

fhw;W kz;lyk;  -          ePufk;> fPypak;> nkNjd; kw;Wk; mNkhdpah.

 

ntg;gk;        -         -328 ghud;ifl; ( -200 nry;rpa];)

 

jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhyk; 17 kzp 16 kzpj;Jsp        ANwD];

 

                              

Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyk;    -  30>685 ehs; my;yJ 84 Gtp Mz;L

 

Gtpapy; ,Ue;J Fiwe;j njhiyT    -  2>570.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP (1>597.00 kpy;ypad; fy;)  

 

Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J nghJNkdp njhiyT     - 2870.99 kpy;ypad; fpkP (1783.94 fy;)       

 

cq;fs; vil         -            Gtpapy; 200 fpNyh vd;why; A+Nwd]; 177.8 fpfp

 

Jizf; Nfhs;        -             5

 

tisaq;fs;           -             11     

 

mLj;j fpoik vQ;rpAs;s neg;jpA+d; kw;Wk; GSl;Nlhgw;wp vOJNtd;.  

 

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L  (27)

 

tpz;izg;gw;wpa mr;rNk Nrhjplk;!

 

ef;fPud;  

 

 

nrd;w fpoik Ng&H> nrd;id ,uz;L efuq;fspYk; kio Ntz;bg; gpuhzpfSf;Fj; 'jpUkzk;" nra;J itj;j %lj;jdj;ijg; gw;wp vOjpapUe;Njd;. ,e;j epfo;r;rp gw;wp Gtdfpupapy; ,Ue;J m. FzNrfud; vd;gtH vOjpa  'Mapuk; <.nt.uh. te;jhYk; jpUj;JtJ fbdk;!" vd;w fbjk; jpdkyH ehNsl;by; (7-10-2003) ntspte;Js;sJ. mjidf; fPNo jUfpNwd;>

 

'%lek;gpf;iffSf;F vjpHg; gpurhuk; nra;jtH <.nt.uh.  mtH njhlq;fpa jpuhtpl ,af;fj;jpypUe;J gpupe;jNj jp.K.f.  ,f;fl;rpapd; jiytHfs; ghHg;gd Mjpf;fj;ij vjpHg;gjhfr; nrhy;ypAk;> %lek;gpf;iffSf;F vjpuhdtHfs; vd;W nrhy;ypAk; jq;fsJ fl;rpia tsHj;jdH.

 

,e;epiyapy;> cyf ed;ik fUjp 18 tifg; gl;rp> kpUfrhjp> rPtuhrpfSf;Fj; jpUkzk; nra;J itg;gjhfr; nrhy;yp gy capupdq;fis tijj;Js;sdH. cyf ed;ikf;fhf ,j;jpUkzk; nra;tjhfr; nrhy;yp> capupdq;fis tijj;Js;sJ Kw;wpYk; nfh^ukhd nray;. ,jw;F Kd;dpiy tfpj;jtH rghehafH fhspKj;J. ,g;gbj; jpuhtpl ,af;fj;jpdNu %lek;gpf;ifapy; %o;fpAs;sij ghHf;Fk;NghJ Mapuk; <.nt.uh. gpwe;jhYk; ek;ktHfisj; jpUj;j KbahJ Nghy; Njhd;WfpwJ.'

 

Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Nkyhfj; jkpoHfs; kdjpy; FbapUf;Fk; %lek;gpf;iffis xopg;gJ vd;gJ vspjhd nray; my;y. xU jiyKiwapy; mjid xopf;f KbahJ. ngupahH njhlf;fp itj;j gzpia ehk;jhd; Kbj;J itf;f Ntz;Lk;.      

 

jkpo; ehl;by; Kjyikr;rH n[ayypjhNt %lek;gpf;iffis tsHg;gjpy; Kd;dzpapy; epw;fpwhH. mtiug; gw;wpa nra;jpnay;yhk; ,d;d NfhapYf;Fg; NghdhH> ,d;d Njhr ePf;fj;Jf;F ,d;d ahfk; nra;jhH> ,d;d jhdk; nra;jhH> ,d;d njl;riz nfhLj;jhH vd;git gw;wpNa ,Uf;fpd;wd. mtuJ mikr;rHfs; mtUf;F ePz;l MAs; Ntz;b jP kpjpf;fpwhHfs;. jPr; rl;b Ve;JfpwhHfs;> fhtb vLf;fpwhHfs;. NeHj;jp itf;fpwhHfs;.

 

,t;thW ehlhSk; Kjyikr;rNu %lek;gpf;iffspd; ciwtplkhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mjpfk; gbj;jpuhj rhjhuz nghJ kf;fis vt;thW jpUj;JtJ?

 

murd; vt;top kf;fs; mt;top vd;gjy;yth vkJ Nfhl;ghL?  kd;dd; capHj;Nj kyHjiy cyfk; vd;W ek;gp te;j ,dk; my;yth vkJ ,dk;?

 

cz;ikapy; n[ayypjh mz;zhtpd; ngaiuf; nfhz;l xU fl;rpf;Fj; jiyik jhq;FtJ xU khngUk; tuyhw;W tpgj;jhFk;. mijtplg; ngupa tpgj;J jpuhtplH fofj;; jiytH fp.tPukzp me;j mk;khTf;F mt;tg;NghJ nfhLj;J tUk; MjuT!

 

jpuhtpl Kd;Ndw;wf; fofj;ijj; njhlf;fpa mwpQH mz;zh filrptiu gFj;jwpTthjpahf tho;e;J gFj;jwpTthjpahfNt kiwe;jhH. mtuJ ngaiuj; jhq;fpa mjpKfTf;F Nfhapy; Nfhapyhf Fk;gpl;L vOk; n[ayypjh jiyik jhq;FtJ mz;zhtpd; ngaUf;Nf khngUk; ,Of;fhFk;.

 

tPukzpahH ghHg;gdpaj;ij tho;ehs; KOJk; vjpHj;j je;ij ngupahH njhlf;fpa jpuhtplH fofj;jpd; jiytuhf ,Uf;fpd;whH. je;ij ngupahH topapy; ‘rhjp N\kfukhdJ’ vd;W gpjw;Wk; fhQ;rp rq;fuhr;rpahiu fz;bf;fpd;whH. Mdhy;> “#j;jpuDf;F xU ePjp jz;lr; NrhWz;Zk; ghHg;Gf;F NtnwhU ePjp> rhj;jpuk; nrhy;ypLkhapd; mJ rhj;jpuk; md;W rjp vd;W fz;Nlhk;” vd;W ,e;J kjj;jpd; rhgf;Nflhd rhjpiaAk; rhj;jpuj;ijAk; ve;jnthU gFj;jwpTthjpf;Fk; FiwahJ  rhba ghujpahH ghHg;gdH vd;w xNu fhuzj;jhy; mtiug; ghuhl;l kWf;Fk; tPukzpahH> ma;aq;fhH n[ayypjh Nfhapy; Nfhapyhf Vwpg; G+irfs;> jhdq;fs;> ahfq;fs; nra;tijapl;L kl;Lk; Vd; fz;L nfhs;tjpy;iy vd;gJ tpsq;ftpy;iy.

 

mz;zh Ngupy; cs;s fl;rpf;Fg; nghJr; nrayhsuhf  ,Uf;Fk; xUtH ehl;by; %lek;gpf;iffis tsHg;gjpy; Kd;dzpapy; epw;gijf; fz;bf;f Ntz;lhkh? fz;bf;fhJ tpl;lhYk; gUthapy;iy> n[ayypjhitj; NjHjypy; Mjupg;gJ> nghd;dhil NghHj;JtJ ve;jtifapy; epahak;? ghujpf;F xU ePjp n[ayypjhtpw;F ,d;ndhU ePjpah? ,ijtpl ntl;ff; NfLk; jiyf; FdpTk; jkpopdj;Jf;F NtW ,Uf;fNt KbahJ.

 

neg;jpA+d; vd;w Nfhs; 1846 Mk; Mz;L Kjd; Kjyhf Johann Galle vd;gtuhy; fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. neg;jpA+d; vd;w ngaH cNuhkuJ fly;j; nja;tj;ijf; Fwpg;gjhFk;. neg;jpA+d; Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J Gtpia tpl 30 klq;F njhiytpy; fhzg;gLfpwJ.  

 

neg;jpA+d; (Neptune)

 

tpl;lk;        -        49>528 fpkP (30>757 fy;)

 

jpzpT       -       17.14                                            

 

msT        -         Gtpiatpl 4 klq;F ngupaJ.

 

jiu         -         jbj;j Gay; Nkfq;fs; %lg;gl;Ls;s jpuhtfg; gil.   

 

fhw;W kz;lyk; -        ePufk;> fPypak;> nkNjd; kw;Wk; mNkhdpah.   
                                                  
neg;jpA+d;
         

                                              

ntl;gk;       -        -346 ghud;ifl;  (-210 nry;rpa];)

 

jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhyk;    -  16 kzp 7 kzpj;Jsp

 

Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyk;   -  165 Mz;L

 

GtpapypUe;J Fiwe;j njhiyT - 4>600.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP (2>680.00kpy;ypad; fy;  

 

Qhapw;wpy; ,Ue;J nghJNkdp njhiyT - 4>497.07 kpy;ypad; fpkP  (2>794.00 kpy;ypad; fy;)

 

cq;fs;  vil      -  Gtpapy; 200 fpNyh vd;why; neg;jpA+dpy; 225 fpfp

 

Jizf; Nfhs;     -  8

 

tisaq;fs;       -  4     

 

GSl;Nlh cNuhkhdpa kw;Wk; fpNuf;f ghjhsf; flTspd; ngauhFk;. GSl;Nlhit 1930 Mk; Mz;L Clyde Tombaugh vd;gtH fz;L gpbj;jhH. kpfTk; rpwpa> FspHe;j> ntF njhiytpy; cs;s Nfhs; ,JthFk;. GSl;Nlhtpd; Jizf; Nfhs; rhud; (Charon) vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. mjid 1977 ,y; fz;L gpbj;jhHfs;. mjd; tpl;lk;  148 - 208 fpkP (92-129 fw;fs;). mjdhy; GSl;NlhTk; rhuDk; ,ul;ilf; Nfhs;fs; vd tHzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. 

 

nraw;iff; Nfhs;fis Vtp Muhag;glhj xNu Nfhs; GSl;Nlhjhd;. ,UgJ Mz;L (1979-1999) GSl;Nlh neg;jpA+Df;F cl;Gwkhf Qhapiw tyk; te;jJ. mg;gb tyk; tUk;NghJ neg;jpA+d; QhapW kz;lyj;Jf;F mg;ghy; cs;s Nfhshf (outer planet) fhl;rp mspf;Fk;.   

 

GSl;Nlh

 

tpl;lk;           -  2>300 fpkP  (1>428 fy;)

 

jpzpT           -  0.004

 

jiu     -nkj;Njd;> jz;zPH fye;j ghiw                                                                                              GSl;Nlh    

fhw;W kz;lyk;   -   nkj;Njd;

 

msT           -   Gtpiatpl ma;e;jpy; xU gq;F

 

ntl;gk;         -   -380 ghud;ifl; ( -229 nry;rpa];)

 

jd;idj;jhNd Rw;w vLf;Fk; fhyk; -   6 ehs;> 9 kzp 18 kzpj;Jsp;

 

Qhapiwr; Rw;wp tu vLf;Fk; fhyk;     -  248 Mz;L;

 

cq;fs;  vil    -   Gtpapy; 200 fpNyh vd;why; GSl;Nlhtpy; 13.4 fpfp

 

Gtpapy; ,Ue;J nghJNkdp njhiyT  -  4340.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP (2700.00 kpy;ypad; fy;)

 

Qhapwpy; ,Ue;J nghJNkdp njhiyT -  5913.52 kpy;ypad; fpkP  (3674.00 kpy;ypad; fy;)

 

Jizf; Nfhs;       -        1

 

tisaq;fs;        -         ?

 

Vida Nfhs;fisg; NghyNt ANwD]; neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh ,e;j %d;wpYk; capupdk; ,Uf;f KbahJ vd mwptpayhsHfs; fUJfpd;whHfs;.  ,y;yhj ,uhF NfJ Nfhs;fisf; fzf;fpy; vLf;Fk; ,e;jpa NrhjplHfs; ,e;j 3 Nfhs;fisAk; fzf;fpy; vLg;gjpy;iy. fhuzk; Nrhjpl rhj;jpuk; vOjpa ,Ubfsplk; njhiyNehf;fp ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mtHfsplk; Qhdf; fz; kl;Lk; ,Ue;jJ. me;j Qhdf; fz;zhy; Kf;fhyj;ijAk; fz;lwpe;jhHfs;> KO mz;lj;ijAk; mse;jhHfs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLtJ kpifg;gLj;jg;gl;l fw;gidahFk;.

.   

Nkw;Fyf NrhjplHfs; Gjpjhff; fz;L gpbj;j ,e;jf; Nfhs;fisf; fzf;fpy; vLj;J> mtw;Wf;F ,uhrp Ml;rp tPLfis xJf;fpg;  gyd; nrhy;fpd;whHfs;. vg;gbr; nrhy;fpd;whHfs; vd;gJ tpsq;ftpy;iy. fpgp 1846 Mk; Mz;L fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l neg;jpA+d; ,d;Dk; Qhapiw KOikahf xU Rw;Wr; Rw;wp tutpy;iy. GSl;Nlh fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l gpd;dH 74 Mz;Ljhd; Qhapiwr; Rw;wpAs;sJ.  mjid KOJk; Rw;wp tu ,d;Dk; 174 Mz;L vLf;Fk;! Nrhjplk; xU Gul;L vd;gjw;F ,ijtpl NtW vd;d rhd;W Ntz;Lk;?

 

njhlf;f fhy thdpay; tuyhW gw;wp  vk;khy;  Cfpf;f kl;LNk KbAk;.  tpz;Zyfk; gw;wpa kdpjdJ mf;fiw vOj;Jf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F Kd;dNu njhlq;fptpl;lJ. Mjp fhyk; njhl;Nl kdpjd; thDyif xUtpj gagf;jpNahL mz;zhe;J ghHj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mq;Nf fz;izr; rpkpl;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,yl;rf; fzf;fhd cLf;fs; (el;rj;jpuq;fs;) mtd; kdjpy; mr;rk;> tpag;G Nghd;w nka;g;ghLfisj; Njhw;Wtpj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  

 

,d;iwa Nrhjplk;  kj;jpa fpof;F Mrpahitr; NrHe;j nkNrhg;nghl;lkpah (Mesopotamia) gFjpapy; Muk;gkhdJ. nkNrhg;nghl;lkpah ehfupfj;jpd; njhl;by; vd tuyhw;W MrpupaHfshy; ghuhl;lg; gl;Ls;sJ. 

 

nkNrhg;nghl;lkpah vd;gJ iufpwp]; AgpNul;b]; (Tigris and Euphrates) MWfs;  XLfpd;w ,d;iwa ,uhf; ehlhFk;. ,e;j epyg;gFjpiar; Rw;wpNa RNkupaH> mrPupaH> ggpNyhdpaH> ry;baH tho;e;jhHfs;.   ggpNyhdpahit Mz;l murHfspy; fKuhgp (fpK 1795-1750) vd;gtH Gfo; tha;e;jtH. ,tNu tuyhw;wpy; Kjd; Kjyhf xU ehl;bd; rl;lq;fis Kiwg;gb njhFj;J vOjpatH MtH.

 

fpK ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dNu ggpNyhdpa G+rhupfs; fhty; NfhGuq;fis epWtp tpz;iz tiuglkhf tiue;jhHfs;. fpK 1800 Mz;Lf;F Kd;dNu fspkz; tpy;iyfspy; (clay tablets)  QhapW> epyh ,tw;wpd; Xl;lq;fis jpUj;jkhf vOjp itj;jhHfs;.

 

tpz;kPd;fs; Nfhs;kPd;fs; ,tw;Wf;Fj; nja;tPfk; fw;gpf;fg;gl;ljw;F ,e;jg; G+rhupfNs VJ  MtH. mtHfsJ fw;gidNa gpd;dH Nrhjplkhf cUg;ngw;wJ. Gtp jl;il tbtk;> mJ mirtjpy;iy> mJNt mz;lj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. Gtpiar; Rw;wpNa xt;nthU ehSk; QhapW fhiyapy; fpof;Nf Fjpiufs; G+l;ba jPapdhy; Md Njupy; fpsk;gp Mfha topahfr; nryT nra;J khiyapy; flypy; tPo;tjhfg; ggpNyhdpaHfs; vz;zpdhHfs;.

 

vfpg;jpaHfs; Qhapiwf;  flTshf topgl;lhHfs;. rhy;baH> ghgpNyhdpaH NghyNt vfpg;jpaHfSk; thDyif Muha;e;jhHfs;. mtHfs; fl;ba ngupa gpukpl; (Great Pyramid )  Xwpad; (Orion) tpz;kPd; $l;lj;jpd; Njhw;wj;ij xj;jjhff; fl;lg;gl;ljhFk;.

 

fpK 4 Mk; Ehw;whz;lstpy; ggpNyhdpadupd; Nrhj;plk; fpNuf;fHfSf;F mwpKfkhdJ. fpNuf;fj;jpd; Gfo;ngw;w jj;Jtthjpfshd gpshl;Nlh mtuJ khzhf;fH mup];Njhl;ly; ,tHfsJ vOj;Jf;fs; %yk; Nrhjplk; kpfTk; nry;thf;fhd xU jj;Jtkhfj; Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ. gpd;dH cNuhkhdpaHfs; Nrhjplj;ijj; jOtpf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,d;Wtiu cNuhkHfsJ flTsH ngaHfshNyNa Nfhs;fs; miof;fg;gl;L tUtJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

 

Nrhj;plk; epykpir tho;NthH kPJ tpz;Zy tpz;kPd;fs; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fs; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;JfpwJ vd;w nghJthd Mdhy;> jtwhd ek;gpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; Njhw;wk; ngw;w rhj;jpukhFk;.

 

njhlf;f fhyj;jpy; thdpaYk; NrhjplKk; ifNfhHj;Jf; nfhz;L xNu ghijapy; eilNghl;ld. thdpay; vd;gJ xU jdp ,ay; my;y. mJ Nfj;jpufzpjk;> Ntjpapay;> Gtpapay;> capupay;> ,aw;gpay; Nghd;w fw;iffis cs;slf;fpaJ.     

thdpay; Nrhjplk; ,uz;ilAk; Fwpf;fj; njhlf;fj;jpy; xNu nrhy;jhd; gad; gLj;jg;gl;lJ. fpNuf;f nkhopapy; Astrology vd;why; el;rj;jpuj;ijg; gw;wpa mwpT vd;W nghUs;. fpgp 16 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; thdpay; Nrhjplj;jpy; ,Ue;J KOjhfg; gpupe;J jdp ,ayhf cUntLj;jJ. me;j ,ay; Astronomy vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ. me;jr; nrhy;ypd; nghUs; tpz;kPd;fis msg;gJ vd;gjhFk;. 

 

thdpaYf;F mfuKjyp jUk; tiutpyf;fzk; 'Gtpapd; fhw;W kz;lyj;Jf;F ntspNa fhzg;gLk; nghUs;fs; (objects) gUg;nghUs;fs; (matter) mtw;wpd; ,aw;gpay; kw;Wk; Ntjpapay; gz;Gfs; (chemical properties) gw;wpa fw;if' vd;gjhFk;. Vd; vy;yhtw;iwAk; gw;wpa fw;if vd;W $lf; $wyhk;. fhuzk; ehk; ghHf;Fk; nghUl;fs; ahTk; mz;lj;jpd; $WfNs!

 

gpd;dH ,aw;if mopTfis Kd;$l;b mwpaTk;> kd;dHfsJ Kb#l;L tpohf;fSf;Fk; NghH njhlq;Ftjw;Fk; ey;y Neuj;ijj; NjHe;njLf;fTk; gapHfis eLtjw;Fk; mtw;iw mWtil nra;tjw;Fk; cupa gUtq;fisf; fzpg;gjw;Fk; Nrhjplk; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. fhyg; Nghf;fpy; nghJ kf;fSf;F ey;yJ nfl;lJ nrhy;tjw;Fk; Nrhjplk; gad; gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mJ ,d;Wtiu njhlHfpwJ.   

 

njhlf;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj epyh thdpayhsHfsJ ftdj;ijg; ngupJk; <Hj;jJ. mJ tpag;Gf;Fupa tplak; my;y. re;jpudpd; jhf;fj;jpdhy; fly; ngUf;F vLg;gij mtHfs; ftdpj;jhHfs;. epyhf; fhyk; fhjy; czHTfis fpsHj;JtjhfTk; ek;gpdhHfs;.  

 

tpz;zpy; gy Mapuk; tpz;kPd;fs; fhzg;gl;lhYk; mit xNu ,lj;jpy; ,Ug;gJ Nghy; fhzg;gl;ld. Mdhy;> mtw;wpy; 5 'el;rj;jpuq;fs;' kl;Lk; miye;J nfhz;L jpUlHfs; Nghy; Gtpia ntt;NtW Ntfj;jpy; Rw;wp tUtijf; fz;lhHfs;. mjdhy; me;j ma;e;J el;rj;jpuq;fSf;Fk; fpNuf;fH miygtd; (wanderer)  vd;w nghUspy;  planet vd;w ngaH itj;jhHfs;. 

 

GtpAk; Vida Nfhs;fSk; jdpj;jdp rkjs Rw;Wg; ghijapNyNa ( Orbital plane) Qhapiwr; Rw;wp te;jhYk;> mit fpl;lj;jl;l xNu rkjsj;jpy;jhd; Rw;Wfpd;wd. Nfhs;fspd; rkjsg; ghijfs;  QhapW nry;tjhfj; Njhd;Wk; ghijf;F (Ecliptic) ,U kUq;fpYk; 8 ghiff;Fs;NsNa ,Uf;fpd;wd. tpz;zpy; fhzg;gLk; ,e;jg; gFjp ,uhrp tl;lk; (Zodiac) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. tpz;zpy; Nfhs;fs; ,e;j ,uhrp tl;lj;ij tyk; tUk; NghJ ,uhrp tl;lj;jpd; ‘tPLfspy;’ GFe;J ntspNaWtJ Nghyg; Gtpapy; ,Ug;gtHfsJ fz;Zf;Fg; Gygk;GLfpd;wd. mNj Nghy;  gy;yhapuk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; fhzg;gLk; tpz;kPd; (el;rj;jpu) $l;lq;fSk; ,uhrp tPLfspy; epw;gJNghyf; fz;Zf;Fj; njupfpd;wd.    

 

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (28)

 

,uhrpfs; ntWk; fw;gid cUtq;fNs!   

 

ef;fPud;  

 

rPdh New;W (xf;NjhgH 15> 2003)  fhiy 9 kzp mwtpy; tpz;ntspf;F xU kdpjDld; $ba tpz;fyj;ij Kjd; Kiwahf mDg;gpAs;sJ. rPdhtpy; cs;s Nfhgp ghiytdj;jpy; mike;Js;s [pAFthd; vd;w VTfizj; jsj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,e;j tpz;fyk; Vtg;gl;lJ.

 

,e;j kfj;jhd rhjid %yk; tpz;ntspf;F kdpjid mDg;gpa  cUrpah> mnkhpf;f ehLfsJ tupirapy; rPdhTk; NrHe;Js;sJ! rPdhtpd; tpz;ntsp tPuH Gtpia ntw;wpfukhfr; Rw;wp tUfpd;whH.

 

cyfpNyNa cUrpahjhd; 42 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; Kjd; Kiwahf kdpjid tpz;ntspf;F mDg;gpa ehlhFk;. mijj; njhlHe;J kdpjid tpz;ntspapy; nrYj;jpa 2 MtJ ehL vd;w  Gfio mnkupf;fh  <l;baJ. ,e;j thpirapy; ,g;NghJ  3 MtJ ehlhf rPdh NrHe;Js;sJ.

 

rPdhtpd; Kjy; tpz;ntsp tPuH vd;w ngUikia ahq; yPNt(38)  ngw;W cs;shH. ,tH Kd;dhs; rz;il tpkhd Xl;b  (Col.Yang Liwei, a former fighter pilot). MthH. tuyhw;Wg; Gfo; gilj;j ,e;j  epfo;it rPd njhiyf;fhl;rp tof;fkhf xspgug;Gk; epfo;r;rpia ,ilepWj;jptpl;L VTfiz ntw;wpfukhf tpz; Nehf;fpg; gha;e;jij Neub xspgug;Gr; nra;jJ.  

 

rPd tPuUld; Gtpia tpz;zpy; Rw;Wk; ,e;j tpz;fyk; 14 jlit Gtpiar;  Rw;wp tUk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. nkhj;jk; 21 kzp Neuk; ,e;jr; nryT ePbf;Fk; vdf; $wg;gLfpwJ.

 

rPd kf;fspd; ePz;lehs; fdT ,J vd tHzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. rPd Ml;rpj;jiytH fP^[pd;l;lhNth (Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao) kw;Wk; %j;j jiytHfs; VTfizj; jsj;Jf;F Nehpy; nrd;W mJ tpz;Zf;Fg; gha;tijf; fz;L fspj;jdH.

 

rPdhtpd; tpz;ntsp Muha;r;rp Kaw;rpapy; ,e;j epfo;T xU iky;fy;. tpz;ntspapy; Rw;wp te;j gpd;dH kq;Nfhypahtpy; tpz;fyk; jiu ,wq;Fk; vdf; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

rPdhTf;F RkhH Iahapuk; Mz;L fhy mwptpay; ghuk;gupak; cz;L. rPdHfNs mr;Rae;jpuk;> ntbkUe;J> jhs; ehzak; ,tw;iwf; fz;L  gpbj;jtHfs;. rPdhit Mz;l NguurHfs; thdpay; Muha;r;rpf; $lq;fis epWtp tpz;izj; njhlHr;rpahf Muha;e;J te;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

jdp kdpjd; rup> xU ehL rup> nghUshjuj;jpy; Kd;Ndw Ntz;Lk; vd;why; mwptpaiy tsHj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,d;W mnkupf;fh> cUrpah> ag;ghd; Nghd;w ehLfs; cyfpy; nry;thf;NfhL NfhNyhr;Rfpd;wd vd;why; mjw;F me;j ehLfs; tpz;izAk; kz;izAk; mse;J mwptpaypy; Ntfkhf Kd;NdwpapUg;gJNt fhuzk; MFk;.  Mq;fpyj;jpy; Knowledge is  Power  (mwpNt Mw;wy;) vd;W nrhy;thHfs;. me;jg; nghd;nkhop ,e;j ehLfisg; nghWj;jstpy; Kw;wpYk; cz;ik.  

 

jkpoHfs; Mz;L NjhWk; fiykfs; tpohf; nfhz;lhlj; jtWtjpy;iy. fiykfs; glj;Jf;F Kd; Ehy;fis itj;J mty;> Rz;ly;> nfhOf;fl;il nra;J gilj;jhy; mwpT jhdhf te;JtpLk; vd epidf;fpd;whHfs;. ,J Ngjik MFk;.  

 

mwptpaypy; xU ehL Kd;Ndwpdhy; kl;LNk nghUshjuj;jpy; me;j ehL Kd;Ndw KbAk;. mt;thW mwptpay;> nghUshjhuk; ,uz;bYk; Kd;NdWk; ehLfNs tWik> Vo;ik vd;w ,uz;L MikfisAk; xopf;f KbAk;!

 

,dp tpl;l ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J njhlUfpNwd;. ehsiltpy; NrhjplHfs; ,e;j QhapW nry;Yk; ghijia 12 ,uhrp kz;lyq;fshfg; (constellations) gpupj;jhHfs;. gpupj;jgpd; me;jg; ghijapd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fspd; ngaHfis mtw;Wf;Fr; #l;bdhHfs;. ggpNyhdpaHfs; ,uhrpfspd; vz;zpf;if  13 vdf; fzpj;jhHfs;. gpd;dhy; xd;W tpLgl;Lg; Ngha;tpl;lJ. mg;gb tpLgl;l my;yJ fzf;fpy; NrHf;fg;glhj ,uhrp kz;lyj;jpd; ngaH Ophiuchus.  ,jd; nghUs; ghk;ghl;b (The Serpent Holder or Snake Charmer )  vd;gjhFk;.   (Gul;L 5)

 

NkYk; 12 ,uhrpfis xt;nthd;Wk; 30 ghif Mfg; gpupj;jJk; jtWjhd;. thdpaypd;gb ,uhrp kz;lyq;fspd; cz;ikahd vz;zpf;if 21. mtw;wpy; 13 ,uhrp kz;lyq;fisAk; mtw;wpd; msitAk; ( Gul;L 6) ghHg;Nghk;.    

 

,uhrpfspd; fhyk;> njhiyT> cUtk;

 

,uhrp

     jpfjp

   ghif

cUtk;

Nklk;

Vg;upy; 19 -    Nk 13

25

ML

,lgk;

Nk 14 -     A+d; 19

37

vUJ

kpJdk;

a+d; 20  -    A+iy 20

31

Mz;-ngz;

flfk;

A+iy 21 -  Mf];l; 9

20

ez;L

rpk;kk;

Mf];l;10 - nrg;njk;gH 15

37

rpq;fk;

fd;dp

nrg;njk;gH16 -xf;NjhgH 30

45

ngz;

Jyhk;

xf;NjhgH31-nehntk;gH 22

23

juhR

tpUr;rpfk;

nehntk;gH23 - nehntk;gH    29

07

Njs;

ghk;ghl;b

nehntk;gH 30  -  bnrk;gH 17

18

ghk;ghl;b

jD

bnrk;gH18 - rdtup 18

32

tpy;

kfuk;

rdtup 19- ngg;utup 15

28

RwhkPd;/fly;Fjpiu

Fk;gk;

ngg;utup16 - khHr;R 11

24

Flk;

kPdk;

khHr;R 12 -  Vg;upy; 18

38

,ul;il kPd;

 

tpUr;rpf ,uhrpia QhapW flf;Fk; njhiyT 7 ghif kl;LNk.  mNj Neuk; fd;dp ,uhrpiaf; flf;Fk; njhiyT 45 ghif! MW klq;Ff;F Nky;! tpLgl;l ,uhrp kz;lyj;ij QhapW Rlf;Fk;njhiyT 18 ghif. tpUr;rpf ,uhrpia (7 ghif) tpl 11 ghif mjpfkhdJ! 

 

cz;ikapy; QhapW ,uhrpfisf; flg;gjpy;iy vd;Wk; Gtpf; Nfhs; QhapW vd;w tpz;kPidr; Rw;wp tUtJ vq;fs; fz;Zf;F QhapW Gtpiar; Rw;WtJ Nghd;w Nghypj; Njhw;wj;ij cz;lhf;FfpwJ vd;gij ePq;fs; kwe;Jtplf; $lhJ. QhapW> Nfhs;fs;> ,uhrpfisf; fle;J nry;fpwJ vd;W vOJtij Gtp> ,uhrpfspd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; QhapW tpz;kPidr; Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;W nghUs; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;!                                                           

 

NrhjplHfs; ghk;ghl;b ,uhrp kz;lyj;ij vd;d nra;jhHfs;? mjid tpUr;rpf ,uhrpNahL NrHj;J tpl;lhHfs;!  

 

,g;gbahd Fog;gq;fSf;Fr; Nrhjplj;jpy; fzf;Nf ,y;iy! Gtp Qhapiwr; Rw;w 365 ehs;fs; vLf;fpwJ. vdNt xU ehisf;F Vwj;jho 1 ghifia QhapW flf;fpwJ.

 

vdNt  QhapW 25 ghif ePsKs;s Nkl ,uhrpia 25 ehs;fspy; ( Vg;gpuy; 19 - Nk 13)  fle;J tpLfpwJ. Mdhy;> NrhjplUf;F Nkl ,uhrpia QhapW flf;f vLf;Fk; fhyk; 30 ehs;fs; my;yJ 30 ghif ePsk;! ,jdhy; QhapW Nkluhrpia Nk 13 md;W fle;J tpl;lhYk; rhjfk; fzpf;Fk; NrhjplH Nk 18 tiu QhapW ,d;dKk; Nkluhrpapy; ,Ug;gjhfNt vLj;Jf; nfhs;thH. ,t;thW Vida ,uhrpfis QhapW cz;ikahff; flf;f vLf;Fk; fhyj;Jf;Fk; NrhjplHfs; QhapW flg;gjhff; nfhs;Sk; fhyj;Jf;Fk;  NtWghL Vw;gLfpwJ! QhapWf;Fr; nrhd;dJ Vida Nfhs;fSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;.

 

                                      Nfhs;fspd; Ntfk; (Gtp-ika Nfhl;ghL) 

 

fpufk;

Rw;Wk; fhyk;

,uhrpapy; epw;Fk; fhyk;

XHMz;by; mirT

re;jpud;

 28 ehs;fs;

 2½ ehs;fs;

  13 Rw;Nwhl;lk;

QhapW

  1 Mz;L

 1 khjk;

 360 ghif

Gjd;

  1 Mz;L

 1 khjk;

 360 ghif

nts;sp

  1 Mz;L

 1 khjk;

 360 ghif

nrt;tha;

  2 Mz;L

 2 khjk;

 180 ghif

tpahod;

 12 Mz;L

 1 Mz;L

  30 ghif

rdp

 30 Mz;L

 2½ Mz;L

  12 ghif

A+Nwd];

 90 Mz;L

 7½ Mz;L

   4 ghif

neg;jpA+d;

180 Mz;L

 15 Mz;L

   2 ghif

GSl;Nlh

360 Mz;L

 30 Mz;L

   1 ghif

 

Nrhjpl rpfhkzpfs; ,itgw;wpf; nfhQ;rKk; ftiyg;gLtjpy;iy. 'vd;Dila tho;f;ifapy; vdJ rhjfj;jpy; nrhd;dgb> vdJ ifNuif rhj;jpuk; nrhd;dgb vy;yhk; mr;nrhl;lhf elf;fpwJ' vd;W nrhy;Yk; VkhspfSk; NfhkhspfSk; epiwa ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. mg;gbg;gl;ltHfs; ,Uf;F kl;Lk; NrhjplHfs; vjw;fhff; ftiyg; glNtz;Lk;? vijg;gw;wpf; ftiyg; glNtz;Lk;? 

 

Nrhjpl rhj;jpuj;Jf;F ve;j mwptpay; mbg;gilAk; fpilahJ vd;gjw;F Nkw; $wg;gl;l juTfs; jFe;j rhd;W gfUfpd;wd. Nrhjplj;Jf;F cs;s xNu mbg;gil kf;fsJ %isia kOq;fbj;J> jd;dk;gpf;ifiaj; jfHj;J mtHfis klikapy; Mo;j;jpg; gzk; fwg;gJNt!

 

Gtpapy; ,Ue;J thdj;ij mz;zhe;J ghHj;j ggpNyhdpaHfSf;F ,e;j tpz;kPd;  (el;rj;jpu) $l;lq;fs; xt;nthd;Wk; xU cUtj;jpd; rhaiyf; nfhz;L ,Ug;gjhfj; Njhd;wpaJ. me;j cUtj;ijNa me;j tpz;kPd; $l;lj;Jf;F itj;J mjw;Fg; ngaUk; itj;jhHfs;.

 

gpw; fhyj;jpy; kdpjH Gtpiaf; fz;lq;fshfg; gpupj;J> fz;lq;fis ehLfshfg; gpupj;J> ehLfis khepyq;fshfg; gpupj;J mtw;Wf;Fr; nraw;ifahfg; ngaH itj;jJ Nghd;W thdj;jpy; njd;gLk; tpz;kPd;fis ggpNyhdpaH tpjpf;fl;bd;wpr; (arbitrary) nraw;ifahfg; gpupj;J mtw;Wf;Fg; ngaH #l;bdhHfs;. tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fis (constellations) Gtpapy; cs;s ehLfSf;F (mnkupf;fh> ag;ghd;> fdlh) xg;gpl;lhy; xU fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;J ,g;NghJ kiwe;Jtpl;l xl;lkhd; NguuR (Ottaman Empire) ghgpNyhdpah (Babylonia) Nghdprpah (Phoenicia) Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; (Soviet Union) Nghd;wtw;NwhL ,uhrpfis (Zodiac Signs) xg;gplyhk;.

 

vdNt tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fs; cz;iknad;whYk; mjw;Ff; fw;gpf;fg;gl;l cUtq;fSk; (ML> khL> ,ul;ilaH> rpq;fk; ….) ngaHfSk; (Nkl ,uhrp> ,lg ,uhrp> kpJd ,uhrp> rpk;k ,uhrp……) nraw;ifahdit. mjhtJ tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fSf;Fk;  ,uhrpfSf;Fk; (Zodiac Signs) ve;jj; njhlHGk; ,y;iy. ,uhrp tl;lj;jpd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; tpz;kPd;fis xd;NwhL xd;W njhLj;Jg; gd;dpuz;L ,uhrpfs; vd cUtKk; ngaUk; Fzhk;rq;fSk; fw;gpj;jJ fw;gid fye;j ngha;. mjpy; cz;ikapy;iy.  

 

tpz;kPd;fs; mUfUNf fhzg;gl;lhYk; cz;ikapy; mtw;Wf;F ,ilapy; Kd;Dk; gpd;Dk; ,lKk; tyKk; gy EhW xsp Mz;L ,ilntsp ,Uf;fpd;wd. mit xNu jpirapy; fhzg;gLtjhy; mUfUNf ,Ug;gJ Nghd;w kaf;fk; my;yJ kUl;rp (illusion) Vw;gLfpwJ. NkYk; mit Gtpapy; ,Ue;J gy xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; ,Uf;fpd;wd. (Nrhjplg; Gul;L  7)

 

njhykp vd;gtH 48 tpz;kPd; $l;lj;ij (constellations) ml;;ltizg; gLj;jpdhH. 1930 ,y; $ba cyf thdpayhsHfs; khehL 88 tpz;kPd; $l;lj;ij ml;ltizg; gLj;jpaJ.  mtw;wpd; ngaHfis ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; miog;gJ vd;Wk; KbthdJ.  

 

vkJ QhapWk; xU tpz;kPd; vd;gJ njupe;jNj. mjd; njhiyT Gtpapy; ,Ue;J 149>600.000 kpy;ypad; fpkP (93>000>000 kpy;ypad; fy;) vd;gij Kd;dNu ghHj;Njhk;. .Gtpiag; Nghy; my;yhJ mz;lj;ij msf;f fpkP my;yJ fy; NjhJg;glhJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf vq;fsJ ghy; top kz;lyj;Jf;F mLj;j Andromeda Gala ghy;kz;lyk; 21>000>000>000>000>000>000 fpkP (21 quintrillion km) njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.  ,ij vz;zpy; vOJtJ fbdk; MFk;. vdNt tpz;kPd;fspd; njhiyitf; Fwpg;gpLtjw;F Gtpf;Fk; QhapWf;Fk; cs;s njhiyit xU thdpay; myfhf (Astronomical Unit  -AU) vLj;Jf; nfhz;L Fwpg;gpLfpd;whHfs;. ,jd;gb GSl;Nlh RkhH 40 VA  Jhuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                    njhiytpy; cs;s tp;z;kPd;fs;

 

Mdhy;> mz;lntspapy; cs;s tpz;kPd;fs;> ghy;kz;lyq;fs; ,tw;wpd; Jhuj;ijf; fzf;fpl;Lr; nrhy;tjw;F ,e;j VA msTNfhy; $lg; gw;whJ. vdNt mtw;iw xsp Mz;Lf; fzf;fpy; my;yJ parsec ,y; mstpLfpd;whHfs;. xU  parsec 3.26 xsp Mz;Lf;Fr; rkkhdJ.  

                      

xU xsp Mz;nld;gJ xsp xU nehbf;F 300>000 fpkP (186>000 fy;)  Ntfj;jpy; xU Mz;L nry;Yk; njhiyT MFk;.  mjhtJ 9>500>000>000>000 fpkP njhiyT!  vkJ QhapW FLk;gj;Jf;F mLj;J

                           

kpf mUfpy; cs;s my;gh nrd;Njhhp (Alpha Centauri) vd;w el;rj;jpuk; 4.24 xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; cs;sJ!

                                                                                     my;gh nrd;Nuhup Crab supernova  4>000 xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; cs;sJ! vq;fsJ ghy; top kz;lyj;jpd; gpw gFjpfSf;Fr; nry;y vLf;Fk; Neuk; 150>000 xsp Mz;L;  MFk;! Andromeda Galaxy  vd;w ghy;kz;lyk; 2.3 kpy;ypad; (gj;J kpy;ypad; xU Nfhb) xsp Mz;Lf;F mg;ghy; cs;sJ!  

 

tpz;kPd;fs;> Nfhs;fs; ,tw;wpd; njhiyit ,q;F jUtjw;Ff; fhuzk; mit mg;ghYf;Fk; mg;ghy; ,Ug;gijAk; mjdhy; mit ,e;jg; Gtpapy; cs;s kdpjHfs; kPJ ve;jtpj jhf;fj;ijAk; Vw;gLj;Jtjw;Fupa tha;g;G vs;KidasT $l ,y;iy vd;gij vLj;Jf; fhl;lNt MFk;. 

 

,jpy; Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; ,e;j tpz;kPd;fs; ,g;nghOJ ,Uf;fpd;wdth my;yJ ,y;iyah vd;gJ vkf;Fj; njupahJ! fhuzk; gy xsp Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH Gwg;gl;l xspiaj;jhd; ehk; ,d;W ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;!  

 

,e;j khjk; (xf;NjhgH> 2003) #upad;> Gjd;> nts;sp Mfpad fd;dp (Virgo) ,uhrpf;Fs; GFfpd;wd. nts;sp kw;Wk; Gjd; ,uz;bd; njhiyT Gtpapy; ,Ue;J KiwNa 77.30 kpy;ypad; fpkP (48.21 kpy;ypad; fy;) 40.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP (24.90 kpy;ypad; fy;) MFk;.

 

nrt;tha; Fk;g  (Aquarius)  ,uhrpf;Fs; GFfpwJ. tpahod; rpk;k (Leo) ,uhrpf;Fk; rdp kpJd (Gemini) ,uhrpf;Fk; nry;fpwJ. mtw;wpd; njhiyT KiwNa 56.00 kpy;ypad; fpkP (35.00 kpy;ypad; fy;) 588.50 kpy;ypad; fpkP (367.04 kpy;ypad; fy;) MFk;. mJ NghyNt ,uhrp kz;lyq;fspd; njhiyT gpd;tUkhW:

 

   rpk;k ,uhrp      -    78 xsp Mz;L
   fd;dp ,uhrp     -    263 xsp Mz;L;

   kpJd ,uhrp     -    2>700 xsp Mz;L;

   Fk;g ,uhrp      -   37>500 xsp Mz;L;

 

,uhrp tl;lj;jpd; ,Ugf;fKk; fhzg;gLk; Nfhs;fs; gy Nfhb fpkP mg;ghy; tyk; tUfpd;wd. ,uhrp kz;lyq;fNsh gj;J> EhW> Mapuk; xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; tyk; te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,t;thW ntF njhiytpy; fhzg;gLfpd;w Nfhs;fSk; ,uhrp kz;lyq;fSk; Gtpapy; gpwf;fpw Foe;ijfspd; Fzhk;rq;fisj; jPHkhdpf;fpwjhfg; ggpNyhdpaHfs; ek;gpdhHfs;. mtHfSf;F ,e;jf; Nfhs;fs; kw;Wk; ,uhrpfs; vt;tsT njhiytpy; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gJ gw;wpa mwpT rpwpJk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mjid mtHfsplk; vjpHghHf;fTk; KbahJ. mtHfisg; ngUe;jd;ikNahL kd;dpj;J tplyhk;.

 

NrhjplHfs; thDyf Nfhs;fs; kw;Wk; tpz;kPd; $l;lq;fs; Mfpatw;Wf;Fk; Gtpapy; eilngWk; epfo;TfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; Kbr;Rg; Nghl;lhHfs;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf njhykp (Ptolemy, AD 85-165) 1>022 el;rj;jpuq;fspd; gl;baiyj; jahupj;jJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ Tetrabiblos vd;w Nrhjpl EhiyAk; fpgp 139-161 fhyg; gFjpapy; vOjpdhH.  

 

Nkw;Fyf ntg;gkz;ly Nrhjplf; fiyf;Fj; njhykp vOjpa EhNy ,d;Wtiu ghy ghlkhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. njhykp kl;Lky;y> mtUf;Fg; gpd;dH te;j fypypNah> nfg;yH> epf;fy]; NfhngHdpf;f]; (Nicolaus Copernicus) kw;Wk; Tycho Brahe Nghd;wtHfSk; Nrhjplj;ijj; jq;fsJ fw;ifapd; xU $whfg; gbj;jhHfs;.

 

Mdhy;> vg;NghJ QhapW Gtpiar; Rw;wptutpy;iy khwhf Qhapiwr; Rw;wpNa Gtp Rw;wp tUfpwJ vd;gJ vz;gpf;fg;gl;lNjh md;wpypUe;J Nrhjplk;> thdpay; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; KwpT Vw;gl;L ,uz;Lk; jdpj; jdpg; ghijfspy; nry;yj; njhlq;fpd.

 

gpd;dH Gjpa Nfhs;fshd A+Nwd];> neg;jpA+d;> GSl;Nlh fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l NghJ Nrhjplj;jpd; ek;gfj;jd;ik Nfs;tpf; Fwpf;F MshdJ.    

 


 

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (29)

 

Nrhjplg; Gul;Lg; Nghy; nja;tPfKk; Gul;Lj;jhd;!

 

md;id njNurhTf;F ,uz;lhtJ mUsg;gH rpd;dg;gH  'mUsk;ik' vd;w gl;lj;ij toq;fp mtiu Nkd;ikg; gLj;jpAs;shH. ,e;j epfo;r;rp xf;NjhgH 18 ,y; tj;jpf;fdpy; ,lk;ngw;wJ. mLj;j fl;lkhf md;id njNurhTf;Fg; GdpjH gl;lk; nfhLf;fg;gl ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

njhz;lwj;Jf;F xU vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf tpsq;fpaNjhL Viofs;> vspatHfs;> eypTw;NwhH> nkypTw;NwhH kw;Wk; rKjhaj;jhy; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;l mbkl;l Nruptho; kf;fspd; Gfyplkhfj; jpfo;e;jtH md;id njNurh.

 

my;Ngdpag; ngw;NwhHfSf;F kh]pNlhdpahtpy; gpwe;j md;id njNurh>  ,sk; tajpNyNa ,e;jpah nrd;W nfhy;fj;jhtpy;  Mr;rpukk;xd;iw Muk;gpj;Jj; njhz;^opak; nra;jhH. mtuJ gzp ,e;jpahtpy; kl;Lkpd;wp cyfpd; gy ehLfspYk; gutpd. mtuJ r%fj; njhz;il nkr;rp mtUf;F Nehngy; gupRk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. mtH jdJ 87tJ mfitapy; (1997) ,aw;if va;jpdhH.

 

md;id njNurh mUshsH> GdpjH vdg; Nghw;wg;gLtij ahUk; Ntz;lhk; vd;W nrhy;y khl;lhHfs;. mit mtuJ njhz;lwj;Jf;F fpilj;j guprhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. Mdhy;> md;id njNurh mw;Gjk; Gupe;jhH> mUs; ghypj;jhH Mjyhy; mtUf;F mUshsH gl;lk;  toq;fg;gl;lJ> mLj;Jg; GdpjH gl;lKk; toq;fg;gl ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;yg;gLtijg; gFj;jwptpd; mbg;gilapy; nrupf;f KbahJ.

 

md;id njNurh ,we;j gpd;G nfhy;fj;jhtpy; Gw;WNehahy; mtjpg;gl;l 35 taJs;s Nkhdpfh g];uh vd;w goq;Fbg; ngz; xUtH mtuJ fy;yiwiaj; njhOJ te;jhH. mjd; gadhf  mtuJ  tapw;wpy; fhzg;gl;l Gw;WNeha; njNurhtpd; nja;tPfj;jd;ikahy; ,y;yhky; Ngha;tpl;lJ. ,g;gb xU ghl;bf; fij nra;jpahf ehNsLfspy; ntspte;jJ.

 

,e;jf; fijiag; gFj;jwpthsHfs; kWj;Js;shHfs;. mg; ngz;Zf;F kUj;Jtk; ghHj;j kUj;JtHfSk; kWj;Js;shHfs;.  

 

'Vioapd; rpupg;gpy; ,iwtidf; fz;l"  md;id njNurhtpd; njhz;bd; rpwg;ig mw;Gjkhff; fhl;l KidtJ %l ek;gpf;ifia tsHg;gjhFk;.

 

flTs; ek;gpf;ifapy; md;id njNurh mtHfSf;F ma;ag;ghL ,Ue;jJ vd mtupd; ehs;Fwpg;gpy;  ,Ue;J njupate;Js;sjhff; $lr; nra;jpfs; ntspte;jd.   

 

thdpayhsH fypypNah Gtp cUz;I tbthdJ> Gtpjhd; Qhapiwr; Rw;WfpwJ vd;Wk; NfhngHdpf;f]; fz;Lgpbj;Jr; nrhd;dJ rupjhd; vd;W cWjp nra;j Fw;wj;jpw;fhf md;iwa Nghg;ghz;ltH (Urban VIII) 1633 mtUf;F rpiwj; jz;lid toq;fpdhH. ,g;NghJ 376 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ,e;ehs; Nghg;ghz;ltH ,uz;lhtJ rpd;dg;gH mUsg;gH> 36 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; gjtpf;F te;j NghJ md;iwa Nghg;ghz;ltH fypypNahtpw;F toq;fpa rpiwj; jz;lid jtwhdJ vd tj;jpf;fd; rhHgpy; xg;Gf; nfhz;L tUj;jk; njuptpj;jhH.

 

,jd; %yk; Nghg;ghz;ltHfs; flTspd; Neubg; gpujpepjpfs; mtHfs; jtNw ,iof;f khl;lhHfs; vd;w Nfhl;ghL mbgl;Lg; Ngha; mtHfSk; VidNahiug; Nghy; rhjhuz kdpjHfs;jhd; vd;w cz;ik vz;gpf;fg;gl;;lJ!

 

fypypNah rpiwj; jz;lidf;F kl;Lk; cs;shf;fg;gl;lhH>  GWNdh Nghd;w mwptpayhsHfs; tj;jpf;fdhy; capNuhL nfhSj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. fpwpj;jt kjj;jpd; ngauhy; nghJkf;fs; rpq;fq;fSf;F czthf tPrg;gl;lhHfs;!  

 

md;id njNurh nja;tPfj;jd;ik tha;e;jtH> mw;Gjk; nra;af; $batH vd;W ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;LtjpYs;s ,lH vd;dntd;why; Gw;W> vYk;GUf;fpNeha;>  vapl;]; Nghd;w nfhba tpahjpfshy; gPbf;fg;gLk; ghku kf;fs; kUj;Jtuplk; nrd;W itj;jpak; nra;tjw;Fg; gjpy; mtHfs; mUsk;ikfs;> G+rhupfs;> kfhd;fs;> Rthkpfs; Nghd;wtHfisj; Njb miya Kw;gLthHfs; vd;gNj!

 

Vw;fdNt nja;tPf Mw;wy;gilj;j mUsk;ikfs;> G+rhupfs;> kfhd;fs;> Rthkpfs; Nghd;wtHfisj; juprpj;jhy; Neha; FzkhFk; vd ek;gp VkhWgtHfs; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. md;id njNurhTf;F mUsk;ik gl;lk; nfhLj;jhy; mg;gbahdtHfsJ njhif NkYk; mjpfupf;Fk;. Nrhjplg; Gul;Lg; Nghy; nja;tPfKk; xU Gul;Lj;jhd;!

 

vy;yh kjq;fSk; jq;fs; kjj;ijg; gug;Gtjw;Ff; flTs;fs;> mtjhuq;fs;> kfhd;fs; mw;Gjq;fs; nra;jhHfs; mjpraq;fs; Gupe;jhHfs; vd vOjp itj;Js;sd. ,e;J kjj;jpy; ,e;j mw;Gjq;fSf;Fk; mjpraq;fSf;Fk; msT fzf;Nf fpilahJ.

 

eupiag; gupahf;fpaJ> gupia eupahf;fpaJ> Mz;gidiag; ngz;gid Mf;fpaJ> ,we;jgpd; vupf;fg;gl;L rhk;gyhd ngz;iz capHg;gpj;jJ> %bf;fple;j jpUf;Nfhapy; fjitj; jpwf;fg; ghbaJ> itif Mw;wpy; Nghl;l Vl;Lr; Rtbfs; vjpHePr;ry; Nghl itj;jJ> #yNeha; ePf;fpaJ ,g;gb Xuhapuk; mw;Gjq;fs;.

 

fpwpj;jt kjj;jpy; NaRehjH jz;zPiu itd; Mf khw;wpdhH> fly; kPJ ele;jhH> ,uz;L mg;gj;ijAk; ma;e;J kPidAk; ma;ahapuk; NgUf;Fg; gq;fpl;Lf; nfhLj;jhH> rpYitapy; kupj;j gpd;dH kWgbAk; capHj;njOe;jhH Nghd;w mw;Gjq;fs; nra;jhH vdr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.  

 

kjj; jiytHfspy; Gj;jUk; KfkJ egp ,UtUNk ,e;j mw;Gjq;fSf;Fg; Gweil MtH.  ,tHfs; jq;fsJ tho;ehspy; mw;Gjq;fs; nra;jjhfNth nja;tPfj;jd;ik jq;fSf;F cz;nld;W $wpajhfNth tuyhW ,y;iy. Mdhy;> KfkJ egp jhd; ,iwtdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l filrp ,iwJhjH vd;W nrhy;ypf; nfhz;lhH.

 

Gl;lgHj;jp rhap ghgh kdpjf; flTsupy; kpfTk; Gfo; tha;e;jtH. ,tH Md;kPfj;NjhL Fb jz;zPHj; jpl;lq;fs;> kUj;Jt kidfs;> gs;spf;$lq;fs; Mfpad fl;bg; nghJj; njhz;L nra;fpd;whH. jkpo;ehl;Lf;Ff; fpU\;zh ejp jz;zPiu Kjypy; =iryk; mizf;fl;by; Njf;fp itj;J fz;lNyW ePHj;Njfj;Jf;F nfhz;L te;J mq;fpUe;J kPz;Lk; 150 fpkP tha;f;fhy; topahf nrd;idapy; cs;s  G+z;b ePHj;Njfj;Jf;F nfhz;LtUk; JHHe;JNghd tha;f;fhy;fisr; nrg;gk; nra;tjw;F rhap ghgh mwf;fl;lis c&. 250 Nfhb epjpAjtp mspj;jJ (2002) Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. Mdhy;> mtH Gfo; miltjw;F ,e;jg; nghJj; njhz;L fhuzk; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. ghgh jpUePW> Nkhjpuk;> rq;fpyp> fbfhuk; Nghd;wtw;iwj; jdJ nja;tPf Mw;wyhy; #dpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J tutioj;J ‘mw;Gjq;fs’; epfo;j;Jfpd;whH vd;W mtuJ gf;jHfs; ek;GtNj me;jg; GfOf;Ff; fhuzkhFk;.    

 

gUg;nghUis (matter) gilf;fTk; KbahJ. mopf;fTk; KbahJ vd;gJ ,aw;gpay; tpjp. gUg; nghUis Mw;wyhfTk; Mw;wiy gUg; nghUshfTk; khw;w KbAk; Mdhy;> mopf;f KbahJ vd;gij mwptpayhsH ma;d;];jPd; jdJ E=mc² vd;w rkd;tpjp %yk; vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH.

 

gUg;nghUs; NghyNt ,aw;ifapy; ehy; tif mbg;gil tpir kl;LNk tpz;ntspapy; ,Ue;J fpilf;fpd;wd. mitahtd td;tpir (strong force) kpd;fhe;j tpir (electromagnetic force) nkd; tpir (weak force) <Hg;G tpir (gravitational  force) vd;gdthFk;. ,tw;Wf;F Nkyhf nja;tPf Mw;wy; ,y;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

mYkpdpaj;jpy; mZf;fs; mt;tsT neUf;fkhf ,y;iy. fhuzk; nkd; tpir vd;fpwhHfs;. mNj Neuk; ,Uk;Gf; Fz;by; mZf;Fs;  kpfTk; neUf;fkhf ,ize;jpUg;gjhy; mJ fdkhfj; Njhd;WfpwJ. mt;thW mZf;fs; neUf;fkhf ,ize;jpUg;gij td;tpir vd;fpNwhk;.

 

kdpjf; flTsH gl;baypy; ,lk; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;l ,d;ndhUtH Rthkp gpNukhde;jh (57) MthH. Vuhskhd cs;ehl;L ntspehl;Lg; gf;jHfs; Gil #of; nfhb Fil> Mytl;lk; Mfpatw;NwhL gtdp te;J nfhz;bUe;j ,e;jr; RthkpahH ,g;NghJ ,uz;L MAs; jz;lidiaf; flYhH rpiwf; nfhl;bypy; fopj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whH. 

 

gpNukhde;jh ,yq;if khj;jisapy; ,Ue;J 1984 ,y; jkpo;ehl;Lf;Fg; Gyk; ngaHe;jhH. jdJ 18 MtJ mfitapy; jdf;Fj; nja;tPf Mw;wy; ,Ue;jijj; jhd; fz;Lnfhz;ljhff; $wpf;nfhz;lhH. "xU ngupa Md;kPf mjpHT vdJ g+ir miwf;Fs; Eioe;jJ> vdJ nts;is Mil gbg;gbahff; fhtpahf khwptpl;lJ” vd;W  fij mse;jhH.

 

cUtj;jpy; Vwf;Fiwa rj;arhap ghghitg; Nghy; Njhw;wk; nfhz;bUe;j gpNukhde;jhtpd; Gfo; jpUr;rpapy; gutpaJ. murpay;thjpfs;> mikr;rHfs;> njhopyjpgHfs; vdg; gyH Rthkp gpNukhde;jhitj; juprpj;J‘mUshrp’ ngw;Wr; nrd;wdH.

 

1989 ,y; 150 Vf;fH gug;Gf; nfhz;l epyj;ij thq;fp mjpy; xU Mrpukj;ijj; njhlf;fpdhH. ehnlq;Fk; 15 fpisfisf; nfhz;bUe;j ,e;j Mr;rpukj;Jf;F midj;Jyf ,isQH gpupT xd;Wk; ,Ue;jJ.

 

rhap ghghitg; NghyNt> gpNukhde;jhTk; ntWk; ifapy; tpg+jp> rq;fpyp> Nkhjpuk; Kjypatw;iw tutioj;Jj; jdJ nja;tPf Mw;wiy vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH.  Mdhy;> mtuJ jdpr;rpwg;G tapw;wpy; ,Ue;J ,ypq;fj;ij thahy; tutiog;gJjhd;.

 

Rthkp gpNukhde;jh mzpe;jpUe;j fhtp cilf;F cs;Ns xU fhk ntwp gpbj;j kpUfk; xspe;jpUe;jij ahUk; fz;L nfhs;stpy;iy. gpNukhde;jh gfypy; ,spr;rthaHfSf;F Md;k cgNjrk; nra;J tpl;L ,utpy; Mr;rpukj;ij fhkf; fspahl;lf; $lkhf khw;wpdhH. Mr;rpukj;ijr; NrHe;j Mjutw;w ,sk; ngz; rPlHfs; gpNukhde;jhtpd; fhkg; grpf;F ,iuahdhHfs;. mjpy; RNu\;Fkhup kw;Wk; yjh vd;w ,U rPlHfs; jg;gpr; nrd;W  jhq;fs; gpNukhde;jhthy; fw;gopf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; mjid ntspg;gLj;jp tpLtjhff; $wpa nghwpahsH utp vd;gtH mbj;Jf; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;L Mr;rpuk tsTf;Fs;NsNa Gijf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; fhty;Jiwapy; Kiwg;ghL nra;jdH. fhty;Jiw gpNukhde;jh mtUila nrayhsH fkyhde;jh ,UtiuAk; ifJ nra;J rpiwapy; milj;jJ.

 

kUj;Jt Ma;tpy; 13 ngz; rPlHfs;  khwp khwp gpNukhde;jhtpdhy; fw;gopf;fg;gl;lJ cWjp nra;ag;gl;lJ. mtHfspy; xUtuhd mUs;Nrhjp mg;NghJ fHg;gkhf ,Ue;jhH. kugZr; Nrhjidapy; fHg;gj;jpw;Fg; gpNukhde;jhNt fhuzk; vd;gJk; cWjp nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mr;rpukj;jpy; Gijf;fg;gl;bUe;j utpapd; clYk; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ. 

 

tof;F tprhuiz ePz;l fhyk; ele;jJ. gpNukhde;jh rhHgpy; gpugy tof;fwpQH uhk; n[j;kyhdp Njhd;wp thjhbdhH. fhtp cilapy; fhkf; fspahl;lk; elj;jpa gpNukhde;jh utpiaf; nfhiy nra;jJ> Mr;rpukj;jpy; tho;e;j ,sk; ngz;fisf; fw;gopj;jJ  vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fspy; Fw;wthspahf ePjpkd;wj;jhy; fhzg;gl;lhH.  ePjpkd;wk; mtUf;F ,uz;L MAs; jz;lidAk; &gh 85 ,yl;rk; jz;lKk; tpjpj;jJ. fkyhde;jhTf;Fk; ,ul;il MAs; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. .gpNukhde;jhtpd; Nkd; KiwaPl;ilr; nrd;id caH ePjpkd;wKk; cr;r ePjpkd;wKk; js;sptpl;Lj; jz;lidia cWjp nra;jd.

 

tpG+jp> rptypq;fk;> Nkhjpuk;> fbfhuk;  Nghd;wtw;iw #dpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J tutioj;j gpNukhde;jhthy; rpiwf; fjitj; jpwe;J ntspapy; tu xU rpd;dj; jpwg;igf; $l tutiof;f Kbahky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

ngupa kfhd; vd;W Nghw;wg;gl;l rptfq;if fhkhl;rp Kj;JTk; fhzp thq;fp tpw;wjpy; Nfhbf; fzf;fhd gzj;ij RUl;bdhH vd;w Fw;wrhl;by; jz;lid ngw;W rpiwr; rhiyapy; 'jtk;' ,Uf;fpd;whH.

 

gpNukhde;jhtpd; jpUtpisahly;fs;> fhkf; fspahl;lq;fs; ,tw;iwg;  ghHj;j gpd;dUk; vkJ kf;fs; jpUe;jpdhHfsh vd;why; mJjhd; ,y;iy. gpNukhde;jh Nghdhy; rq;fuhr;rhupfs;> mkpHjhde;j khap>  ehuhazp mk;kh> fy;fp gfthd;> gukfPk;r epj;jpahde;j Rthkp vd;W vQ;rp ,Uf;Fk; flTs; mtjhuq;fs; gpd;dhy; Rw;Wfpd;whHfs;.

 

kdpjd; epyhtpy; fhy;gjpj;jij mLj;J nrt;thapy; kdpjid ,wf;f Kaw;rp elf;Fk; ,e;jf; fhyj;jpy; thOk; kf;fNs mw;Gjq;fisAk; nja;tPfj;ijAk; ek;Gk;NghJ  2>000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH tho;e;j ggpNyhdpaHfs;> fpNuf;fHfs;> cNuhkhdpaHfs;> vfpg;jpaHfs;> ,e;jpaHfs; tpz;iz mz;zhe;J ghHj;J mq;F njupe;j el;rj;jpuq;fSk;> Nfhs;fSk; nja;tPf rf;jp gilj;jit vd;Wk; jq;fsJ ed;ik jpd;ik> caHT jho;T Nghd;wtw;iwj; jPHkhdpf;fpd;wd vd;W ek;gpaijg; ngupa Fw;wkhff; fUj KbahJ.

 

fpNuf;f> cNuhk ,jpfhr fhyj;jpy; gy nja;t topghL ,Ue;jJ. #upad;> re;jpud; kw;Wk; Nfhs;fs; topglg;gl;ld. tz;b tz;bahf ek;g Kbahj Guhzf; fijfs; vOjp itf;fg;gl;ld. %lek;gpf;iffs; kype;J fple;jd.

 

Mdhy;> mNj fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j rq;f fhyj; jkpoHfsplk; epyj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l nja;tq;;fNs topglg;gl;ld. topghLk; ngupjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Guhzf; Fg;igf; fijfs; mbNahL ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vl;Lj;njhif gj;Jg; ghl;L Ehy;fspy; flTs; tho;j;Jg; ghlg;gltpy;iy. ,J rq;f fhyg; GytHfspd; jd;dk;gpf;ifiaf; fhl;LfpwJ. gpd;dhy; te;j ngUe;NjtdhH vd;w GytNu flTs; tho;j;Jg; ghb mijr; NrHj;jhH. Mupaupd; gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;gpd; gpd;dNu vz;zpwe;j flTsUk; Nfhapy;fSk; Fsq;fSk; cUthfpd.

 

RNkupaHfs;> mrPupaHfs;> ggpNyhdpaHfs;> vfpg;jpaHfs;> fpNuf;fHfs;> cNuhkHfs; tzq;fpa vz;zpwe;j vy;yhk; ty;y flTs;fspy; xd;whtJ ,d;W topghl;by; ,y;iy. mitfs; rpiy tbtpy; mUq;fhl;rpafq;fspy; Ehjdg; nghUl;fshfg; ghHitf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

,J kdpjHfNs flTsiug; gilj;jhHfs; vd;gjw;F ey;y rhd;whFk;.  New;wpUe;j flTsH ,d;iwf;Ff; fhzhky; Ngha;tpl;lJ Nghd;W ,d;wpUf;Fk; flTsUk; mwpT tsu tsu ehis fhzhky; Ngha;tplf; $Lk;. ,J Kw;wpYk; elf;ff; $ba epfo;thFk;.    

 

,e;jf; fl;lj;jpy; thdpay; tuyhw;wpd; rpy iky; fw;fis kPs; epidT nfhs;tJ nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W ek;GfpNwd;.  

 

fpK 600>000 - NfhNkh Nrg;gpad;]; (Home-sapiens ) vd;W miof;fg;gLk; kdpj gpuptpdupd; Nkiyg; goq;fw;fhyk;.

 

fpK 40>000  - nee;jHjhy; (Neanderthal) vd;w kdpj gpuptpdupd; fhyk;.

 

fpK 8>000  -  khad; thdpay; fl;Lkhdq;fis epWTjy;.

 

fpK 2>300  -  rPd thdpayhsHfs; thid Muhaj; njhlq;fpdhHfs;.

 

fpK 2>296  -  rPdHfs; Kjd; Kjyhf xU thy;nts;spiag; (comet) ghHj;jhHfs;.

 

fpK 2>680 - vfpg;jpaHfs; fprhtpy; gpukpl; (The Great Pyramid)  xd;iw Kjd; Kjyhff; fl;b Kbj;jhHfs;.  

 

fpK 1>800 - ggpNyhdpaHfs; thdpay; juTfis tifg;gLj;j Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

 

fpK 1>600 - ry;bah (Chaldia) thdpayhsHfs; ,uhrpfis milahsk; nra;jhHfs;.

 

fpK 763  - Kjd; Kjyhf #upa fpufzj;ijg; ggpNyhdpaHfs; ghHj;J mjidg; gjpT nra;jhHfs;.

 

fpK 600 - Anaximander  vd;w fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjp tpz;kPd;fs; xU fk;gj;ijr; Rw;wpr; Roy;tjhf epidj;jhH. mtH Mfhak; Gtpiar; Rw;wp tl;ltbtpy; ,Ug;gjhfr; nrhd;dhH. Gtp xU ePs; cUis tbtpy; ,Ug;gjhfTk; vz;zpdhH.

 

fpK 500 - fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjp igjhnfhwh]; (Pythagoras) Gtp jl;il my;y>  mJ cUz;ilahf ,Uf;fyhk; vdr; nrhd;dhH.

 

fpK 440 - fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfs; Leucippus kw;Wk; Democritus  vy;yh %yfq;fSk; (elements) mZf;fyhy; Mdit vd;w nghJf;fUj;ij (concept)

epWtpdhHfs;. (fpNuf;f nkhopapy; mZ vd;why; gpupf;f KbahjJ vd;W nghUs;) 

 

fpK 440 - rPdHfs; tpaho Nfhspd; epyhit ntWq; fz;zhy; ghHj;jhHfs;. 

 

,Nj fhyg; gFjpapy; vfpg;jpaHfs; Canis  Major  vd;w el;rj;jpu kz;lyj;jpy; irwpa]; (Sirius) vd;w tpz;kPd; QhapW vO Kd;dH cjpg;gijf; ftdpj;jhHfs;. ,JNt thdpaypd; njhlf;fk; vdf; fUjg;gLfpwJ. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ gytpz;kPd;fs; xNu ,lj;jpy; mirahJ ,Uf;Fk;NghJ QhapW epyh ePq;fyhf ma;e;J 'tpz;kPd;"fs; kl;Lk; thdj;jpy; miytij mtjhdpj;jhHfs;. fpNuf;fHfs; ,tw;Wf;F  'planets' (Nfhs;kPd;) vd;W ngaupl;ldH. fpNuf;f nkhopapy; gpsdl; vd;why; miygtH vd;W nghUs;.

 

ggpNyhdpaHfs; ,e;j miyAk; tpz;kPd;fs; VNjh xU fhuzj;Jf;fhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wd vd epidj;jhHfs;. me;jf; fhuzk; jdp kdpjdJ tpjpiaj; jPHkhdpf;fNt vd NkYk; KbT nra;jdH. thdj;jpy; miyAk; Nfhs;fs; mjd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; fhzg;gl;l el;rj;jpuq;fisf; (,uhrpfs;) nfhz;L jdp kdpjdJ 'tpjpia" jPHkhdpj;jhHfs;. ,JNt Nrhjplj;jpd; Njhw;WthahFk;.  

 

fpK 350 - mup];Njhl;ly; Kjd; Kjyhf gUtq;fs; gw;wp Meterorologica  vd;w Ehiy vOjpdhH.

 

fpK 300 - ,f;Fypl; (Euclid) Kjd; Kjyhf Nfj;jpu fzpjj;ij cUthf;fp %yfq;fs; my;yJ jdpkq;fs; (elements) vd;w Ehiy vOjpdhH. Nfj;jpu fzpjk; fhzpfis msf;fg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

 

fpK 212 - MHfpkPb]; (Archimedes) tl;lj;jpd; gug;gsit fzpj;jhH.  (,Nj fhy fl;lj;jpy; tho;e;j rq;ffhyg; GytH xUtH tl;lj;jpd; gug;gsit fzpf;Fk; #j;jpuj;ij ghlypy; nrhy;ypapUf;fpd;whH. jkpoHfsJ thdpay; mwpT gw;wpg; gpd;dH vOJNtd;) 

 

fpK 194 - vwj;Njh];dp]; (Eratoshenes) Gtpapd; gug;gsitf; fzpj;jhH.

 

fpK 120 - fpg;gHr;R]; (fpK 161-122) mz;lj;ij FWf;Ff;NfhL (latitude) kw;Wk; neLf;;NfhL ( longitude) ,uz;bd; %yk; jPHkhdpj;jhH.

 

fpgp 128 - FNshba]; njhykp  (Claudius Ptolemy ) 1>022 el;rj;jpuq;fis tupirg;gLj;jpdhH. mtUf;F Kd;dH 850 el;rj;jpuq;fNs njupe;jpUe;jJ. 48 el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fisAk; tupirg;gLj;jpdhH.

 

fpgp 1514 -  epf;fy]; NfhngHdpff;];  (Nicolaus Copernicus) Gtpia QhapW tyk; tUtjw;Fg; gjpy; Qhapiwg; Gtp tyk; tUtjhfr; nrhd;dhH.

 

fpgp 1543 - epf;nfhNyh]; NfhngHdpf]; De Revolutionibus Orbium Caoelestium vd;w Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH. 

 

fpgp 1552 - Gtpapay; thdpay; Ehy;fspy; ke;jpuk; ,Ug;gjhff; fUjp ,q;fpyhe;J kf;fs; mtw;iw vupj;jdH.

 

fpgp 1583 - fypypNah Nfhs;fisg; ghHg;gjw;F njhiyNehf;fpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jhH.

 

fpgp 1546 - Tycho Brahe vd;w thdpayhsH gpwe;jhH. 

 

fpgp 1608 - Hans Lippershey  vd;gtH mjpfsT Mw;wy; tha;e;j njhiyNehf;fpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jhH.

 

fpgp 1596 – Nahfhd;]; nfg;yH (Johannes Kepler) Mysterium  Cosmographicum  vd;w Ehiy vOjp ntspapl;lhH.

 

fpgp 1610 - fypypNah tpaho Nfhspd; 4 epyhf;fisj; njhiyNehf;fp %yk; fz;L gpbj;jhH.

 

fpgp 1609-1619 - nfg;yH Nfhs;fspd; miritg; gw;wpa jdJ 3 tpjpfis ,uz;L Ehy;fs; %yk; ntspapl;lhH.

 

fpgp 1633 - fj;Njhypf;f  kjtprhuiz rig NfhngHdpf;fpd; fUJNfhs;fisr; rupnad;W nrhd;d fypypNahitf; fl;lhag;gLj;jp kWf;f itj;jJ.  

 

fpgp 1762 - Nak;]; gpwl;yp (James Bradley)   vd;gtH 60>000 tpz;kPd;fs; gw;wpa gl;baiy ntspapl;lhH.

 

fpgp 1796 - gPNu yg;gpshNr (Pierre Laplace) vd;gtH mz;lj;jpd; Njhw;wk; gw;wpa fUJNfhis cUthf;fpdhH.

 

fpgp 1820 - Nwhay; thdpay; fofk; (Royal  Society for Science) njhlf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

fpgp 1838 - gpul;wpr; ngry; (Friedrich  Bessel ) vd;gtH Kjd; Kiwahf Nrz;ikapy; ,Ue;j xU tpz;kPdpd; njhiyit 6 xspahz;L vdf; fzf;fpl;lhH. gpd;dH mjd; cz;ikahd njhiyT RkhH 12 xspahz;L; vdj; jpUj;jg;gl;lJ.

 

fpgp 1865 - Kjd; Kiwahf tpy;ypak; nghd;l; vd;gtH xU tpz;kPdpd; Njhw;wj;ijg; Gifg;glk; vLj;jhH.

 

fpgp 1865 - A+y;]; NtHNd (Jules Verne) vd;gtH Gtpapd; <Hg;Gr; rf;jpia kPwp xUnghUs; tpz;ntspf;Fj; jg;g Ntz;Lk; vd;why; mjd; Ntfk; xU nehbf;F 7 fy; Mf ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk (7 miles per second)   rhj;jpak; vd;gij ,q;fpUe;J Gtpf;F vd;w Ehypy; Fwpg;gpl;lhH.  

 

fpgp 1900 - Max Karl Ernst Ludwig  Planck vd;gtH n[Hkd; ,aw;gpay; mitapy; tpupTiuahw;Wk; NghJ gUg;nghUs; ntg;g Mw;wiy cs;thq;fp xsp Mw;wiy ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ vd;whH.  

 

fpgp 1903 – mnkupf;fHfshd xHtpy; iwl; (Orville Wright) cld;gpwg;Gf;fs; Kitty Hawk vd;w 12 kPl;lH ePsKk; 340 fpNyh (tpkhdp cl;gl) epiwAs;s thDhHjpia  12 tpebf;Fg; gwf;f tpl;lhHfs;. mJ gwe;j njhiy 37 kPl;lH kl;LNk.

 

fpgp 1905 - my;Ngl; mapd;];jPd; (Albert Einstein) nghJ rhHGf; fUJNfhs; (Generl Theory of Relativity) gw;wpa fUJNfhis ntspapl;lhH.

 

fpgp 1915 - QhapW ePq;fyhf Gtpf;F mLj;J mzpj;jhf ,Uf;Fk;  Proxima Centauri vd;w tpz;kPd; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

fpgp 1924 - vl;tpd; fgps; (Edwin Hubble) vd;gtH mz;lk;>  ghy;topapy; ,Ue;J jdpj;JtkhdJ vd;gij vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;bdhH.

 

fpgp 1957 - Nrhtpaj; ehL Kjd; Kiwahf ];Gl;dpf;if tpz;ntspapy; VtpaJ.

 

fpgp 1959 - Yhdh111 vd;w tpz;fyd; re;jpudpd; ,Uz;l gf;fj;ijg; glk; gpbj;Jg; Gtpf;F mDg;gpaJ.

 

fpgp 1961 - A+upffhwpd; (YuriGagarin) tpz;zpy; gwe;j Kjy; kdpjH vdg; ghuhl;lg;gl;lhH.

 

fpgp 1965 – AlexeiLeonov tpz;ntspapy; ele;j Kjy; Nrhtpaj; tpz;ntsptPuH vd;w ngaiu vLj;jhH.

 

,e;jg;  gl;bay; KOikahdjy;y. ,lneUf;fb fhuzkhf Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd thdpayhsHfsJ fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fs; ,e;jg;gl;baypy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy. thdpay;f; fz;L gpbg;Gf;fspy; Kf;fpak; tha;jit kl;Lk; NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

,e;jg;  gl;bay; KOikahdjy;y. ,l neUf;fb fhuzkhf Ehw;Wf; fzf;fhd thdpayhsHfsJ fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs; ,e;jg; gl;baypy; ,lk; ngwtpy;iy. thdpay;f; fz;L gpbg;Gf;fspy; Kf;fpak; tha;jit kl;Lk; NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  

 

 


 

Nrhjplg; Gul;L (30)

 

mwptpay; tsHr;rpf;F fpNuf;fj;jpd; gq;fspg;G

 

thdpay; vd;gJ thdpy; tyk; tUk; Nfhs;fs;> tpz;kPd;fs;> ghy;kz;lyq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpd; ,Ug;G (position) mirT (motion) fl;likg;G (structure) gw;wpa mwptpay; fw;ifahFk;. khwhf Nrhjplk; vd;gJ ek;gpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy;  fl;bnaOg;gg;gl;l Nghyp mwptpayhFk;. gjpNdohk; Ehw;whz;bd; gpd;dHjhd; Nrhjplj;jpy; ,Ue;J thdpay; gpupe;J xU jdp ,ayhf kyHr;rp ngw;wJ vd;gij Kd;dNu ghHj;Njhk;.

 

thdpay; vd;gJ mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; tpz;ntspapy; cs;s midj;ijAk; Muha;tJ MFk;. thdpayhsHfs; ehk; fhZk; tpz;kPd;fs;  gy xsp Mz;LfSf;F mg;ghy; ,Ug;gjhy; Gtpapy; cs;s vtUf;Fk; mjdhy; ghjpg;G ,y;iy vd;fpd;whHfs;. Nfhs; kPd;fspd; jhf;fKk; kpf kpfr; nrhw;gk; vd;fpd;whHfs;.  

 

xU kdpjdJ gpwe;j Neuk;> ehs;> ,lk; Mfpatw;iw itj;J mtdJ tho;T jho;T gw;wp vjpH$wy; nrhy;yyhk; vd;gijr; Nrhjplk; ,Jtiu fhyKk; mwptpay; milg;gilapy; vz;gpj;Jf; fhl;ltpy;iy.

 

fpNuf;fHfs; jq;fs; fhyj;Jf;F Ke;jpa ggpNyhdpaH> vfpg;jpaH Nghd;wtHfsJ thdpay; mtjhdq;fisf;  (Astronomical observations) fld; thq;fpdhYk; gUg;nghUspd; Njhw;wk;> jd;ik> khw;wk; gw;wp NkYk; Muha;e;jhHfs;. mj;NjhL mz;lj;ijg;gw;wpAk; mjidf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ Ml;rp nra;Ak; ,aw;if tpjpfs; gw;wpAk; mwpa Kaw;rpj;jhHfs;.  

 

,d;W mz;lj;jpd; fl;likg;Gg; gw;wpa fw;if jdp ,ayhf kyHe;Js;sJ. mjw;F mz;lg; gilg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL (cosmology) vd;W ngaH.    

 

ghurPfk; fpK 538 ,y; ggpNyhdpah kPJ gilnaLj;jJ. mjidj; njhlHe;J fpK 432 mstpy; el;rj;jpu kz;lyq;fSf;Fg; gjpy; ,uhrpfisg; gad;gLj;jpr; rhjfk; fzpf;Fk; Kiw njhlq;fpaJ. jdp kdpjDf;fhd Kjy; rhjfk; fpK 409 ,y; vOjg;gl;lJ.

 

fpgp 331 ,y; kfh mnyf;rhe;jH ggpNyhdpahitj; jhf;fpf; ifg;gw;wpdhH. ,jidj; njhlHe;J fpNuf;fk; nkNrhg;nghl;lkpad; gz;ghLfs; xd;NwhL xd;W fye;J nfhz;ld.

 

,jd; tpisthf thdpaypy; Vw;gl;l Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; jdpj;jdp fpNuf;fHfs; my;yJ nkNrhg;nghl;lkpaHfs; my;yJ ,U rhuhuJk; fyg;gpdhy; Vw;gl;ljh vd;gijr; nrhy;y Kbahky; ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

vJ vg;gb ,Ug;gpDk; ,e;jf; gz;ghl;Lf; fyg;ghy; 12 kzpj;jpahyk; nfhz;lJ  xU ehs; vd;w Kiwik eilKiwf;F te;jJ. gpd;dH ,J vfpg;jpauJ 24 kzpj;jpahyk; nfhz;l ehshf khw;wk; ngw;whYk; xU kzpapy; 60 kzpj;Jsp> xU kzpj;Jspapy; 60 tpehb vd;w msT ,d;Wtiu ePbf;fpwJ.   

 

kpfg; gioa gQ;rhq;ff; fzpg;G fpK 308 ,y; ,Ue;J eilKiwf;F te;jJ. ,uhrpfisg; ghifahf tFj;jy; fpK 263 Kjy; eilKiwf;F te;jJ.

 

Ma;T Kiwahd (cuneiform)  vOj;J Kiwapy; vOjg;gl;l filrp rhjfk; fpK 68 ,y; vOjg;gl;lJ. fpNuf;f nkkhopapy; fpK 61 .,y; vOjg;gl;lJ. ,J xUtuJ gpwg;Gg; gw;wpa rhjfk; my;y. AntiochusI of Commagene vd;w fpNuf;f kd;dd; fl;lisg;gb mtd; Ml;rpf;F te;j epfo;T gw;wpa rhjfkhFk;.

 

Kjd; Kjypy; n[dd ,yf;fpdj;ijf; (Ascendant)  Fwpg;gpl;L vOjg;gl;l gpwg;Gr; rhjfk; fpK 4 ,y; vOjg;gl;lJ.

 

Kjypy; murHfSf;Fr; rhjfk; fzpf;fg; G+rhupfshy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l Nrhjplk; gpd;dH gz;bjHfs;> jj;Jtthjpfs; Nghd;wtHfshy; rhjhuz Fbkf;fSf;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

 

vfpg;jpy; rhjfk; fzpf;Fk; gof;fk; fpK Kjy; Ehw;whz;bNyNa njhlq;fpaJ. Mdhy;> fpK 3000 Mz;L kl;by; thDyff; Nfhs;fNshL jq;fisj; njhlHGgLj;jp xU nja;tj;jd;ikiaj; Njbf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;jj; nja;tj;jd;ik fhuzkhfNt  ,we;j murHfisg; gjdpl;L (mummify) mtHfSf;Fg; gpukpl; fl;b mLj;j cyfr; nryTf;F Ntz;ba nghUl;fis itj;jhHfs;.                                           

 

vfpg;jpy; fl;lg;gl;l ngupa gpwkpl; (fpK 2>600) QhapNwhL xd;wpizj;Jf; (alignment) fl;lg;gl;lJ.

 

Jj;jfhkdJ je;ij mf;dhnjhd; ghNuhjhd; (Pharoah Akhnaton – fpK 1375-1358) Kjd; Kjyhfr; #upa topghl;ilj; njhlf;fp itj;jjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.

 

tuyhW rupahfg; gjpag;glhjjhy; ,e;jf; fhyf; fzf;if tuyhw;W MrpupaHfs; midtUk; rupnad;W Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy.  

 

vfpg;jpaupd; gioa ehs;fhl;bapd;gb mtHfsJ Mz;L iey; ejpapd; ngUf;NfhL Muk;gpj;jJ. mtHfsJ Mz;L 120 ehs;fisf; nfhz;l 3 gUtq;fs; nfhz;lJ. vfpg;jpaHfs; thd;ntspia mtjhdpj;J eha; el;rj;jpuk; vd miof;fg;gLk; irwpa]; (Dog star - Sirius)  fhypf;Fk; fhyj;jpNyNa iey; ejp ngUf;nfLf;fpwJ vd;gijf; fz;lwpe;jhHfs;.  

                                                           

nkNrhg;nghl;lkpaNuhL xg;gpLk;NghJ vfpg;jpauJ thdpay; kw;Wk; fzpjk; vspjhf  ,Ue;jd. vfpg;jpaHfs; nrhe;jkhf thdpaiy tsHj;J vLf;fhjjw;F ,J xU fhuzkhFk;.

 

fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfspy; xUtuhd nfwNjhl;l]; (fpK 460) vOJk; NghJ vfpg;jpaHfs; kw;iwa ehl;ltHfNshL xg;gpLk;NghJ nja;tPf Mw;wy;gw;wpNa mjpf ftdk; vLg;gjhfTk; xUtH gpwe;j ehs; el;rj;jpuj;ij itj;J mtuJ vjpHfhyj;ijf; fzpg;gjhfTk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH.

 

vfpg;J> mrPupaHfshy; fpK 671 ,y; jhf;fpg; gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH ghurPfHfshy; fpK 525 ,y; ntw;wp nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. <w;wpy; kfh mnyf;rhe;juhy; fpK 332 ,y; gpbf;fg;gl;lJ. mnyf;rhe;jupd; gilnaLg;Gf;Fg; gpd;dNu vfpg;jpaHfs; fpNuf;f Nrhjplj;ijj; jq;fs; gz;ghl;by;  cs;thq;fpf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

 

vfpg;Jf;Ff; fpNuf;fk; mspj;j ngupa mwptpay; nfhil mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpy; fpNuf;f kd;dHfs; Njhw;Wtpj;j cyfg; Gfo; ngw;w Ehy; epiyakhFk;. fpK 30 ,y; vfpg;J cNuhkg; NguuNrhL NrHj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;lNghJ mnyf;rhe;jpupah kj;jpajiuf; fly; ehfupfj;jpd; tsHr;rpapy; Kf;fpa gq;if tfpj;jJ.

 

fpK 600 mstpy; fpNuf;fHfs; thdpay; gw;wp mwptjpy; MHtk; fhl;bdhHfs;. fpK 569-510 f;F ,ilapy; fpNuf;f jj;Jtthjpfspy; xUtuhd igjhnfhwh]; (Pythagoras of  Samos -fpK 586-572) ggpNyhdpah nrd;W gbj;jhH. mtuJ Kd;khjpupiag; gpd;gw;wp NkYk; gy fpNuf;f khztHfs; mq;F nrd;W fy;tp fw;whHfs;.  fpNuf;f ehfupfj;jpd; nghw;fhyk; NfhkuJ ,ypal; kw;Wk; xbrp ,jpfhr fhyj;Jf;Fg; (fpK 1800-1100) gpd;Nehf;fp ePSfpwJ. fpK 1000 Mk; Mz;lstpy; tlf;fpy; ,Ue;J te;j me;epag; gilnaLg;ghy; eype;J Nghd fpNuf;fk; kPz;Lk; fpK 600 ,y; Gj;JapH ngw;wJ.

 

igjhnfhwh]; Njw;wj;ijf; (Pythagoras Theorem) fz;Lgpbj;j igjhnfhwh];jhd; kjk; mwptpay; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,izg;ig Vw;gLj;jpa Kjy; jj;Jtthjp MthH.  ,e;j ,izg;Ng 17Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu ma;Nuhg;gpa rpe;jidf;F Kd;Ndhbahf ,Ue;J

te;jJ vdyhk;.   

 

igjhnfhwhNr cyfpd; kpfTk; nry;thf;Fs;s> Ez;khz; EioGyk; gilj;j jj;Jtthjpahfg; Nghw;wg;gLfpd;whH. ,tNu Nkw;f INuhg;gpa-kj;jpajiu jj;Jtj;jpd; je;ijahfTk; fUjg;gLfpd;whH.

 

,tUf;Fj; Njy;]; kw;Wk; mdf;];khe;jiuj; njupe;jpUe;jJ. ,tH vfpg;jpYk; gbj;jhH. vfpg;ijg; ghurPfH gilnaLj;Jf; ifg;gw;wpaNghJ igjhnfhwh]; ifjpahfg; gpbgl;Lg; ghurPfk; nfhz;L nry;yg;gl;lhH. mq;fpUe;jNghJ fPio ehl;Lr; rpe;jidfis cs;thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH.

 

fpgp 518 ,y; igjhnfhwh]; tpLjiyahfpj; jdJ nrhe;j Cuhd rhNkhRf;Fj; jpUk;gpdhH. mq;F rka topghl;Lj; jyq;fisj; juprpg;gjpYk; Nfj;jpu fzpjk; (geometry)  gbg;gjpYk; Neuj;ijr; nrytpl;lhH. rkaj;ij mwptpay; fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL ghHj;jhH.                                                                       

fpgp 520 mstpy; ,j;jhypapy; cs;s fpNuf;f FbNaw;w efuhd FNwhl;lDf;Fr; (Croton) nrd;W FbNawpdhH. ,q;F xU FOitj; Njhw;Wtpj;jhH. mjd; cWg;gpdHfs; khkprk; rhg;gplf; $lhJ>  jiykapH ntl;lf; $lhJ> efk; ntl;lf; $lhJ> nghUl;fisg; nghJthf itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; Nghd;w gy fl;Lg;ghLfs; tpjpf;fg;gl;ld. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; igjhnfhwhrpd; gbg;gpidfis mtHfsJ FOTf;F ntspNa gbg;gpf;ff; $lhJ vd;w fl;Lg;ghLk; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ.                                                        

Nrhjplj;Jf;F igjhnfhwh]; Mw;wpa nfhLg;gdT vd;dntd;why; mz;lj;Jf;Fk; vz;Zf;Fk; cs;s njhlHGgw;wpa mtuJ Nfhl;ghNl MFk;. vz;fs; msit kl;Lk; Fwpg;gjpy;iy>  Nkyhf xt;nthU vz;Zk; xt;nthU Fzhk;rj;ijf; Fwpf;fpwJ> mjidf; nfhz;L mz;lj;ij tpsf;fyhk; vd mtH nrhd;dhH.

 

xd;W vd;w vz; xUikiaf; (oneness) Fwpf;fpwJ. ,uz;L vd;w vz; ,Uikiaf; (duality) Fwpf;fpwJ. ,d;iwa Nrhjpl rhjfj;jpy; 4 tJ tPl;ilf; Fwpg;gjw;F igjhnfhwhrpd; Nfhl;ghNl mbg;gilf; fhuzp MFk;. Guhzq;fspd; FwpaPLfSk; vz;fspd; FwpaPLfSk; gpupf;f Kbahj xNu cz;ikapd; ntt;NtW $Wfs; vd;gJ mtuJ Nfhl;ghL.

 

cyfk; tl;l tbthdJ vd;w Nfhl;ghl;bd; je;ij igjhnfhwh]; vd;W rpyH $Wfpd;whHfs;. NtW rpyH ,e;jg; ngUikf;FupatH ghHnkidl;]; (Parmenides) vd;W $Wfpd;whHfs;.

 

Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why; igjhnfhwhrpd; Nfj;jpu fzpjf; fUJNfhs;fNs 17Mk; Ehw;whz;by; Nrhjplk; gw;wpa ek;gpf;ifiaj; jfHf;f cjtpaJ. nfg;yH vd;gtH igjhnfhwhrpd; fUJ Nfhs;fisg; gad;gLj;jpNa QhapW>  QhapW FLk;gj;jpd; eLtpy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;Wk; mjidr; Rw;wpNa Vida Nfhs;fs; ePs;tl;lj;jpy; Rw;wptUfpd;wd vd;gijAk; vz;gpj;jhH.  

 

nfh];nkh]; (Cosmos) vd;w nrhy;iy Kjd; Kjypy; gad;gLj;jpatH igjhnfhwh]; my;yJ ghHnkidl;]; Mf ,Uf;fyhk;. nfh];k]; vd;why; mz;lj;jpd; xOq;F (Order of Universe) vd;W nghUs; MFk;.   

 

igjhnfhwhrpd; khztHfspy; xUtuhd gpNyhNyh]; (Philolaus- fpK 5 Mk; Ehw;whz;L) vd;gtNu thdpaYf;F mjpfsT gq;fspg;Gr; nra;jtH. mtuJ Kiwikfs; (systems) 17 Mk; Ehw;whz;Ltiu ma;Nuhg;gpauJ thdpaypy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpaJ. rPa]; (Zeus) nja;tj;jpd; fhty;f;; NfhGukhd xU ikaj; jPiar; Rw;wp cyfk;> QhapW kw;Wk; Nfhs;fs; Rw;wptUtjhf gpNyhNyh]; nrhd;dhH. Mdhy;> Nfhs;fspd; ghij Gtpapy; ,Ue;J ghHf;Fk; NghJ rup tl;lkhf ,y;yhky; ePs;tl;lkhf ,Ue;jJ 'Nfhs;fs;> rup tl;lq;fspy;> rup mirtpy; Rw;wptUfpwJ” vd;w igjhnfhwhrpdpaupd; ek;gpf;iff;F NeH vjpHkhwhf ,Ue;jJ.

 

gpd; ehspy; nfg;yH>  epA+l;ld; ,UtUNk thdpayhsHfSf;Fg; ngupa jiyapbah ,Ue;j ,e;j Kuz;ghl;ilj; jPHj;J itj;jhHfs;.  

 

mdf;]hnfhwh]; (Anaxagoras- fpK 500-428) vd;gtH njhiyNehf;fpapd; cjtpapd;wp epyhtpd; jiu gs;sk; gpl;bahf ,Uf;fpwJ vd;Wk; QhapW xU vupAk; gUg;nghUs; vd;Wk; nrhd;dhH. Qhapiwg; gw;wp md;W mtH nrhd;dJ ,d;W rhjhuzkhf ,Ue;jhYk; md;W mJ ngupa Gul;rpfu fUj;jhff; fzpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> xU Nfs;tpf;F tpil njupahky; ,Ue;jJ. 'QhapW vupAk; gUg;nghUs; vd;why; mJ Vd; vupe;J jPHe;Jgl tpy;iy?" vd;gJjhd; me;jf; Nfs;tp. mjw;F mdf;]hnfhwh]; fz;Lgpbj;j tpil- ,e;j mz;lk; xU guk;nghUshy; gilf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gJjhd;!

 

mLj;J Empedoches  (fpK 495-430 ) vd;gtH ,e;j mz;lk;  epyk;> ePH> jP> fhw;W> Mfpa ehd;F %yfq;fshy; (jdpkq;fshy;) Mdit vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;itj;jhH.

 

Vwf;Fiwa ,Nj fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j njhy;fhg;gpaH ,e;j mz;lk; 'epyk;> jP> ePH> tsp> tpRk;G vd;w Ik;G+jq;fspd; fyit' vdj; jhk; vOjpa njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpy; (#j;jpuk; 1589)  Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhH. mz;lk; gw;wpa rkz kjf; Nfhl;ghl;ilj; jOtpNa njhy;fhg;gpaH ,t;thW nrhy;ypapUf;fpd;whH.

 

mLj;J>  fpNuf;f jj;Jtj;jpd; Kk;; %Hj;jpfspy; xUtuhf vz;zg;gLk; gpshl;Nlhtpd; (Plato (fpK 427-347) gq;fspg;G Kf;fpakhdJ. Nrhf;fpwl;brpd; (Socrates fpK 469-399) khztH. Nrhf;fpwl;b]; eQ;R Fbj;J ,we;j gpd;dH ,tH vfpg;J> rprpyp (Sicily) ,j;jhyp Nghd;w ehLfSf;Fr; nryT Nkw;nfhz;lhH. vfpg;jpy; ehopif tl;bypd; (water- clock) nra;Kiwiaj; njupe;J nfhz;L te;J mjidf; fpNuf;fj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhH.

 

,j;jhypapy; igjhnfhwhrpd; fw;iffisg; gbj;Jf; fzpjj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijj; njupe;J nfhz;lhH. mwptpay; tuyhw;wpy; ,J Kf;fpakhd jpUg;GKid MFk;.  

 

,jd; tpisthf gpshl;Nlh 'mwptpay; rpe;jidfis vy;yhk; fzf;fpay; Kiwapy; Jy;ypakhfTk; cWjpNahLk; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;' vd;w  KbTf;F te;jhH. gpshl;Nlhtpd; ,e;jr; rpe;jidjhd; md;W njhlf;fk; ,d;Wtiu mwptpay; tsHr;rpf;F muzhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. Nrhjplk; my;yJ thdpay; fUJNfhSf;Fg; igjhnfhwh]; fhy;Nfhs; ,l;ltH vd;W nrhd;dhy; mjidf; fl;b vOg;gpatH gpshl;Nlh MthH.

 

gpshl;Nlh mz;lj;ij tpsf;fg; gUg;nghUis (matter) tpl Md;kPfj;Jf;F (spiritualism) Kd;Dupik nfhLj;jhH.

 

gpshl;Nlhtpd; khzhf;fupy; xUtuhd A+nlhf;]; (Eudoxus (fpK 400-347) vd;gtHjhd; Nfhs;fs; KiwNflhd tl;lj;jpy; Rw;wptUtjw;F mit xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l cUisapy; (sphere) Rw;wp tUtJ fhuzp vd;W mWjpapl;Lr; nrhd;dtH.

 

mtuJ fzpg;gpd;gb nkhj;jk; 26 cUisfs; cz;nld;Wk; tpz;kPd;fisAk; NrHj;J mtw;wpd; vz;zpf;if 27 vd;whH.